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2.
Mech Ageing Dev ; : 111160, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634486

RESUMO

Skin is the largest organ of the body, and is prone to be affected by external environmental factors. Skin aging is caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Furthermore, aging skin tissue is known to create a permissive tissue microenvironment that promotes the initiation, progression and resistance of cancer cells by promoting the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Therefore, more attention should be paid to skin aging. In this review, we highlight the common Rel proteins and two activation pathways: the canonical activation pathway and the non-canonical activation pathway. Furthermore, we summarize the role of NF-κB in skin aging. The effects of UV on the skin results from the production of ROS. Excessive free radicals activate the NF-κB signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway, contributing to the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB. Then it increased the level of TNF-α and the expression of MMPs, which induce the degradation of ECM and accelerated skin aging. We also summarize some reported natural antioxidants and synthetic antioxidants which are related to NF-κB signals. On the other hand, NF-κB plays a key role in SASP. Upon senescence-inducing signals, ATM and ATR block p62-dependent autophagic degradation of GATA4, contributing to NF-κB activation and SASP induction.

3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(87): 13128-13131, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616871

RESUMO

We report here a novel light-triggered nanosystem based on co-assembling nanoaggregates (NAs) of lipophilic photosensitizers and lipophilic prodrugs containing multiple thioethers. Upon laser irradiation, the oxidization of the multiple thioethers by photosensitizer-generated singlet oxygen could rapidly destroy the NA structure, resulting in faster drug release than those containing a single thioether.

4.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Riehl's melanosis is a chronic, refractory disorder, which can adversely affect patient's quality of life. Intense pulse light, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, hydroquinone, tranexamic acid have been reported to treat this disease, but there have been few reports on the effectiveness of other treatments. AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of triple combination therapy with salicylic acid chemical peels, oral glycyrrhizin compound, and vitamin C for Riehl's melanosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Three patients diagnosed with Riehl's melanosis were enrolled. All patients were treated with glycyrrhizin compound (150 mg/d), vitamin C (100 mg/d), and salicylic acid 30% peels once every 2 weeks. Clinical photographs and VISIA were used to assess the efficacy. RESULTS: All patients received obvious improvement and reported no obvious side effects. CONCLUSION: Triple combination therapy with salicylic acid peels, oral glycyrrhizin compound, and vitamin C is a safe and effective modality for Riehl's melanosis.

5.
Dermatol Ther ; : e13079, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482633

RESUMO

As one of the most obvious signs of aging, wrinkles have long been the concern of many people and continue to be a major topic in dermal-cosmetic industry. Accordingly, there is a need to develop products with good efficacy and safety profile. The Zanthoxylum bungeanum maxim (ZBM) extract is a natural food which may possess the property of a toxin-like botulinum. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a formulation that contains 2% ZBM pericarp extract in the treatment of wrinkles. Twenty females aged 35-60 years old were enrolled in this randomized, vehicle-controlled, double-blind, and split-face trial. The trial lasted for 30 days, when participants randomly used formulations containing 2% ZBM extract on one side of the temporal canthus and vehicle formulation on the other side. Skin roughness, skin hydration, and skin elasticity were evaluated by Primospico, Corneometer® CM825, and Cutometer® MPA580, respectively. The formulation containing 2% ZBM extract has a significant short-term anti-crow's feet effect compared with vehicle. No adverse effect was shown during the study. Topical application of 2% ZBM extract is tolerable and can be used as an effective cosmetic agent for short-term wrinkle treatment.

