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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are major affective disorders associated with high risk for suicide. Neural mechanisms underlying suicide attempts are poorly understood in MDD and BD but likely relate to the structural abnormalities in brain regions. In this study, we explored structural alterations in MDD and BD with prior suicide attempts (SA) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: Participants consisted of 27 MDD patients with prior SA (men: 9; age means±sd: 28.04 ± 11.06 years), 49 MDD patients without prior SA (men: 11; age means±sd: 30.03 ± 0.91 years), 25 BD patients with prior SA (men: 7, age means±sd: 27.08 ± 8.40 years), 49 BD patients without prior SA (men: 26, means±sd: 27.69 ± 9.97 years),and 49 healthy controls (HC) (men: 18, means±sd: 31.12 ± 9.95 years). All participants underwent DTI to examine fractional anisotropy (FA) in brain regions. RESULTS: FA in several major white matter (WM) bundles including bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), bilateral uncinate fasciculus (UF), and the corpus callosum (CC) was shown in MDD with prior SA, compared to MDD without prior SA and HC. Decreased FA was also found in bilateral IFOF, bilateral UF, and CC, as well as other WM bundles, in BD with prior SA, compared to BD without prior SA and HC. Significant diagnostic group by SA effects were shown in bilateral thalami with lowest mean FA values in MDD with prior SA. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the involvement of structural alterations in suicide attempts in major affective disorders. Shared and distinct structural alterations were shown in MDD and BD with prior SA, suggesting common and differential neural pathways for suicide among major affective disorder.

2.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 45(1): 15-22, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368294

RESUMO

Background: White matter network alterations have increasingly been implicated in major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify shared and distinct white matter network alterations among the 3 disorders. Methods: We used analysis of covariance, with age and gender as covariates, to investigate white matter network alterations in 123 patients with schizophrenia, 123 with bipolar disorder, 124 with major depressive disorder and 209 healthy controls. Results: We found significant group differences in global network efficiency (F = 3.386, p = 0.018), nodal efficiency (F = 8.015, p < 0.001 corrected for false discovery rate [FDR]) and nodal degree (F = 5.971, pFDR < 0.001) in the left middle occipital gyrus, as well as nodal efficiency (F = 6.930, pFDR < 0.001) and nodal degree (F = 5.884, pFDR < 0.001) in the left postcentral gyrus. We found no significant alterations in patients with major depressive disorder. Post hoc analyses revealed that compared with healthy controls, patients in the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder groups showed decreased global network efficiency, nodal efficiency and nodal degree in the left middle occipital gyrus. Furthermore, patients in the schizophrenia group showed decreased nodal efficiency and nodal degree in the left postcentral gyrus compared with healthy controls. Limitations: Our findings could have been confounded in part by treatment differences. Conclusion: Our findings implicate graded white matter network alterations across the 3 disorders, enhancing our understanding of shared and distinct pathophysiological mechanisms across diagnoses and providing vital insights into neuroimaging-based methods for diagnosis and research.

