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1.
Oncogene ; 40(12): 2323-2334, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654196

RESUMO

Progression of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) constitutes a major unresolved clinical challenge, and effective targeted therapies are lacking. Because microtubule dynamics play pivotal roles in breast cancer metastasis, we performed RNA sequencing on 245 samples from TNBC patients to characterize the landscape of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Here, our transcriptome analyses revealed that low expression of one MAP, tektin4, indicated poor patient outcomes. Tektin4 loss led to a marked increase in TNBC migration, invasion, and metastasis and a decrease in microtubule stability. Mechanistically, we identified a novel microtubule-associated complex containing tektin4 and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). Tektin4 loss increased the interaction between HDAC6 and α-tubulin, thus decreasing microtubule stability through HDAC6-mediated tubulin deacetylation. Significantly, we found that tektin4 loss sensitized TNBC cells, xenograft models, and patient-derived organoid models to the HDAC6-selective inhibitor ACY1215. Furthermore, tektin4 expression levels were positively correlated with microtubule stability levels in clinical samples. Together, our findings uncover a metastasis suppressor function of tektin4 and support clinical development of HDAC6 inhibition as a new therapeutic strategy for tektin4-deficient TNBC patients.

2.
Mol Ther ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677091

RESUMO

An emerging view regarding cancer metabolism is that it is heterogeneous and context-specific, but it remains to be elucidated in breast cancers. In this study, we characterized the energy-related metabolic features of breast cancers through integrative analyses of multiple datasets with genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and single-cell transcriptome profiling. Energy-related metabolic signatures were used to stratify breast tumors into two prognostic clusters: cluster 1 exhibits high glycolytic activity and decreased survival rate, and the signatures of cluster 2 are enriched in fatty acid oxidation and glutaminolysis. The intertumoral metabolic heterogeneity was reflected by the clustering among three independent large cohorts, and the complexity was further verified at the metabolite level. In addition, we found that the metabolic status of malignant cells rather than that of nonmalignant cells is the major contributor at the single-cell resolution, and its interactions with factors derived from the tumor microenvironment are unanticipated. Notably, among various immune cells and their clusters with distinguishable metabolic features, those with immunosuppressive function presented higher metabolic activities. Collectively, we uncovered the heterogeneity in energy metabolism using a classifier with prognostic and therapeutic value. Single-cell transcriptome profiling provided novel metabolic insights that could ultimately tailor therapeutic strategies based on patient- or cell type-specific cancer metabolism.

3.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The alleged benefit of early placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding (AVB) remains controversial. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effect of early TIPS on cirrhotic patients with AVB. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for relevant literatures. Data from included studies were extracted, and random-effects meta-analyses were performed. RESULTS: Three randomized control trials and six observational studies involving 2878 participants were included. Compared with those undergoing standard treatment, patients undergoing early TIPS had a significantly lower all-cause mortality (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.52-0.79). Furthermore, early TIPS was associated with a significantly reduced incidence of failure to control bleeding (RR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.07-0.29) and rebleeding (RR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.23-0.71), without increasing the risk of hepatic encephalopathy (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.92-1.38). In a stratification analysis based on Child-Pugh classification, the survival benefit was observed in Child-Pugh B patients with active bleeding (RR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93) and Child-Pugh C patients (RR 0.55, 95% CI, 0.37-0.82), but not in low-risk patients (Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B without active bleeding) (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.55-1.57). CONCLUSION: Early TIPS is a feasible therapeutic option for cirrhotic patients with AVB, especially benefiting high-risk patients in terms of improved survival. Given the current low utilization rate in clinical practice, this study favors the placement of early TIPS in a wider range of patients with cirrhosis and AVB, especially high-risk patients. KEY POINTS: • Early TIPS is associated with improved survival in high-risk patients (Child-Pugh B plus active bleeding at endoscopy or Child-Pugh C 10-13) with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding. • Current utilization rate of early TIPS is low in clinical practice.

4.
Transplant Rev (Orlando) ; 35(1): 100592, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422927

RESUMO

Background-objectives: Liver transplantation (LT) and combined liver and kidney transplantation (CLKT) have been proposed as enzyme replacement therapies for methylmalonic aciduria (MMA). We aimed to synthesize the available evidence on their safety and efficacy. METHODS: Medline, Embase and Cochrane library were searched to identify studies that reported post-LT/CLKT clinical outcomes of MMA from their inception to February 1, 2020. The pooled rate was calculated using random-effects model with Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation method. RESULTS: Thirty-two studies involving 109 patients were included. The pooled estimate rates were 99.9% (95% CI 95.3-100.0) for patient survival, 98.5% (95% CI 91.5-100.0) for graft survival after LT/CLKT. The combined incidence of biliary, vascular complications and rejection were 0.2% (95% CI 0.0-6.6), 7.7% (95% CI 0.1-22.1) and 18.4% (95% CI 4.6-36.3), respectively. The pooled estimate rates were 100.0% (95% CI 99.4-100.0) for metabolic eradication, 61.5% (95% CI: 33.4-87.0) for normalization of kidney function. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remission is more promising after CLKT (70.3% VS 37.6% in LT group). The pooled estimate rates for neurodevelopmental status improvement and protein intake liberalization were 52.0% (95% CI 2.8-98.8) and 36.3% (95% CI 6.3-71.7), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This first quantitative systematic review confirms favorable survival outcomes and partially improved disease-related complications in transplanted MMA patients, although some results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies with detailed description of long-term outcomes and consensus on neurodevelopmental evaluation method can help provide a more accurate picture.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5679, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173047