6.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538496

RESUMO

Two hitherto unknown highly modified abietane diterpenoids, namely salviapritin A (1) and salviapritin B (2), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Salvia prionitis, together with 17 known compounds. Their chemical structures were established by extensive spectroscopic methods (ESIMS, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR) and by comparison of their NMR data with those of related analogues. Salviapritin A is the first example of a trinorabietane diterpenoid possessing an acenaphthylene skeleton from the Salvia genus. Additionally, a plausible biogenetic pathway for salviapritin B is proposed.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(38): 34869-34877, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502819

RESUMO

Tailoring composition and structure are significantly important to improve the utilization and optimize the performance of the precious Pt catalyst toward various reactions, which greatly relies on the feasible synthesis approach. Herein, we demonstrate that Cu-rich Cu5Pt alloys with unique excavated dodecahedral frame-like structure (Cu5Pt nanoframes) can be synthesized via simply adjusting the amounts of salt precursors and surfactants under hydrothermal conditions. It is established that the presence of hexamethylenetetramine and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, as well as the selection of a proper Pt/Cu ratio are key for the acquisition of the target product. The immediate appeal of this material stems from frame-like architecture and ultralow Pt content involved, which can be used to greatly improve the utilization efficiency of Pt atoms. When benchmarked against commercial catalysts, the developed Cu5Pt nanostructures display superior electrocatalytic performance toward formic acid oxidation, owing to unique electronic effect and ensemble effect. This work elucidates a promising methodology for the synthesis of Pt-based nanostructures while highlights the significance of composition and structure in electrocatalysis.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517509

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Sphingomyelin synthase (SGMS) is responsible for the production of sphingomyelin (SGM), the second most abundant phospholipid in mammalian plasma, from ceramide, a major sphingolipid. Knowledge of the effects of cigarette smoke on sphingomyelin production is limited. Here, we examine the effect of chronic cigarette smoke on SGMS activity and evaluate how the deficiency of Sgms2, one of the two isoforms of mammalian SGMS, impacts pulmonary function. METHODS: Sgms2 knockout and wild type control mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 months and pulmonary function testing was performed. SGMS2-dependent signaling was investigated in these mice and in human macrophages derived from monocytes (MDM) of nonsmokers and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells isolated from healthy nonsmokers and COPD subjects. RESULTS: Chronic cigarette smoke reduces SGMS activity and Sgms2 gene expression in mouse lungs. Sgms2-deficient mice exhibited enhanced airway and tissue resistance following chronic cigarette smoke exposure, but have similar levels of emphysema compared to smoke-exposed wild type mice. Sgms2-/- mice had greater AKT phosphorylation, peribronchial collagen deposition and protease activity in their lungs following smoke inhalation. Similarly, we identified reduced SGMS2 expression and enhanced phosphorylation of AKT and protease production in HBE cells isolated from COPD subjects. Selective inhibition of AKT activity or overexpression of SGMS2 reduced the production of several MMPs in HBE cells and MDM cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that smoke-regulated Sgms2 gene expression influences key COPD features in mice including airway resistance, AKT signaling and protease production.

9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(16): 8913-8925, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392336

RESUMO

The development of synthetic biological systems requires modular biomolecular components to flexibly alter response pathways. In previous studies, we have established a module-swapping design principle to engineer allosteric response and DNA recognition properties among regulators in the LacI family, in which the engineered regulators served as effective components for implementing new cellular behavior. Here we introduced this protein engineering strategy to two regulators in the TetR family: TetR (UniProt Accession ID: P04483) and MphR (Q9EVJ6). The TetR DNA-binding module and the MphR ligand-binding module were used to create the TetR-MphR. This resulting hybrid regulator possesses DNA-binding properties of TetR and ligand response properties of MphR, which is able to control gene expression in response to a molecular signal in cells. Furthermore, we studied molecular interactions between the TetR DNA-binding module and MphR ligand-binding module by using mutant analysis. Together, we demonstrated that TetR family regulators contain discrete and functional modules that can be used to build biological components with novel properties. This work highlights the utility of rational design as a means of creating modular parts for cell engineering and introduces new possibilities in rewiring cellular response pathways.

10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109203, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306970

RESUMO

According to its different occurrence mechanism, programmed cell death (PCD) is divided into apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, paraptosis and so on. Paraptosis is morphologically different from apoptosis and autophagy, which exhibit cytoplasmic vacuolation derived from the ER, independent of caspase, absence of apoptotic morphology. Recent researches have implied that a variety of small molecule compounds, such as celastrol, curcumin, can induce paraptosis-associated cell death as the reagent to enhance anti-cancer activity. A better understanding of paraptosis will lay the foundation to develop new therapeutic strategies to treat human cancers that make full use of small-molecule compounds.