3.
Heart Vessels ; 35(1): 78-85, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250132

RESUMO

Lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) contributes to fibrosis in patients with myocardial infarction. However, the role of LMVD in the process of myocardial fibrosis in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) patients is unclear. We studied LMVD in ventricular septal (VS) samples from 52 individuals (42 was HOCM patients who underwent a transaortic extended septal myectomy, and 10 traffic accident victims), and examined the relationships between the LMVD stained immunohistochemically with lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) antibodies, collagen volume fraction (CVF), and clinical characteristics. Compared with traffic accident victims, LMVD was significantly increased in VS of HOCM patients (132.0 ± 49.0 VS 57.8 ± 48.8/mm2, p = 0.000). HOCM patients with syncope had higher level of LMVD than without syncope [166.7 (131.0-201.1) VS 116.4 (80.7-152.1)/mm2, p = 0.017], and LMVD were positively correlated with Log (CVF) (r = 0.431, p = 0.004). On multiple variables regression analysis, LMVD was independently associated with Log (CVF) (r = 0.379, p = 0.009) and syncope (r = 0.335, p = 0.020). In conclusions, the LYVE-1-positive lymphatics have close associations with VS fibrosis in HOCM patients.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 653-659, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is difficult to distinguish bipolar disorder (BD) from major depressive disorder (MDD), especially with the initial depressive episode. In this study, we compared neural activities of BD and MDD patients during the first-episode (FE) to investigate common and distinct neural activities and further explore predictive indicators in the two diseases. METHODS: FE-MDD patients were performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and followed up after scanning. After follow-up, FE-MDD patients were regrouped into FE-BD and FE-MDD patients. The study included 24 FE-BD patients, 28 FE-MDD patients, and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) to investigate neural activities with regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis among the 3 groups. RESULTS: Compared to HC, FE-BD patients displayed significantly higher ReHo values in the superior frontal gyrus, the medial superior frontal gyrus within right-side cerebral hemisphere than FE-MDD patients and HC. Compared to HC, FE-BD and FE-MDD patients displayed significant decreased ReHo values in the paracentral lobule, the precuneus and the median cingulate and paracingulate gyrus within bilateral cerebral hemisphere, and the postcentral gyrus and the precentral gyrus within the right-side. FE-BD displayed significant lower ReHo values than FE-MDD patients in these regions. LIMITATIONS: The potential effects of medicine, age, course of disease and handedness on results could not be ignored. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal neural activities of frontoparietal network may provide common and distinct markers to affective disorders and scientific basis for further prediction researches of affective disorders.

5.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2019: 2579526, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772518

RESUMO

Objectives: We aim to present a new way to introduce reverse wire in crusade microcatheter-facilitated reverse wire technique to solve markedly angulated bifurcated lesions. Background: Markedly angulated coronary bifurcation lesions are still one of the considerable challenges of treatment with percutaneous coronary intervention especially with severe proximal stenosis. Microcatheter-facilitated reverse wire technique improved the efficacy of crossing a guide wire to such an extremely angulated complex targeted vessel. However, there has been a debate regarding what kind of curve was the best to introduce reverse guide wire in this technique. Methods: We analyzed 7 patients who were admitted to Fuwai Hospital and underwent antegrade wiring which failed. Crusade microcatheter-facilitated reverse wire technique with simple short tip one round curve was used successfully to solve in all 7 bifurcation lesions. We investigated the bifurcation lesion's characteristics and details of the reverse wire technique procedures. Results: All 7 bifurcations exhibit both a smaller take-off angle and a larger carina angle and severe proximal significant stenosis. After having suitable size of balloon predilation, reverse wire with simple short distal one curve was delivered to distal segment of targeted vessel successfully. We performed all PCI procedures without any complications and no major adverse cardiac event was observed during hospitalization. Conclusions: In solving markedly angulated bifurcated lesions, especially with severe proximal stenosis, crusade microcatheter-facilitated reverse wire technique with simple short tip one curve is an effective and safe way of wiring.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cateteres Cardíacos , Angiografia Coronária , Oclusão Coronária/terapia , Estenose Coronária/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; : 1-8, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753044

RESUMO

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is enormously important in suicide and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the structural alterations in the brains of people with MDD and suicidal ideation. We examined the gray matter volume (GMV) of the PFC of individuals with MDD and suicidal ideation to determine if PFC volumetric differences contribute to suicidal ideation in patients with MDD. Thirty-five subjects with MDD and suicidal ideation, 38 subjects with MDD but without suicidal ideation, and 43 age- and gender-matched healthy control (HC) subjects underwent T1-weighted imaging. A voxel-based morphometric analysis was conducted to compare the PFC GMVs of the three groups. Further GMV reductions in the left and right dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and right ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) were detected in the MDD with suicidal ideation group compared with those in the HC group and the MDD without suicidal ideation group, whereas the MDD without suicidal ideation group only exhibited significant differences in the left DLPFC relative to the HC group. Our findings demonstrated that left DLPFC reductions were associated with MDD and suicidal ideation, and diminished GMV reductions in the right DLPFC and right VLPFC were only associated with suicidal ideation. These results help us better understand the neuropathological changes in MDD with suicidal ideation.

