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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114716, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626781

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fructus Tribuli (FT) has been commonly used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years. With the diverse uses of FT, more attention has been paid to its hepatorenal toxicity. However, the compounds causing the hepatorenal toxicity of FT remain undetermined. Terrestrosin D (TED), a major spirostanol saponin isolated from FT, may exert hepatorenal toxicity. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to evaluate the potential hepatorenal toxicity of TED, and preliminarily explore the possible mechanism of TED-induced hepatorenal toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity assays, a repeated-dose 28-day in-vivo study, a toxicokinetic study, and a tissue distribution study were used to evaluate the potential hepatorenal toxicity of TED. Furthermore, network pharmacology was applied to preliminarily explore the possible mechanism of TED-induced hepatorenal toxicity. RESULTS: Both the in vitro and in vivo studies showed that the spirostanol saponin TED had potential hepatorenal toxicity. Nonetheless, hepatorenal toxicity induced by oral treatment with TED at a dosage range of 5 - 15 mg/kg daily for 28 consecutive days to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was reversible after 14 days of TED withdrawal. The toxicokinetic study demonstrated that the systematic exposure of SD rats to TED had an accumulation phenomenon and a dose-dependent trend after a 28-day repeated-dose oral administration. The tissue distribution study revealed that TED had a targeted distribution in the liver and kidneys accompanied by a phenomenon of accumulation in SD rats. Network pharmacology combined with molecular docking methods was used to screen for the key targets (HSP90AA1, CNR1, and DRD2) and the key pathways of TED-induced hepatorenal toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: The spirostanol saponin TED, a major spirostanol saponin isolated from FT, had potential hepatorenal toxicity.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(41)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607956

RESUMO

Melanotic (Ml) is a mutation in chickens that extends black (eumelanin) pigmentation in normally brown or red (pheomelanin) areas, thus affecting multiple within-feather patterns [J. W. Moore, J. R. Smyth Jr, J. Hered. 62, 215-219 (1971)]. In the present study, linkage mapping using a back-cross between Dark Cornish (Ml/Ml) and Partridge Plymouth Rock (ml + /ml + ) chickens assigned Ml to an 820-kb region on chromosome 1. Identity-by-descent mapping, via whole-genome sequencing and diagnostic tests using a diverse set of chickens, refined the localization to the genomic region harboring GJA5 encoding gap-junction protein 5 (alias connexin 40) previously associated with pigmentation patterns in zebrafish. An insertion/deletion polymorphism located in the vicinity of the GJA5 promoter region was identified as the candidate causal mutation. Four different GJA5 transcripts were found to be expressed in feather follicles and at least two showed differential expression between genotypes. The results showed that Melanotic constitutes a cis-acting regulatory mutation affecting GJA5 expression. A recent study established the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) locus and the interaction between the MC1R receptor and its antagonist agouti-signaling protein as the primary mechanism underlying variation in within-feather pigmentation patterns in chickens. The present study advances understanding the mechanisms underlying variation in plumage color in birds because it demonstrates that the activity of connexin 40/GJA5 can modulate the periodic pigmentation patterns within individual feathers.

3.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 737228, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594253

RESUMO

Background: This study investigated the relationship between occupational stress and the mental health of people working in oil fields in the arid desert environment of Xinjiang, and revealed the causal relationship between occupational stress and psychological disorders, while furthermore exploring the relationship between psychological disorders and genetic levels. Methods: The participants of this study included oil field company workers from the Xinjiang Petroleum Administration of Karamay City, Xinjiang, who underwent occupational health examinations. The Occupational Stress Inventory Revised Edition (OSI-R) was used to measure the occupational stress of the oil workers. The mental health status of oil workers was evaluated using the Symptoms Checklist-90. Results: Occupational tasks: The total scores of the personal strain and mental health questionnaires were positively correlated with somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, terror, paranoia, and psychosis (P < 0.05). Individual coping resources and the mental health total score was negatively correlated with somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, terror, paranoia, and psychosis. The following factors were identified as mental health risk factors: female gender; age 45 and above (relative to ≤30 years old); high scores on the personal strain questionnaire; occupational stress; external effort; internal investment; and high effort-low return. The following factors were identified as protective factors for mental health: Han nationality; oil transportation (relative to drilling); individual resilience; and work returns. In respect to the abnormal psychological group and the normal psychological group, statistically significant differences were found in the distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies at the rs1800497 locus (P < 0.05). The depression and paranoia scores observed between different genotype groups at the rs1800497 locus were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study shows that occupational stress and the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene have an impact on the mental health of oil field workers in the arid desert environment of Xinjiang. Effort-reward imbalance and occupational stress were identified as risk factors for mental health, while rewards for work were protective factors. Higher levels of occupational stress may lead to depression and other psychological disorders, adversely affecting mental health. In oil field operators in the arid desert environment of Xinjiang, the AA genotype of the DRD2 gene in the rs1800497 locus was identified as a genotype specific to susceptibility to mental health problems, and a correlation was found between the A allele and an increased risk of psychological problems. Therefore, it is necessary to devise relevant measures to alleviate occupational stress among oil workers and increase their job rewards, so as to improve their mental health.

