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1.
Acc Chem Res ; 53(6): 1111-1123, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466638

RESUMO

ConspectusHydrogen is an ideal energy carrier and plays a critical role in the future energy transition. Distinct from steam reforming, electrochemical water splitting, especially powered by renewables, has been considered as a promising technique for scalable production of high-purity hydrogen with no carbon emission. Its commercialization relies on the reduction of electricity consumption and thus hydrogen cost, calling for highly efficient and cost-effective electrocatalysts with the capability of steadily working at high hydrogen output. This requires the electrocatalysts to feature (1) highly active intrinsic sites, (2) abundant accessible active sites, (3) effective electron and mass transfer, (4) high chemical and structural durability, and (5) low-cost and scalable synthesis. It should be noted that all these requirements should be fulfilled together for a practicable electrocatalyst. Much effort has been devoted to addressing one or a few aspects, especially improving the electrocatalytic activity by electronic modulation of active sites, while few reviews have focused on the synergistic modulation of these aspects together although it is essential for advanced electrochemical water splitting.In this Account, we will present recent innovative strategies with an emphasis on our solutions for synergistically modulating intrinsic active sites, electron transportation, mass transfer, and gas evolution, as well as mechanical and chemical durability, of non-precious-metal electrocatalysts, aiming for cost-effective and highly efficient water splitting. The following approaches for coupling these aspects are summarized for both cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). (1) Synergistic electronic modulations. The electronic structure of a catalytic site determines the adsorption/desorption of reactive intermediates and thus intrinsic activity. It can be tuned by heterogeneous doping, strain effect, spin polarization, etc. Coupling these effects to optimize the reaction pathways or target simultaneously the activity and stability would advance electrocatalytic performance. (2) Synergistic electronic and crystalline modulation. The crystallinity, crystalline phase, crystalline facets, crystalline defects, etc. affect both activity and stability. Coupling these effects with electronic modulation would enhance the activity together with stability. (3) Synergistic electronic and morphological modulation. It will focus on concurrently modulating electronic structure for improving the intrinsic activity and morphology for increasing accessible active sites, especially through single action or processing. The mass transfer and gas evolution properties can also be enhanced by morphological modulation to enable water splitting at large output. (4) Synergistic modulation of elementary reactions. Electrocatalytic reaction generally consists of a couple of elementary reactions. Each one may need a specific active site. Designing and combining various components targeting every elementary step on a space-limited catalyst surface will balance the intermediates and these steps for accelerating the overall reaction. (5) Integrated electrocatalyst design. Taking all these strategies together into account is necessary to integrate all above essential features into one electrocatalyst for enabling high-output water electrolysis. Beyond the progress made to date, the remaining challenges and opportunities is also discussed. With these insights, hopefully, this Account will shed light on the rational design of practical water-splitting electrocatalysts for the cost-effective and scalable production of hydrogen.

2.
Nanoscale ; 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373816

RESUMO

Two spirocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives were prepared to clarify the molecular geometry effects on the regulation of the crystalline morphologies and photophysical behaviors of organic nanocrystals. Due to the different structural symmetry of a spiro-center, distinguishing nanocrystal morphologies with unique crystallization-enhanced/quenched emission was achieved.

3.
Small ; : e2001171, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329197

RESUMO

Highly efficient and stable bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution are essential for aqueous rechargeable Zn-air batteries, which require highly active sites as well as delicate structural design for increasing effective active sites and facilitating mass/electron transfer. Herein, a scalable and facile self-catalyzed growth strategy is developed to integrate highly active Co-N-C sites with 3D brush-like nanostructure, achieving Co-N-C nanobrushes with Co,N-codoped carbon nanotube branches grown on Co,N-codoped nanoparticle assembled nanowire backbones. Systematic investigations suggest that nanobrushes deliver significantly improved electrocatalytic activity compared with nanowire or nanotube counterparts and the longer nanotube branches give the better performance. Benefiting from the increase of accessible highly active sites and enhanced mass transfer and electron transportation, the present Co-N-C nanobrush exhibits superior electrocatalytic activity and durability when used as a bifunctional oxygen catalyst. It enables a rechargeable Zn-air battery with a high peak power density of 246 mW cm-2 and excellent cycling stability. These results suggest that the reported synthetic strategy may open up possibilities for exploring efficient electrocatalysts for diverse applications.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285080