7.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755957

RESUMO

Psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD), share clinical and neurobiological features. Because previous investigations of functional dysconnectivity have mainly focused on single disorders, the transdiagnostic alterations in the functional connectome architecture of the brain remain poorly understood. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 512 participants, including 121 with SCZ, 100 with BD, 108 with MDD, and 183 healthy controls. Individual functional brain connectomes were constructed in a voxelwise manner, and the modular architectures were examined at different scales, including (1) global modularity, (2) module-specific segregation and intra- and intermodular connections, and (3) nodal participation coefficients. The correlation of these modular measures with clinical scores was also examined. We reliably identify common alterations in modular organization in patients compared to controls, including (1) lower global modularity; (2) lower modular segregation in the frontoparietal, subcortical, visual, and sensorimotor modules driven by more intermodular connections; and (3) higher participation coefficients in several network connectors (the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus) and the thalamus. Furthermore, the alterations in the SCZ group are more widespread than those of the BD and MDD groups and involve more intermodular connections, lower modular segregation and higher connector integrity. These alterations in modular organization significantly correlate with clinical scores in patients. This study demonstrates common hyper-integrated modular architectures of functional brain networks among patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD. These findings reveal a transdiagnostic mechanism of network dysfunction across psychiatric disorders from a connectomic perspective.

8.
Ann Gen Psychiatry ; 18: 20, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528196

RESUMO

Objective: Although many studies have shown that the corpus callosum (CC) may play an important role in bipolar disorder (BD) and suicide, the pathophysiological mechanism of BD underlying suicidal behavior is still unclear. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the CC, and BD and suicidal ideation using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Method: A total of 203 participants (47 BD patients with suicidal ideation, 59 with BD without suicidal ideation, and 97 healthy controls [HC]) underwent DTI scanning at a single site. We examined the white matter integrity of the CC in the three groups. Results: A comparison among groups showed that BD patients with suicidal ideation had significant lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values than those of BD without suicidal ideation and HCs in the body and genu of the CC, and FA values of BD without suicidal ideation were significantly lower than those of HCs. However, in the splenium of corpus callosum, no difference was found between BD without suicidal ideation and HCs. Conclusions: Our findings add to the evidence suggesting that the CC plays a key role in BD with suicidal ideation, especially with respect to the role of the genu and body of the CC subserving emotion regulation.

9.
BMC Mol Cell Biol ; 20(1): 35, 2019 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HPV16 infection is one of the main risk factors involved in the development of cervical cancer, mainly due to the high oncogenic potential of the viral proteins E6 and E7, which are involved in the different processes of malignant transformation. There is a broad spectrum of intratypical variation of E6, which is reflected in its high diversity, biological behavior, global distribution and risk of causing cervical cancer. Experimental studies have shown that the intratypical variants of the protein E6 from the European variants (E-G350, E-A176/G350, E-C188/G350) and Asian-American variants (AAa and AAc), are capable of inducing the differential expression of genes involved in the development of cervical cancer. RESULTS: An in silico analysis was performed to characterize the molecular effects of these variations using the structure of the HPV16 E6 oncoprotein (PDB: 4XR8; chain H) as a template. In particular, we evaluated the 3D structures of the intratypical variants by structural alignment, ERRAT, Ramachandran plots and prediction of protein disorder, which was further validated by molecular dynamics simulations. Our results, in general, showed no significant changes in the protein 3D structure. However, we observed subtle changes in protein physicochemical features and structural disorder in the N- and C-termini. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that mutations in the viral oncogene E6 of six high-risk HPV16 variants are effectively neutral and do not cause significant structural changes except slight variations of structural disorder. As structural disorder is involved in rewiring protein-protein interactions, these results suggest a differential pattern of interaction of E6 with the target protein P53 and possibly different patterns of tumor aggressiveness associated with certain types of variants of the E6 oncoprotein.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Variação Genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/química , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/química , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
10.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 707, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354416