4.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 760943, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621732

RESUMO

Intrauterine adhesion (IUA) is a common endometrial disease and one of the main causes of infertility in women of childbearing age. Current treatment strategies, such as hysteroscopic adhesion resection, hysteroscopic transcervical resection of adhesion (TCRA), the use of local hormone drugs, and anti-adhesion scaffold implantation, do not provide a satisfactory pregnancy outcome for moderate-severe IUA, which presents a great challenge in reproductive medicine. With the development of material engineering, various bioactive and functional hydrogels have been developed using natural and synthetic biomaterials. These hydrogels are not only used as barely physical barriers but are also designed as vectors of hormone drugs, growth factors, and stem cells. These characteristics give bioactive hydrogels potentially important roles in the prevention and treatment of IUA. However, there is still no systematic review or consensus on the current advances and future research direction in this field. Herein, we review recent advances in bioactive hydrogels as physical anti-adhesion barriers, in situ drug delivery systems, and 3D cell delivery and culture systems for seeded cells in IUA treatment. In addition, current limitations and future perspectives are presented for further research guidance, which may provide a comprehensive understanding of the application of bioactive hydrogels in intrauterine adhesion treatment.

5.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(27): 8199-8206, 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Madelung's disease (MD) is a rare disorder of lipid metabolism, characterized by the growth of unencapsulated masses of adipose tissue symmetrically deposited around the neck, shoulders, or other sites around the body. Its pathological mechanism is not yet known. One of the most common comorbidities in MD patients is liver disease, especially chronic alcoholic liver disease (CALD); however, no reports exist of acute kidney injury (AKI) with MD. CASE SUMMARY: We report a 60-year-old man who presented with complaint of edema in the lower limbs that had persisted for 3 d. Physical examination showed subcutaneous masses around the neck, and history-taking revealed the masses to have been present for 2 years and long-term heavy drinking. Considering the clinical symptoms, along with various laboratory test results and imaging characteristics, a diagnosis was made of MD with acute exacerbation of CALD and AKI. The patient was treated with liver function protection and traditional Chinese medicine, without surgical intervention. He was advised to quit drinking. After 10 d, the edema had subsided, renal function indicators returned to normal, liver function significantly improved, and size of subcutaneous masses remained stable. CONCLUSION: In MD, concomitant liver or kidney complications are possible and monitoring of liver and kidney functions can be beneficial.

6.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581212

RESUMO

Three new mexicanolide limonoids were obtained from the 90% ethanol extract of the seeds of Khaya senegalensis. Their structures were elucidated as senegalenines A-C (1-3) by analysing their 1D/2D NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. In addition, the isolated limonoids were tested in vitro for antimicrobial potentials against 5 pathogenic microorganisms. Consequently, compounds 1-3 exhibited antimicrobial activity against the tested Gram negative bacteria at the minimum inhibitory concentration values less than 40 µg/ml.

7.
Biomater Sci ; 9(20): 6691-6717, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494042

RESUMO

Engineering cellular membranes with functional molecules provides an attractive strategy to manipulate cellular behaviors and functionalities. Currently, synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has emerged as a promising molecular tool to engineer cellular membranes for biomedical applications due to its molecular recognition and programmable properties. In this review, we summarized the recent advances in anchoring DNA on the cellular membranes and their applications. The strategies for anchoring DNA on cell membranes were summarized. Then their applications, such as immune response activation, receptor oligomerization regulation, membrane structure mimicking, cell-surface biosensing, and construction of cell clusters, were listed. The DNA-enabled intelligent systems which were able to sense stimuli such as DNA strands, light, and metal ions were highlighted. Finally, insights regarding the remaining challenges and possible future directions were provided.