RESUMO

The remarkable advances in next-generation sequencing technology have enabled the wide usage of sequencing as a clinical tool. To promote the advance of precision oncology for breast cancer in China, here we report a large-scale prospective clinical sequencing program using the Fudan-BC panel, and comprehensively analyze the clinical and genomic characteristics of Chinese breast cancer. The mutational landscape of 1,134 breast cancers reveals that the most significant differences between Chinese and Western patients occurred in the hormone receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer subtype. Mutations in p53 and Hippo signaling pathways are more prevalent, and 2 mutually exclusive and 9 co-occurring patterns exist among 9 oncogenic pathways in our cohort. Further preclinical investigation partially suggests that NF2 loss-of-function mutations can be sensitive to a Hippo-targeted strategy. We establish a public database (Fudan Portal) and a precision medicine knowledge base for data exchange and interpretation. Collectively, our study presents a leading approach to Chinese precision oncology treatment and reveals potentially actionable mutations in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Neoplasias da Mama , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , China , Gerenciamento de Dados , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neurofibromina 2/genética , Oncogenes , Medicina de Precisão , Estudos Prospectivos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
6.
Cell Metab ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181091

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains an unmet medical challenge. We investigated metabolic dysregulation in TNBCs by using our multi-omics database (n = 465, the largest to date). TNBC samples were classified into three heterogeneous metabolic-pathway-based subtypes (MPSs) with distinct metabolic features: MPS1, the lipogenic subtype with upregulated lipid metabolism; MPS2, the glycolytic subtype with upregulated carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism; and MPS3, the mixed subtype with partial pathway dysregulation. These subtypes were validated by metabolomic profiling of 72 samples. These three subtypes had distinct prognoses, molecular subtype distributions, and genomic alterations. Moreover, MPS1 TNBCs were more sensitive to metabolic inhibitors targeting fatty acid synthesis, whereas MPS2 TNBCs showed higher sensitivity to inhibitors targeting glycolysis. Importantly, inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase could enhance tumor response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in MPS2 TNBCs. Collectively, our analysis demonstrated the metabolic heterogeneity of TNBCs and enabled the development of personalized therapies targeting unique tumor metabolic profiles.

7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The germline variant spectrum of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is different from that of other subtypes and has demonstrated ethnic differences. However, the germline variants of TNBC among Chinese patients and its clinical significance remain unclear. METHODS: Using our multi-omics TNBC cohort (n = 325), we determined the spectrum of germline variants in TNBC and aimed to illustrate their biological and clinical implications. RESULTS: Overall, 16.0% (52 of 325) of TNBC patients harbored at least one pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline variant. These germline variants were associated with early-onset of TNBC, the occurrence of contralateral breast cancer, the basal-like immune-suppressed mRNA subtype, and the homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) mutation subtype. Somatic allele-specific imbalance was observed in 54.1% of these germline variants, which was correlated with early-onset of breast cancer and elevated HRD. BRCA1 (7.4%), RAD51D (2.8%) and BRCA2 (2.2%) were the genes most frequently mutated. RAD51D germline variants, especially K91fs, were enriched in Chinese patients with TNBC compared to Caucasian and African American patients. The Chinese-specific RAD51D germline variants were functionally associated with the instability of the RAD51D protein, HRD and sensitivity to PARP inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese TNBC patients have a distinct spectrum of germline variants, with a remarkable impact on the clinical and molecular characteristics of the tumor. Integrative germline-somatic analysis may help in identifying TNBC patients who are most likely to be affected by their germline variants and in performing clinical interventions more precisely. The RAD51D variants enriched in our cohort may serve as therapeutic targets and guide precision treatment of TNBC.