RESUMO

Many previous studies have noticed obvious alterations in different white matter tracts among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Growing evidence also strongly suggest a role of leptin in the pathogenesis of MDD, but with conflicting results of leptin levels. However, no previous studies have examined the relationship between leptin and white matter integrity of patients with MDD. Therefore, we aimed in this study to investigate the relationship between white matter alterations and plasma leptin levels in both drug-naïve and medicated MDD patients. We measured plasma leptin levels and white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and voxel-based analysis (VBA) in 140 participants (40 drug-naïve MDD patients; 40 medicated MDD patients; 60 healthy controls) aged between 18 and 49 years old. A significant reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) value in the dorsomedial thalamus was found for both drug-naïve and medicated MDD patients compared to the healthy non-depressed participants (p < 0.01, corrected). In addition, leptin levels were significantly higher in the drug-naïve MDD patients and were negatively correlated with the detected white matter alteration. Our results suggest that the elevated plasma leptin levels in the drug-naïve MDD group might be associated with the changes of the white matter integrity in the dorsomedial thalamus region.

11.
Psychiatry Res ; 278: 199-204, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220786

RESUMO

Surface-based, two-dimensional regional homogeneity (2dReHo) was used in the current study to compare local functional synchronization of spontaneous neuronal activity between patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy controls (HC), rather than volume-based, three-dimensional regional homogeneity (3dReHo) methods that have been previously described. Seventy-one BD patients and 113 HC participated in structural and resting-state fMRI scans. Participants ranged in age from 12 to 54 years. All subjects were rated with the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. BD patients showed reduced surface-based ReHo across the cortical surface, both at the global level and in the left ventral visual stream (VVS). Additionally, ReHo value across the cortical surface showed a significant negative correlation with age in both groups at the global level. Abnormal activity in the left VVS cortex may contribute to the pathogenesis of BD. Therefore, surface-based ReHo may be a useful index to explore the pathophysiology of BD.

12.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 253, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105603

RESUMO

Background: Cognitive dysfunction is considered a core feature among schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). Despite abundant literature comparing cognitive dysfunction among these disorders, the relationship between cognitive dysfunction and symptom dimensions remains unclear. The study aims are a) to identify the factor structure of the BPRS-18 and b) to examine the relationship between symptom domains and cognitive function across SZ, BD, and MDD. Methods: A total of 716 participants [262 with SZ, 104 with BD, 101 with MDD, and 249 healthy controls (HC)] were included in the study. One hundred eighty participants (59 with SZ, 23 with BD, 24 with MDD, and 74 HC) completed the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), and 507 participants (85 with SZ, 89 with BD, 90 with MDD, and 243 HC) completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). All patients completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Results: We identified five BPRS exploratory factor analysis (EFA) factors ("affective symptoms," "psychosis," "negative/disorganized symptoms," "activation," and "noncooperation") and found cognitive dysfunction in all of the participant groups with psychiatric disorders. Negative/disorganized symptoms were the most strongly associated with cognitive dysfunctions across SZ, BD, and MDD. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that cognitive dysfunction severity relates to the negative/disorganized symptom domain across SZ, BD, and MDD, and negative/disorganized symptoms may be an important target for effective cognitive remediation in SZ, BD, and MDD.

13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 108, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on genome-wide association studies, a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the NRGN gene (rs12807809) is considered associated with schizophrenia (SZ). Moreover, hippocampal dysfunction is associated with rs12807809. In addition, converging evidence suggests that hippocampal dysfunction is involved in SZ pathophysiology. However, the association among rs12807809, hippocampal dysfunction and SZ pathophysiology is unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the association between rs12807809 and hippocampal functional connectivity at rest in SZ. METHODS: In total, 158 participants were studied, including a C-carrier group carrying the non-risk C allele (29 SZ patients and 46 healthy controls) and a TT homozygous group carrying the risk T allele (30 SZ patients and 53 healthy controls). All participants were scanned using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Hippocampal functional connectivity was computed and compared among the 4 groups. RESULTS: Significant main effects of diagnosis were observed in the functional connectivity between the hippocampus and bilateral fusiform gyrus, bilateral lingual gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus, left caudate nucleus, bilateral thalamus and bilateral anterior cingulate gyri. In contrast, no significant main effect of genotype was found. In addition, a significant genotype by diagnosis interaction in the functional connectivity between the hippocampus and left anterior cingulate gyrus, as well as bilateral middle cingulate gyri, was observed, with TT homozygotes with SZ showing less functional connectivity than C-carriers with SZ and healthy control TT homozygotes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are the first to suggest an association between rs12807809 and abnormal Papez circuit function in patients with SZ. This study also implicates NRGN variation and abnormal Papez circuit function in SZ pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Neurogranina/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Adulto , Alelos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Tálamo/patologia
14.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 44(2): 132-141, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810024