Assuntos
DNA , Engenharia , Membrana Celular , Íons
8.
BMC Nurs ; 20(1): 181, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nursing is a high-risk occupation that involves exposure to stress. The physical and mental health of nurses is directly related to the quality of medical services, so the quality of life of nurses cannot be ignored. This study is a Chinese nursing study that investigated occupational stress, job burnout, and quality of life of surgical nurses in Xinjiang, China. METHODS: This study employed the cluster random sampling method and carried out a questionnaire survey among 488 surgical nurses from five hospitals from May 2019 to September 2019. The study analyzed the relationship between occupational stress, job burnout and quality of life. The Effort-Reward Imbalance questionnaire (ERI), Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (MBI-GS) and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) were used to evaluate occupational stress, job burnout and quality of life among surgical nurses. RESULTS: A total of 550 questionnaires were distributed in this study, and 488 were retrieved, with an effective recovery rate of 88.73 %. The results revealed that the quality of life score among surgical nurses was not high, and differences were observed in the quality of life score of patients according to gender, age, title, and frequency of night shifts (P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between occupational stress and job burnout. Higher levels of occupational stress and job burnout were associated with a poorer quality of life score. Occupational stress and job burnout were identified as risk factors for quality of life, and the interaction between high levels of stress and burnout seriously reduced quality of life. The structural equation model revealed that occupational stress and job burnout had a direct impact on quality of life, occupational stress had a direct impact on job burnout, and job burnout was identified as a mediating factor in the relationship between occupational stress and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical nurses have a high level of occupational stress and burnout, and low quality of life score. Quality of life is correlated with occupational stress and job burnout. According to the individual characteristics and psychological state of nurses, managers can implement personalized intervention measures promptly and effectively to relieve their tension and burnout, and improve the quality of life of surgical nurses.

9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4849-4864, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581097

RESUMO

As a unicellular organism, Plasmodium displays a panoply of lipid metabolism pathways that are seldom found together in a unicellular organism. These pathways mostly involve the Plasmodium-encoded enzymatic machinery and meet the requirements of membrane synthesis during the rapid cell growth and division throughout the life cycle. Different lipids have varied synthesis and meta-bolism pathways. For example, the major phospholipids are synthesized via CDP-diacylglycerol-dependent pathway in prokaryotes and de novo pathway in eukaryotes, and fatty acids are synthesized mainly via type Ⅱ fatty acid synthesis pathway. The available studies have demonstrated the impacts of artemisinin and its derivatives, the front-line compounds against malaria, on the lipid metabolism of Plasmodium. Therefore, this article reviewed the known lipid metabolism pathways and the effects of artemisinin and its derivatives on these pathways, aiming to deepen the understanding of lipid synthesis and metabolism in Plasmodium and provide a theoretical basis for the research on the mechanisms and drug resistance of artemisinin and other anti-malarial drugs.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Artemisininas , Malária , Plasmodium , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Front Psychol ; 12: 714346, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539515

RESUMO

This study explored the mediating effects of resilience and future orientation on the relationship between family socioeconomic status (SES) and learning engagement within the context of Chinese culture based on the cognitive theory of social class. A total of 1,245 junior high school students were recruited to complete anonymous questionnaires regarding the objective and subjective SES of their families, resilience, future orientation, and learning engagement. The mediating effects were tested by stepped multiple linear regression. Results indicated the following: (1) the relationships between objective and subjective SES, resilience, future orientation, and learning engagement was significantly positive; (2) resilience only mediated the relationship between subjective SES and learning engagement, whereas future orientation mediated the relationships between objective/subjective SES and learning engagement; (3) resilience and future orientation sequentially mediated the relationship between subjective SES and learning engagement. The current study contributes to a better understanding of how family SES influences adolescent academic performance from the perspective of adolescent cognitive abilities. In addition, this study provides implications for the prevention and intervention of academic performance of poor adolescents due to low SES.