11.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104254, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271782

RESUMO

Five new polyphenolic derivatives, sepiumols A-E (1-5), were isolated from the root barks of Periploca sepium. Their structures were elucidated by interpretation of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Compounds 1, 3 and 5 were found to exhibit significant antifungal activity, particularly for 3 with the remarkable activity against Gibberella saubinetii and Alternaria longipes with MIC values of 1.56 and 3.13 µg/mL (ketoconazole: 0.78 µg/mL), respectively. In addition, compounds 1, 3 and 5 also displayed significant antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureu with MIC values of 12.50-25 µg/mL (ciprofloxacin: 0.78 µg/mL).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Periploca/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Alternaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Gibberella/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação
12.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 20(8): 647-659, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273962

RESUMO

In maxillofacial surgery, there is a significant need for the design and fabrication of porous scaffolds with customizable bionic structures and mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering. In this paper, we characterize the porous Ti6Al4V implant, which is one of the most promising and attractive biomedical applications due to the similarity of its modulus to human bones. We describe the mechanical properties of this implant, which we suggest is capable of providing important biological functions for bone tissue regeneration. We characterize a novel bionic design and fabrication process for porous implants. A design concept of "reducing dimensions and designing layer by layer" was used to construct layered slice and rod-connected mesh structure (LSRCMS) implants. Porous LSRCMS implants with different parameters and porosities were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM). Printed samples were evaluated by microstructure characterization, specific mechanical properties were analyzed by mechanical tests, and finite element analysis was used to digitally calculate the stress characteristics of the LSRCMS under loading forces. Our results show that the samples fabricated by SLM had good structure printing quality with reasonable pore sizes. The porosity, pore size, and strut thickness of manufactured samples ranged from (60.95± 0.27)% to (81.23±0.32)%, (480±28) to (685±31) µm, and (263±28) to (265±28) µm, respectively. The compression results show that the Young's modulus and the yield strength ranged from (2.23±0.03) to (6.36±0.06) GPa and (21.36±0.42) to (122.85±3.85) MPa, respectively. We also show that the Young's modulus and yield strength of the LSRCMS samples can be predicted by the Gibson-Ashby model. Further, we prove the structural stability of our novel design by finite element analysis. Our results illustrate that our novel SLM-fabricated porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds based on an LSRCMS are a promising material for bone implants, and are potentially applicable to the field of bone defect repair.

13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1864(10): 1305-1313, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220615

RESUMO

Increased phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity has been found to be associated with obesity, and metabolic syndrome in humans. However, whether or not PLTP has a direct effect on insulin sensitivity and obesity is largely unknown. Here we analyzed the effect by using PLTP knockout (PLTP-/-) mouse model. Although, PLTP-/- mice have normal body-weight-gain under chow diet, these mice were protected from high-fat-diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, compared with wild type mice. In order to understand the mechanism, we evaluated insulin receptor and Akt activation and found that PLTP deficiency significantly enhanced phosphorylated insulin receptor and Akt levels in high-fat-diet fed mouse livers, adipose tissues, and muscles after insulin stimulation, while total Akt and insulin receptor levels were unchanged. Moreover, we found that the PLTP deficiency induced significantly more GLUT4 protein in the plasma membranes of adipocytes and muscle cells after insulin stimulation. Finally, we found that PLTP-deficient hepatocytes had less sphingomyelins and free cholesterols in the lipid rafts and plasma membranes than that of controls and this may provide a molecular basis for PLTP deficiency-mediated increase in insulin sensitivity. We have concluded that PLTP deficiency leads to an improvement in tissue and whole-body insulin sensitivity through modulating lipid levels in the plasma membrane, especially in the lipid rafts.