RESUMO

Background: Growing evidence indicates both shared and distinct features of emotional perception in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. In these disorders, alterations in spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations have been reported in the neural system for emotional perception, but the similarities and differences in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) across the 3 disorders are unknown. Methods: We compared ALFF and its signal balance in the neural system for emotional perception at 2 frequency bands (slow-5 and slow-4) in 119 participants with schizophrenia, 100 with bipolar disorder, 123 with major depressive disorder and 183 healthy controls. We performed exploratory Pearson partial correlation analyses to determine the relationship between ALFF signal balance and clinical variables. Results: We observed commonalities in ALFF change patterns across the 3 disorders for emotional perception neural substrates, such as increased ALFF in the anterior cerebrum (including subcortical, limbic, paralimbic and heteromodal cortical regions) and decreased ALFF in the posterior visual cortices. Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder showed significantly decreased ALFF signal balance in the neural system for emotional perception at both slow-5 and slow-4 frequency bands, with the greatest alterations for schizophrenia, followed by bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. We found a negative correlation between ALFF signal balance and negative/disorganized symptoms in slow-4 across the 3 disorders. Limitations: The relatively broad age range in our sample and the cross-sectional study design may not account for our findings. Conclusion: The extent of the commonalities we observed further support the concept of core neurobiological disruptions shared among the 3 disorders; ALFF signal balance could be an important neuroimaging marker for the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 30, 2019 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments are prominent in schizophrenia (SZ). Imaging studies have demonstrated that functional changes of several areas of the brain exist in SZ patients. The relationships between these two indexes are largely unexplored in SZ. The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was used to measure cognitive impairment in multi-dimensional cognitive fields of SZ patients. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between cognitive functional impairment and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in SZ patients. METHOD: A total of 104 participants (44 SZ patients and 60 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC)) were recruited for this study. The MCCB was used to assess cognitive function of the participants, while brain activity was assessed using the ALFF. The relationship between the MCCB and the ALFF was investigated by using a correlation analysis. RESULTS: There were significant differences between SZ patients and HC in MCCB total and domain scores as well as in ALFF results. The reduction of ALFF in the bilateral postcentral gyri and paracentral lobule in SZ patients has a negative correlation with the MCCB sub-test of symbol coding. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the reduction of ALFF in bilateral postcentral gyri and paracentral lobule may be related to cognitive impairment in SZ patients.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(7): 2200-2211, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648317

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SZ) is a highly heritable disease with neurodevelopmental origins and significant functional brain network dysfunction. Functional network is heavily influenced by neurodevelopment processes and can be characterized by the degree of segregation and integration. This study examines functional segregation and integration in SZ and their first-degree relatives (high risk [HR]) to better understand the dynamic changes in vulnerability and resiliency, and disease markers. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired from 137 SZ, 89 HR, and 210 healthy controls (HCs). Small-worldness σ was computed at voxel level to quantify balance between segregation and integration. Interregional functional associations were examined based on Euclidean distance between regions and reflect degree of segregation and integration. Distance strength maps were used to localize regions of altered distance-based functional connectivity. σ was significantly decreased in SZ compared to HC, with no differences in high risk (HR). In three-group comparison, significant differences were noted in short-range connectivity (primarily in the primary sensory, motor and their association cortices, and the thalamus) and medium/long-range connectivity (in the prefrontal cortices [PFCs]). Decreased short- and increased medium/long-range connectivity was found in SZ. Decreased short-range connectivity was seen in SZ and HR, while HR had decreased medium/long-range connectivity. We observed disrupted balance between segregation and integration in SZ, whereas relatively preserved in HR. Similarities and differences between SZ and HR, specific changes of SZ were found. These might reflect dynamic changes of segregation in primary cortices and integration in PFCs in vulnerability and resilience, and disease markers in SZ.