RESUMO

Fe-doped Co3O4 polycrystalline nanosheets vertically grown on carbon cloth were developed as self-standing efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution, enabling high-performance Zn-air batteries with a power density of 268.6 mW cm-2 and superior cycling stability.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196325

RESUMO

Creating high-density durable bifunctional active sites in an air electrode is essential but still challenging for a long-life rechargeable zinc-air battery with appealing power density. Herein, we discover a general strategy mediated by metastable rock salt oxides for achieving high-density well-defined transition-metal nanocrystals encapsulated in N-doped carbon shells (M@NC) which are anchored on a substrate by a porous carbon network as highly active and durable bifunctional catalytic sites. Small-size (15 ± 5 nm) well-dispersed Co2Fe1@NC in a high density (metal loading up to 54.0 wt %) offers the zinc-air battery a record power density of 423.7 mW cm-2. The dual protection from the complete graphitic carbon shells and the anchoring of the outer carbon network make Co2Fe1@NC chemically and mechanically durable, giving the battery a long cycling life. Systematic in-situ temperature-dependent characterizations as well as DFT modeling rationalize the rock salt oxide-mediated process and its indispensable role in achieving high-density nanosized M@NC. These findings open up opportunities for designing efficient electrocatalysts for high-performance Zn-air batteries and diverse energy devices.

6.
Surg Endosc ; 34(5): 1891-1903, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that thyroid surgery has evolved towards minimal incisions and endoscopic approaches, the role of total endoscopic thyroidectomy (TET) in thyroid cancer has been highly disputed. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses of peer reviewed studies in order to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of TET compared with conventional open thyroidectomy (COT) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). METHOD: Medical literature databases such as PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of science were systematically searched for articles that compared TET and COT in PTC treatment from database inception until March 2019. The quality of the studies included in the review was evaluated using the Downs and Black scale using Review Manager software Stata V.13.0 for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: The systematic review and meta-analysis were based on 5664 cases selected from twenty publications. Criteria used to determine surgical completeness included postoperative thyroglobulin (TG) levels, recurrence of the tumor after long-term follow-up. Adverse event and complication rate scores included transient recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy, permanent RLN palsy, transient hypocalcaemia, permanent hypocalcaemia, operative time, number of removed lymph nodes, length of hospital stay and patient cosmetic satisfaction. TET was found to be generally equivalent to COT in terms of surgical completeness and adverse event rate, although TET resulted in lower levels of transient hypocalcemia (OR 1.66; p < 0.05), a smaller number of the retrieved lymph nodes (WMD 0.46; p < 0.05), and better cosmetic satisfaction (WMD 1.73; p < 0.05). COT was associated with a shorter operation time (WMD - 50.28; p < 0.05) and lower rates of transient RLN palsy (OR 0.41; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results show that in terms of safety and efficacy, TET was similar to COT for the treatment of thyroid cancer. Indeed, the tumor recurrence rates and the level of surgical completeness in TET are similar to those obtained for COT. TET was associated with significantly lower levels of transient hypocalcemia and better cosmetic satisfaction, and thus is the better option for patients with cosmetic concerns. Overall, randomized clinical trials and studies with larger patient cohorts and long-term follow-up data are required to further demonstrate the value of the TET.

7.
Adv Mater ; : e1906015, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027058

RESUMO

Developing low-cost, highly efficient, and durable electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is essential for the practical application of electrochemical water splitting. Herein, it is discovered that organic small molecule (hexabromobenzene, HBB) can activate commercial transition metal (Ni, Fe, and NiFe) foam by directly evolving metal nanomeshes embedded in graphene-like films (M-NM@G) through a facile Br-induced solid-phase migration process. Systematic investigations indicate that HBB can conformally generate graphene-like network on bulk metal foam substrate via the cleavage of CBr bonds and the formation of CC linkage. Simultaneously, the cleaved CBr fragments can efficiently extract metal atoms from bulk substrate, in situ producing transition metal nanomeshes embedded in the graphene-like films. As a result, such functional nanostructure can serve as an efficient OER electrocatalyst with a low overpotential and excellent long-term stability. Specifically, the overpotential at 100 mA cm-2 is only 208 mV for NiFe-NM@G, ranking the top-tier OER electrocatalysts. This work demonstrates an intriguing general strategy for directly transforming bulk transition metals into nanostructured functional electrocatalysts via the interaction with organic small molecules, opening up opportunities for bridging the application of organic small molecules in energy technologies.