11.
Clin Lab ; 67(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest CT is important for the diagnosis of Corona Virus Disease 2019, which is caused by SARS-CoV-2 via the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. This study aimed to present special chest CT changes in the detection and management of COVID-19. METHODS: From February 20 to March 6, 2020, clinical data and chest CT of patients with COVID-19 being treated by the Hubei Medical Team were retrospectively analyzed with a time-interval of 2 weeks. In addition, the expressions of ACE2 in different parts of the respiratory system were detected by immunohistochemical staining to explain the special chest CT features of COVID-19 by ACE2 expression. RESULTS: Of 58 patients, the main respiratory manifestations were fever and cough. Spherical or patchy GGO was the initial CT manifestation of COVID-19 pneumonia. CT findings manifested as rapid evolution from focal unilateral to diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities (GGO) that progressed to or co-existed with consolidations in chest CT scans. Lung consolidation increased as the disease progressed, accounting for 63.2%, 76.3%, and 87.5% in group 1 (disease course with 0 - 2 weeks), group 2 (2 - 4 weeks), and group 3 (> 4 weeks). Fibrous lesions (72.3%), high density vascular shadow (69.2%), reticular pattern (63.1%), and subpleural parallel sign (61.5%) were common signs of chest CT of COVID-19. IHC results showed that ACE2-expression in the pulmonary alveoli was significantly higher than that in the bronchial mucosa and pleura (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The special change of CT features in the lung of COVID-19 pneumonia patients have a connection with ACE2 expression patterns in the respiratory system.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500559

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction plays key roles in the pathological process of contrast media (CM)-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients undergoing vascular angiography or intervention treatment. Previously, we have demonstrated that an apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptide, D-4F, inhibits oxidative stress and improves endothelial dysfunction caused by CM through the AMPK/PKC pathway. However, it is unclear whether CM induce metabolic impairments in endothelial cells and whether D-4F ameliorates these metabolic impairments. In this work, we evaluated vitalities of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with iodixanol and D-4F and performed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analysis to assess iodixanol-induced metabolic impairments in HUVECs, and to address the metabolic mechanisms underlying the protective effects of D-4F for ameliorating these metabolic impairments. Our results showed that iodixanol treatment distinctly impaired the vitality of HUVECs, and greatly disordered the metabolic pathways related to energy production and oxidative stress. Iodixanol activated glucose metabolism and the TCA cycle but inhibited choline metabolism and glutathione metabolism. Significantly, D-4F pretreatment could improve the iodixanol-impaired vitality of HUVECs and ameliorate the iodixanol-induced impairments in several metabolic pathways including glycolysis, TCA cycle and choline metabolism in HUVECs. Moreover, D-4F upregulated the glutathione level and hence enhanced antioxidative capacity and increased the levels of tyrosine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in HUVECs. These results provided the mechanistic understanding of CM-induced endothelial impairments and the protective effects of D-4F for improving endothelial cell dysfunction. This work is beneficial to further exploring D-4F as a potential pharmacological agent for preventing CM-induced endothelial impairment and acute kidney injury.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-I/metabolismo , Meios de Contraste/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
13.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 160(4): 489-490, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579815
14.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 720619, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512348

RESUMO

Vemurafenib, a BRAF V600E inhibitor, provides therapeutic benefits for patients with melanoma, but the frequent emergence of drug resistance remains a challenge. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying vemurafenib resistance may generate novel therapeutic strategies for patients with melanoma. Here, we showed that eIF3a, a translational regulatory protein, was an important mediator involved in vemurafenib resistance. eIF3a was expressed at significantly lower levels in vemurafenib-resistant A375 melanoma cells (A375R) than in parental A375 cells. Overexpression of eIF3a enhanced the sensitivity to BRAF inhibitors by reducing p-ERK levels. Furthermore, eIF3a controlled ERK activity by regulating the expression of the phosphatase PPP2R1B via a translation mechanism, thus determining the sensitivity of melanoma cells to vemurafenib. In addition, a positive correlation between eIF3a and PPP2R1B expression was also observed in tumor samples from the Human Protein Atlas and TCGA databases. In conclusion, our studies reveal a previously unknown molecular mechanism of BRAF inhibitor resistance, which may provide a new strategy for predicting vemurafenib responses in clinical treatment.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501643