15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(10): 5449-5463, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162606

RESUMO

Engineering allosteric transcriptional repressors containing an environmental sensing module (ESM) and a DNA recognition module (DRM) has the potential to unlock a combinatorial set of rationally designed biological responses. We demonstrated that constructing hybrid repressors by fusing distinct ESMs and DRMs provides a means to flexibly rewire genetic networks for complex signal processing. We have used coevolutionary traits among LacI homologs to develop a model for predicting compatibility between ESMs and DRMs. Our predictions accurately agree with the performance of 40 engineered repressors. We have harnessed this framework to develop a system of multiple toggle switches with a master OFF signal that produces a unique behavior: each engineered biological activity is switched to a stable ON state by different chemicals and returned to OFF in response to a common signal. One promising application of this design is to develop living diagnostics for monitoring multiple parameters in complex physiological environments and it represents one of many circuit topologies that can be explored with modular repressors designed with coevolutionary information.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(24): e16020, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192951

RESUMO

Postoperative hypoparathyroidism due to dysfunction of the parathyroid gland is the most common complication after thyroidectomy. Our objective was to introduce the method of anatomical localization of normal parathyroid glands before thyroidectomy through ultrasonography and to evaluate its efficiency. The study group included 52 patients subjected to anatomical localization of the parathyroid gland prethyroidectomy through ultrasonography. The control group included 52 sex- and age-matched patients without parathyroid gland localization. The proportion of parathyroid glands preserved in situ and postoperative hypoparathyroidism rates in the 2 groups were compared. The rates of normal parathyroid glands identified according to ultrasonography for left superior, left inferior, right superior, and right inferior glands were 78.8%, 90.4%, 57.7%, and 82.7%, respectively. The rate of parathyroid gland excised inadvertently was significantly decreased (P = .038) in the study group as compared with the control group. The rates of parathyroid gland preservation in situ were significantly improved in the left superior (P = .001), left inferior (P = .002), and right inferior glands (P = .005). Furthermore, the incidence of transient hypoparathyroidism decreased significantly (P = .028). Our study indicated that normal parathyroid glands were identified by ultrasonography, and the anatomical localization improved the rate of parathyroid gland preservation in situ and decreased the incidence of transient hypoparathyroidism.


Assuntos
Hipoparatireoidismo/etiologia , Hipoparatireoidismo/prevenção & controle , Glândulas Paratireoides/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Tireoidectomia , Ultrassonografia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Bócio Nodular/diagnóstico por imagem , Bócio Nodular/epidemiologia , Bócio Nodular/patologia , Bócio Nodular/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipoparatireoidismo/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândulas Paratireoides/patologia , Glândulas Paratireoides/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 183, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance to sorafenib greatly limits its therapeutic efficiency in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Increasing evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the resistance to anti-cancer drugs. The present study aims to explore the involvement of lncRNA SNHG1 (small nucleolar RNA host gene 1) in sorafenib resistance and how SNHG1 is associated with overexpressed microRNA-21 (miR-21) and the activated Akt pathway, which have been demonstrated to mediate this resistance in HCC cells. METHODS: Sorafenib-resistant HCC (SR-HCC) cells were generated and their sorafenib-resistant properties were confirmed by cell viability and apoptosis assays. Potential lncRNAs were screened by using multiple bioinformatics analyses and databases. The expression of genes and proteins was detected by qRT-PCR, Western blot and in situ hybridization. Gene silencing was achieved by specific siRNA or lncRNA Smart Silencer. The effects of anti-SNHG1 were evaluated in vitro and in experimental animals by using quantitative measures of cell proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy. The binding sites of miR-21 and SNHG1 were predicted by using the RNAhybrid algorithm and their interaction was verified by luciferase assays. RESULTS: The Akt pathway was highly activated by overexpressed miR-21 in SR-HCC cells compared with parental HCC cells. Among ten screened candidates, SNHG1 showed the largest folds of alteration between SR-HCC and parental cells and between vehicle- and sorafenib-treated cells. Overexpressed SNHG1 contributes to sorafenib resistance by activating the Akt pathway via regulating SLC3A2. Depletion of SNHG1 enhanced the efficacy of sorafenib to induce apoptosis and autophagy of SR-HCC cells by inhibiting the activation of Akt pathway. Sorafenib induced translocation of miR-21 to the nucleus, where it promoted the expression of SNHG1, resulting in upregulation of SLC3A2, leading to the activation of Akt pathway. In contrast, SNHG1 was shown to have little effect on the expression of miR-21, which downregulated the expression of PTEN, leading to the activation of the Akt pathway independently of SNHG1. CONCLUSIONS: The present study has demonstrated that lncRNA SNHG1 contributes to sorafenib resistance by activating the Akt pathway and its nuclear expression is promoted by miR-21, whose nuclear translocation is induced by sorafenib. These results indicate that SNHG1 may represent a potentially valuable target for overcoming sorafenib resistance for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Cadeia Pesada da Proteína-1 Reguladora de Fusão/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Gênica , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Atherosclerosis ; 285: 147-152, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor-mediated induction of HDL-cholesterol has no effect on the protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the mechanism is still unknown. Data on the effects of this class of drugs on subclasses of HDL are either limited or insufficient. In this study, we investigated the effect of evacetrapib, a CETP inhibitor, on subclasses of HDL in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or diabetes. METHODS: Baseline and 3-month post-treatment samples from atorvastatin 40 mg plus evacetrapib 130 mg (n = 70) and atorvastatin 40 mg plus placebo (n = 30) arms were used for this purpose. Four subclasses of HDL (large HDL, medium HDL, small HDL, and preß-1 HDL) were separated according to their size and quantified by densitometry using a recently developed native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) system. RESULTS: Relative to placebo, while evacetrapib treatment dramatically increased large HDL and medium HDL subclasses, it significantly reduced small HDL (27%) as well as preß-1 HDL (36%) particles. Evacetrapib treatment reduced total LDL, but also resulted in polydisperse LDL with LDL particles larger and smaller than the LDL subclasses of the placebo group. CONCLUSION: Evacetrapib reduced preß-1 HDL and small HDL in patients with ASCVD or diabetes on statin. Preß-1 HDL and medium HDL are negatively interrelated. The results could give a clue to understand the effect of CETP inhibitors on cardiovascular outcomes.