8.
Toxicon ; 176: 15-20, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965969

RESUMO

Podophyllotoxin (PPT) is a lignan extracted from podophyllum genera and it shows potent antitumor activity since it could effectively inhibit the assembly of microtubule in tumor cells. However, the effects of podophyllotoxin exposure on porcine oocyte quality is still unclear. In present study we tried to examine whether podophyllotoxin exposure was toxic to porcine oocyte maturation. Our results showed that podophyllotoxin exposure inhibited porcine oocyte maturation, showing with the failure of polar body extrusion, and the inhibitory effects of podophyllotoxin on porcine oocytes was dose-depended. Moreover, the meiotic spindle formation was disturbed and the chromosomes were misaligned in the podophyllotoxin-treated porcine oocytes. However, there was no different expression for p-MAPK and ace-tubulin between the control and podophyllotoxin treatment group. In addition, after 0.01 µM podophyllotoxin treatment, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the Annexin-V signal at MI stage significantly increased compared to the control group, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress and early apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggested that the toxic effects of podophyllotoxin exposure on porcine oocyte maturation might be through its effects on spindle formation and the induction of oxidative stress-mediated early apoptosis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/toxicidade , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Podofilotoxina/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , Ciclo Celular , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Suínos
9.
Lab Invest ; 100(4): 619-629, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748682

RESUMO

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute a large population of glioblastoma and facilitate tumor growth and invasion of tumor cells, but the underlying mechanism remains undefined. In this study, we demonstrate that chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 (CCL8) is highly expressed by TAMs and contributes to pseudopodia formation by GBM cells. The presence of CCL8 in the glioma microenvironment promotes progression of tumor cells. Moreover, CCL8 induces invasion and stem-like traits of GBM cells, and CCR1 and CCR5 are the main receptors that mediate CCL8-induced biological behavior. Finally, CCL8 dramatically activates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in GBM cells, and blocking TAM-secreted CCL8 by neutralized antibody significantly decreases invasion of glioma cells. Taken together, our data reveal that CCL8 is a TAM-associated factor to mediate invasion and stemness of GBM, and targeting CCL8 may provide an insight strategy for GBM treatment.

10.
J Reprod Dev ; 65(6): 499-506, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474647

RESUMO

L-carnitine (LC) is well known for its antioxidant activity. In this study, we explored the potential mechanistic effects of LC supplementation on aged bovine oocytes in vitro. We showed that in-vitro maturation could enhance the subsequent developmental capacity of aging oocytes, when supplemented with LC. After in vitro fertilization, the blastocyst formation rate in the aged oocytes post-LC treatment significantly increased compared to that in untreated aged oocytes (29.23 ± 2.20% vs. 20.90 ± 3.05%). Furthermore, after LC treatment, the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species in aged oocytes significantly decreased, and glutathione levels significantly increased, compared to those in untreated aged oocytes. Mitochondrial membrane potential, the percentage of early apoptotic oocytes, and caspase-3 activity were significantly reduced in LC-treated aged oocytes compared to those in untreated aged oocytes. Furthermore, during in vitro aging, the mRNA levels of the anti-apoptotic genes, Bcl-xl and survivin in LC-treated aged oocytes were significantly higher than those in untreated aged oocytes. Overall, these results indicate that at least in in vitro conditions, LC can prevent the aging of bovine oocytes and improve the developmental capacity of bovine embryo.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(43): 6134, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073586

RESUMO

Correction for 'NiS2 nanodotted carnation-like CoS2 for enhanced electrocatalytic water splitting' by Weili Xin et al., Chem. Commun., 2019, 55, 3781-3784.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(17): 7005-7013, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933480