RESUMO

In this study, restorative environment theory and virtual reality (VR) technology were combined to build different 3D dynamic VR interactive scenes. We discuss the effects of a VR restorative environment on the emotional and cognitive recovery of individuals with mild-to-moderate anxiety and depression. First, we built a VR restorative garden scene, divided into four areas: forest, lawn, horticultural planting, and water features. The scene was verified to have a good recovery effect in 26 participants. Then, 195 participants with mild-to-moderate anxiety and depression were selected as experimental subjects. Through psychological testing and EMG (Electromyography) and EEG (Electroencephalography) data feedback, we further explored the differences in the sense of presence in VR restorative scenes and their effect on individual emotional and cognitive recovery. The results showed that (1) both the restorative environment images and the VR scenes had a healing effect (the reduction in negative emotions and the recovery of positive emotions and cognition), with no difference in the subjective feeling of recovery among the different scenes, but the recovery score of the VR urban environment was higher than that of the natural environment (differing from the results in real environments); (2) a high sense of presence can be experienced in different VR scenes, and interactive activities in VR scenes can provide a great presence experience; (3) the recovery effects of VR restorative environment on emotion and self-efficacy are realized through the presence of VR scenes; (4) a VR restorative environment is helpful for the emotional improvement and cognitive recovery of individuals with mild-to-moderate anxiety and depression. VR urban scenes also have good recovery effects. In terms of cognitive recovery, self-efficacy improved significantly. In addition, from the perspective of EEG indicators, the VR restorative scene experience activated the prefrontal lobe, which is conducive to cognitive recovery in individuals with mild-to-moderate anxiety and depression. In terms of emotional improvement, negative emotions were significantly reduced in the different VR scene groups. In conclusion, we further explored ways to help individuals with mild-to-moderate anxiety and depression, in order to promote the development and application of mental health.

16.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 671857, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490239

RESUMO

In the present study, the roles of a novel long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), lnc-GD2H, in promoting C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation and muscle regeneration were investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, Cell Counting Kit-8, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), immunofluorescence staining, luciferase reporter, mass spectrometry, pulldown, chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA immunoprecipitation assay, wound healing assays, and cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury assays. It was observed that lnc-GD2H promoted myoblast proliferation as evidenced by the enhancement of the proliferation markers c-Myc, CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6, percentage of EdU-positive cells, and rate of cell survival during C2C12 myoblast proliferation. Additional experiments confirmed that c-Myc bound to the lnc-GD2H promoter and regulated its transcription. lnc-GD2H promoted cell differentiation with enhanced MyHC immunostaining as well as increased expression of the myogenic marker genes myogenin (Myog), Mef2a, and Mef2c during myoblast differentiation. Additional assays indicated that lnc-GD2H interacted with NACA which plays a role of transcriptional regulation in myoblast differentiation, and the enrichment of NACA at the Myog promoter was impaired by lnc-GD2H. Furthermore, inhibition of lnc-GD2H impaired muscle regeneration after CTX-induced injury in mice. lnc-GD2H facilitated the expression of proliferating marker genes and formed a feedback loop with c-Myc during myoblast proliferation. In differentiating myoblasts, lnc-GD2H interacted with NACA to relieve the inhibitory effect of NACA on Myog, facilitating Myog expression to promote differentiation. The results provide evidence for the role of lncRNAs in muscle regeneration and are useful for developing novel therapeutic targets for muscle disorders.

17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 710147, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368072

RESUMO

This paper explores the necessity of expanding government expenditures on health (GEH) from the perspective of promoting residents' consumption (RC). It employs bootstrap full- and subsample rolling-window Granger causality tests to investigate the mutual causal influence between GEH and RC. It finds that GEH have a positive impact on RC in some periods and a negative impact in other periods. The positive effect from GEH to RC reveals that Chinese governments at all levels should continue to increase GEH, narrow the gap between their medical and health investments and those of developed countries', directly reduce current medical expenses of residents, and increase the immediate consumption of residents. However, this opinion cannot always be upheld because a negative impact from GEH to RC also exists. The current paper shows that the government should improve the efficiency of the use of health expenditures; effectively shorten the time lag of government health fiscal policies; and promote the positive effect of government health expenditures on RC.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Gastos em Saúde , China/epidemiologia , Governo , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde
18.
Development ; 148(18)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344024