17.
Schizophr Res ; 210: 172-179, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685394

RESUMO

Studying individuals at increased genetic risk for schizophrenia may generate important theories regarding the emergence of the illness. In this investigation, genetic high-risk individuals (GHR, n = 37) were assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging and compared to individuals in the first episode of schizophrenia (FESZ, n = 42) and healthy comparison subjects (HCS, n = 59). Measures of functional connectivity and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) were obtained in a global, data-driven analysis. The functional connectivity measure, termed degree centrality, assessed each voxel's connectivity with all the other voxels in the brain. GHR and FESZ displayed increased degree centrality globally and locally. On ALFF measures, GHR were indistinguishable from HCS in the majority of areas but resembled FESZ in insula, basal ganglia and hippocampus. FESZ evidenced reduced amplitude of the global neural signal as compared to HCS and GHR. Results support the hypothesis that schizophrenia diathesis involves functional connectivity and ALFF abnormalities. In addition, they further an emerging theory suggesting that increased connectivity and metabolism may be involved in schizophrenia vulnerability and early stages of the illness.

18.
Schizophr Bull ; 45(2): 450-463, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897593

RESUMO

Brain network alterations have increasingly been implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the similarities and differences in functional brain networks among patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD. A total of 512 participants (121 with SCZ, 100 with BD, 108 with MDD, and 183 healthy controls, matched for age and sex) completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at a single site. Four global measures (the clustering coefficient, the characteristic shortest path length, the normalized clustering coefficient, and the normalized characteristic path length) were computed at a voxel level to quantify segregated and integrated configurations. Inter-regional functional associations were examined based on the Euclidean distance between regions. Distance strength maps were used to localize regions with altered distances based on functional connectivity. Patient groups exhibited shifts in their network architectures toward randomized configurations, with SCZ>BD>MDD in the degree of randomization. Patient groups displayed significantly decreased short-range connectivity and increased medium-/long-range connectivity. Decreases in short-range connectivity were similar across the SZ, BD, and MDD groups and were primarily distributed in the primary sensory and association cortices and the thalamus. Increases in medium-/long-range connectivity were differentially localized within the prefrontal cortices among the patient groups. We highlight shared and distinct connectivity features in functional brain networks among patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD, which expands our understanding of the common and distinct pathophysiological mechanisms and provides crucial insights into neuroimaging-based methods for the early diagnosis of and interventions for psychiatric disorders.

19.
J Affect Disord ; 245: 602-607, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as a neurotrophic factor closely related to depression is able to promote the growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival of multiple neurons. Clinical features, recurrence rates and suicide rates are significant different in major depressive disorder (MDD) according to age. GDNF level changes in the peripheral blood has been reported in patients with MDD. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether GDNF levels differentiated within various age groups and its relationship with age/clinical severity. METHOD: MDD subjects and healthy controls (HC) are divided into younger (age 13-24 years) group (yMDD n = 35, yHC n = 44) and older (age 25-45 years) group (oMDD n = 30, oHC n = 55) based on the age of brain maturity. Clinical symptom severity was evaluated by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA-17). The levels of plasma GDNF were compared within subgroups. RESULTS: Plasma GDNF levels in yMDD patients were significantly decreased compared to yHC (yMDD 1.55 ±â€¯0.46pg/ml, yHC 1.77 ±â€¯0.47pg/ml, p < 0.05). Moreover, such difference was not found between oMDD group and oHC group. Our results also showed negative correlations between plasma GDNF levels and HAMD/HAMA scores (r = -0.33, p < 0.05; r = -0.39, p < 0.05). LIMITATIONS: This study was underpowered to observe dynamic changes between age and GDNF in MDD due to the cross-sectional design of present study. We also failed to divided subjects into more age groups because of moderate sample size. CONCLUSION: The present result showed the level of protective neurotrophic factor GDNF associated with age in MDD, suggesting a relevance between GDNF and MDD subjects abnormal brain development in adolescent and young adult period.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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