RESUMO

Ni or Co is commonly required in efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Although Fe is much more abundant and cheaper, full-Fe or Fe-rich catalysts suffer from insufficient activity. Herein, we discover that Se-doping can drastically promote OER on FeOOH and develop a facile on-site electrochemical activation strategy for achieving such a Se-doped FeOOH electrode via an FeSe precatalyst. Theoretical analysis and systematic experiments prove that Se-doping enables FeOOH as an efficient and low-cost OER electrocatalyst. By optimizing the electrode structure, an industrial-level OER current output of 500 mA cm-2 is secured at a low overpotential of 348 mV. The application of such an Fe-rich OER electrode in a practical solar-driven water splitting system demonstrates a high and stable solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 18.55%, making the strategy promising for exploring new cost-effective and highly active electrocatalysts for clean hydrogen production.

13.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 34(6): 947-962, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997603

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare high inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) ligation (HL) with low IMA ligation (LL) for the treatment of colorectal cancer and to evaluate the lymph node yield, survival benefit, and safety of these surgeries. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) were systematically searched for relevant articles that compared HL and LL for sigmoid or rectal cancer. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous outcomes and the weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 30 studies were included in this analysis. There were significantly higher odds of anastomotic leakage and urethral dysfunction in patients treated with HL compared to those treated with LL (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.55; OR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.39 to 4.33, respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the total number of harvested lymph nodes, the number of harvested lymph nodes around root of the IMA, local recurrence rate, and operation time. Further, no statistically significant group differences in 5-year overall survival rates and 5-year disease-free survival rates were detected among all patients nor among subgroups of stage II patients and stage III patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: LL can achieve equivalent lymph node yield to HL, and both procedures have similar survival benefits. However, LL is associated with a lower incidence of leakage and urethral dysfunction. Thus, LL is recommended for colorectal cancer surgery.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Cirurgia Colorretal , Linfonodos/patologia , Artéria Mesentérica Inferior/cirurgia , Fístula Anastomótica/etiologia , Cirurgia Colorretal/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Ligadura , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Viés de Publicação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(26): 3781-3784, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864580

RESUMO

Combining ultrasmall NiS2 nanodots with three-dimensional carnation-like CoS2 microstructures is demonstrated to be able to enhance the electrocatalytic activities for both the oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions, leading to efficient overall alkaline water splitting.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(42): 35904-35910, 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265514

RESUMO

Doping unary transition-metal phosphides (TMPs) by secondary metal is a powerful method to improve their catalytic activity for electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER). However, the composition-activity relationship of such doping has not been systematically investigated yet because of the challenge in constructing bimetal TMPs with continuously variable composition while keeping homogenous elemental distribution. Herein, we develop a strategy of using bimetal Prussian blue analogues with homogenous elemental distribution at molecular scale as an ideal platform to achieve bimetal cobalt-iron phosphides (Co1- xFe xP) with a continuously changeable Co/Fe ratio (0 < x < 1) and uniform metal distribution. Such a system allows us to draw out a composition-activity volcano profile of Co1- xFe xP for OER. By optimizing the composition, the best catalytic activity is obtained at the Co/Fe ratio of 1.63 in Co1- xFe xP with small overpotentials of 230 and 268 mV at 10 and 100 mA cm-2, respectively, which outperform most of the reported TMPs. These results may inspire the use of multicomponent molecular platforms to understand composition-dependent performance and explore highly efficient catalysts for diverse applications.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(37): 11705-11715, 2018 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30110545

RESUMO

Despite the recent surge of interest in inorganic lead halide perovskite nanocrystals, there are still significant gaps in their stability disturbance and the understanding of their destabilization, assembly, and growth processes. Here, we discover that polar solvent molecules can induce the lattice distortion of ligand-stabilized cubic CsPbI3, leading to the phase transition into orthorhombic phase, which is unfavorable for photovoltaic applications. Such lattice distortion triggers the dipole moment on CsPbI3 nanocubes, which subsequently initiates the hierarchical self-assembly of CsPbI3 nanocubes into single-crystalline nanowires. The systematic investigations and in situ monitoring on the kinetics of the self-assembly process disclose that the more amount or the stronger polarity of solvent can induce the more rapid self-assembly and phase transition. These results not only elucidate the destabilization mechanism of cubic CsPbI3 nanocrystals, but also open up opportunities to synthesize and store cubic CsPbI3 for their practical applications in photovoltaics and optoelectronics.