RESUMO

How dermis maintains tissue homeostasis in cyclic growth and wounding is a fundamental unsolved question. Here, we study how dermal components of feather follicles undergo physiological (molting) and plucking injury-induced regeneration in chickens. Proliferation analyses reveal quiescent, transient-amplifying (TA) and long-term label-retaining dermal cell (LRDC) states. During the growth phase, LRDCs are activated to make new dermal components with distinct cellular flows. Dermal TA cells, enriched in the proximal follicle, generate both peripheral pulp, which extends distally to expand the epithelial-mesenchymal interactive interface for barb patterning, and central pulp, which provides nutrition. Entering the resting phase, LRDCs, accompanying collar bulge epidermal label-retaining cells, descend to the apical dermal papilla. In the next cycle, these apical dermal papilla LRDCs are re-activated to become new pulp progenitor TA cells. In the growth phase, lower dermal sheath can generate dermal papilla and pulp. Transcriptome analyses identify marker genes and highlight molecular signaling associated with dermal specification. We compare the cyclic topological changes with those of the hair follicle, a convergently evolved follicle configuration. This work presents a model for analyzing homeostasis and tissue remodeling of mesenchymal progenitors.

19.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 32(9): 2425-2435, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409840

RESUMO

Non-targeted analysis (NTA), including both suspect screening analysis (SSA) and unknown compound analysis, has gained increasing popularity in various fields for its capability in identifying new compounds of interests. Current major challenges for NTA SSA are that (1) tremendous effort and resources are needed for large-scale identification and confirmation of suspect chemicals and (2) suspect chemicals generally show low matching rates during identification and confirmation processes. To narrow the gap between these challenges and smooth implementation of NTA SSA methodology in the biomonitoring field, we present a thorough SSA workflow for the large-scale screen, identification, and confirmation of industrial chemicals that may pose adverse health effects in pregnant women and newborns. The workflow was established in a study of 30 paired maternal and umbilical cord serum samples collected at delivery in the San Francisco Bay area. By analyzing LC-HRMS and MS/MS data, together with the assistance of a combination of resources including online MS/MS spectra libraries, online in silico fragmentation tools, and the EPA CompTox Chemicals Dashboard, we confirmed the identities of 17 chemicals, among which monoethylhexyl phthalate, 4-nitrophenol, tridecanedioic acid, and octadecanedioic acid are especially interesting due to possible toxicities and their high-volume use in industrial manufacturing. Similar to other previous studies in the SSA field, the suspect compounds show relatively low MS/MS identification (16%) and standard confirmation (8%) rates. Therefore, we also investigated origins of false positive features and unidentifiable suspected features, as well as technical obstacles encountered during the confirmation process, which would promote a better understanding of the flaw of low confirmation rate and encourage gaining more effective tools for tackling this issue in NTA SSA.

20.
Genes Genomics ; 2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The net ammonium fluxes differ among the different root zones of Populus, but the physiological and microRNA regulatory mechanisms are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the physiological and miRNA regulatory mechanisms, we investigated the two root zones displaying significant differences in net NH4+ effluxes of P. × canescens. METHODS: Populus plantlets were cultivated with 500 µM NH4Cl for 10 days. Six plants were randomly selected to determine the net NH4+ fluxes using a noninvasive microtest technique. High-throughput sequencing were used to determine the dynamic expression profile of miRNA among the different root zones of Populus. RESULTS: Net NH4+ efflux in zone I (from 0 to 40 mm from the root apex) was - 19.64 pmol cm-2 s-1 and in zone II (from 40 to 80 mm) it was - 43.96 pmol cm-2 s-1. The expression of eleven miRNAs was significantly upregulated, whereas fifteen miRNAs were downregulated. Moreover, eighty-eight target genes of the significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in root zone II compared with zone I. Particularly, ptc-miR171a/b/e and their target, SCL6, were found to be important for the difference in net NH4+ effluxes in the two root zones. Moreover, the expression of the target of ptc-miR169d, NFYA3 was upregulated in root zone II compared with root zone I, contributing to increased NH4+ efflux and decreased NH4+ assimilation in root zone II. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that miRNAs regulate the expression levels of their target genes and thus play key roles in net NH4+ fluxes and NH4+ assimilation in different poplar root zones.

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