19.
Exp Dermatol ; 28(7): 786-794, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972839

RESUMO

Acne vulgaris is a prevalent cutaneous disease characterized by a multifactorial pathogenic process including hyperseborrhea, inflammation, over-keratinization of follicular keratinocytes and Propionibacterium acnes (P acnes) overgrowth. Salicylic acid (SA), a beta-hydroxy acid, is frequently used in the treatment of acne. SA has been found to decrease skin lipids and to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, few studies have elucidated the mechanisms and pathways involved in such treatment of acne. In this study, we initially investigated the anti-acne properties of SA in human SEB-1 sebocytes. Treatment with SA decreased sebocyte lipogenesis by downregulating the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/sterol response element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) pathway and reduced inflammation by suppressing the NF-κB pathway in these cells. Salicylic acid also decreased the cell viability of SEB-1 by increasing apoptosis via the death signal receptor pathway. Subsequently, histopathological analysis of a rabbit ear acne model after application of SA for three weeks confirmed that SA suppressed the levels of cytokines and major pathogenic proteins around acne lesions, which supports the mechanisms suggested by our in vitro experiments. These results initially clarified that therapeutic activities of SA in acne vulgaris treatment could be associated with the regulation of SREBP-1 pathway and NF-κB pathway in human SEB-1 sebocytes.

20.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 54(4): 480-484, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017491

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the risk factors affecting the survival of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in different age groups. Methods: Information on 6089 GIST patients was screened from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Risk factor analysis was performed using a chi-square test (univariate analysis). Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method (log-rank test) and the COX proportional hazard model. p Value < .05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Analyzed statistically to reveal that in addition to tumor size, mitotic index, and primary location, age, gender, race, and surgical treatment also were independent risk factors for GISTs. Gender, race, and location of disease influenced the survival rate of patients, which was higher in the young group (≤60 years old) than the elderly group (>60 years). Risk factors such as primary location, tumor diameter, and mitotic index varied significantly between the different age groups. Conclusions: Age, gender, race, and surgical treatment are independent risk factors that influence the prognosis in patients with GISTs. Some risk factors affecting prognosis are age dependent.

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