17.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 131(15): 1808-1812, 2018 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058577

RESUMO

Background: The 47,XYY syndrome could result in fertility problems. However, seldom studies reported comprehensive researches on the embryonic development and pregnancy outcomes of these patients. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of nonmosaic 47,XYY patients performed with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) treatment. Methods: This was a retrospective study. Between January 2012 and May 2017, 51 infertile males with nonmosaic 47,XYY syndrome underwent FISH-PGD were included in the study. According to sex chromosomal FISH results, embryos were classified as normal signal, no nuclei fixed, no signal in fixed nuclei, suspensive signal, and abnormal signal groups, respectively. The incidence of each group, the fixation rate, and hybridization rate were calculated. Embryonic development and pregnancy outcomes were also analyzed. The measurement data were analyzed with Student's t-test. The comparison of categorical data was analyzed with the Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test when expected cell count was <5. Results: The 53 PGD cycles with 433 embryos were analyzed. The fixation rate was 89.6%, while the hybridization rate was 96.4%. There were 283 embryos with two sex chromosomal signals with clear diagnosis (65.4%). The numbers of no nuclei fixed, no signal in fixed nuclei, suspensive signal, and abnormal signal groups were 45 (10.4%), 14 (3.2%), 24 (5.5%), and 67 (15.5%), respectively. Embryos with abnormal signals were abandoned. The number of good-quality embryos was 210 (57.4%), including implanted embryos on day 4/day 5 and cryopreserved. The rates of good-quality embryos in the no nuclei fixed (22.2%), no signal in fixed nuclei (28.6%), and suspensive signal groups (33.3%) were comparable (P > 0.05), and were significantly lower than the normal signal group (66.4%, P < 0.001). The clinical pregnancy rates of fresh and frozen embryos transferred cycles were 70.6% and 85.7%, respectively. Conclusions: Among embryos with a clear diagnosis of sex chromosome, about one-fifth showed abnormal signals. Embryos with two sex chromosomal signals are more likely to develop into good-quality ones. The application of the PGD by FISH may help to improve the clinical outcome s.


Assuntos
Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação , Transtornos dos Cromossomos Sexuais/diagnóstico , Cariótipo XYY/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos dos Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Cariótipo XYY/genética
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(59): 8190-8193, 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971312

RESUMO

A facile and scalable solid-state synthesis strategy is developed to produce hierarchical coralline-like nanostructured electrocatalysts with cobalt nanoparticles and Co-NX sites for efficient oxygen reduction reaction, opening up an avenue for the mass production of non-precious metal catalysts for metal-air batteries and fuel cells, etc.

19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(11): 1307-1310, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29271429

RESUMO

Inspired by metabolic processes in biological systems, animal blood as a biowaste rich in biological enzymes with molecular Fe-N centers was successfully explored to produce an efficient electrocatalyst with single atomic Fe-N-C active sites for oxygen reduction reaction.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(42): 36857-36864, 2017 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972733

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N)-doped carbons combined with transition-metal nanoparticles are attractive as alternatives to the state-of-the-art precious metal catalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, we demonstrate a strategy for fabricating three-dimensional (3D) Cu-encased N-doped carbon nanotube arrays which are directly grown on Cu foam (Cu@NC NT/CF) as a new efficient HER electrocatalyst. Cu nanoparticles are encased here instead of common transition metals (Fe, Co, or Ni) for pursuing a well-controllable morphology and an excellent activity by taking advantage of its more stable nature at high temperature and in acidic or alkaline electrolyte. It is discovered that metallic Cu exhibits strong electronic modulation on N-doped carbon to boost its electrocatalytic activity for HER. Such a nanostructure not only offers plenty of accessible highly active sites but also provides a 3D conductive open network for fast electron/mass transfer and facilitates gas escape for prompt mass exchange. As a result, the Cu@NC NT/CF electrode exhibits superior HER performance and durability, outperforming most of the reported M@NC materials. Furthermore, the etching experiments together with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveal that the electronic modulation from encased Cu significantly enhances the HER activity of N-doped carbon. These findings open up opportunities for exploring other Cu-based nanomaterials as efficient electrocatalysts and understanding their catalytic processes.

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