8.
Theranostics ; 10(24): 10940-10956, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042263

RESUMO

Background: Taxanes are frontline chemotherapeutic drugs for patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC); however, chemoresistance reduces their effectiveness. We hypothesized that the molecular profiling of tumor samples before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) would help identify genes associated with drug resistance. Methods: We sequenced 10 samples by RNA-seq from 8 NAC patients with TNBC: 3 patients with a pathologic complete response (pCR) and the other 5 with non-pCR. Differentially expressed genes that predicted chemotherapy response were selected for in vitro functional screening via a small-scale siRNAs pool. The clinical and functional significance of the gene of interest in TNBC was further investigated in vitro and in vivo, and biochemical assays and imaging analysis were applied to study the mechanisms. Results: Synaptotagmin-like 4 (SYTL4), a Rab effector in vesicle transport, was identified as a leading functional candidate. High SYTL4 expression indicated a poor prognosis in multiple TNBC cohorts, specifically in taxane-treated TNBCs. SYTL4 was identified as a novel chemoresistant gene as validated in TNBC cells, a mouse model and patient-derived organoids. Mechanistically, downregulating SYTL4 stabilized the microtubule network and slowed down microtubule growth rate. Furthermore, SYTL4 colocalized with microtubules and interacted with microtubules through its middle region containing the linker and C2A domain. Finally, we found that SYTL4 was able to bind microtubules and inhibit the in vitro microtubule polymerization. Conclusion: SYTL4 is a novel chemoresistant gene in TNBC and its upregulation indicates poor prognosis in taxane-treated TNBC. Further, SYTL4 directly binds microtubules and decreases microtubule stability.

9.
Theranostics ; 10(24): 11092-11109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042272

RESUMO

Rationale: Paclitaxel resistance is a major concern when treating triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. We aimed to identify candidates causing paclitaxel resistance and explore their significance in TNBC therapeutics. Methods: A genome-wide CRISPR screening, integrated with transcriptome analyses, was performed to identify candidates involved in paclitaxel-resistant TNBCs. Cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, immunofluorescent staining, and xenograft assays were conducted to verify the phenotypes of paclitaxel resistance induced by candidate genes, both in vitro and in vivo. RNA sequencing, Western blotting, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to explore the underlying mechanisms. Results: MEF2-interacting transcriptional repressor (MITR), the truncated isoform of histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) lacking the deacetylation domain, was enriched in paclitaxel-resistant cells. Elevated MITR expression resulted in increased interleukin-11 (IL11) expression and activation of downstream JAK/STAT3 signaling. Mechanistically, MITR counteracted MEF2A-induced transcriptional suppression of IL11, ultimately causing paclitaxel resistance. By contrast, pharmacological inhibition of JAK1/2 by ruxolitinib reversed paclitaxel resistance both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: Our in vitro and in vivo genetic and cellular analyses elucidated the pivotal role of MITR/MEF2A/IL11 axis in paclitaxel resistance and provided a novel therapeutic strategy for TNBC patients to overcome poor chemotherapy responses.

10.
Transplantation ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The worldwide experience of liver transplantation (LT) in the treatment of propionic acidemia (PA) remains limited and fragmented. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of post-transplant clinical outcomes in PA patients. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies focusing on PA patients who underwent LT. The pooled estimate rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model with Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies involving 70 individuals were included. The pooled estimate rates were 0.95 (95% CI, 0.80-1.00) for patient survival and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.72-1.00) for allograft survival. The pooled estimate rates were 0.20 (95% CI, 0.05-0.39) for rejection, 0.08 (95% CI, 0.00-0.21) for hepatic artery thrombosis, 0.14 (95% CI, 0.00-0.37) for cytomegalovirus/Epstein-Barr virus infection and 0.03 (95% CI, 0.00-0.15) for biliary complications. The pooled estimate rates were 0.98 (95% CI, 0.88-1.00) for metabolic stability, 1.00 (95% CI, 0.79-1.00) for reversal of pre-existing cardiomyopathy and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.78-1.00) for improvement of neurodevelopmental delay. A large proportion of patients achieved liberalization of protein intake posttransplant [pooled estimate rate 0.66 (95% CI, 0.35-0.93)]. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the risk of transplant-related complications, LT is a viable therapeutic option in PA patients, with satisfactory survival rates and clinical outcomes. Given the diversity in neurological assessment methods and the inconsistency in achievement of dietary protein liberalization across different studies, consensus on neurological evaluation methods and post-transplant protein intake is necessary. Longer-term clinical outcomes of LT for PA warrants further investigation.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975708

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Resistance to paclitaxel remains a major challenge in treating breast cancer. Our preclinical study suggested that TEKT4 germline variations in breast cancer are associated with paclitaxel resistance and increase vinorelbine sensitivity. This clinical trial compared the efficacy of paclitaxel and vinorelbine in breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: In this open-label, single-center, phase II trial, female patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative, stage IIB-IIIC breast cancer harboring TEKT4 germline variations were randomly assigned to the paclitaxel plus epirubicin (PE) or vinorelbine plus epirubicin (NE). The primary endpoint was the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate, and the secondary endpoints were the objective response rate (ORR) and safety. Targeted sequencing of a panel comprising 484 breast-related genes was performed to identify pCR-associated somatic mutations in each group. RESULTS: 91 Patients were assigned to PE (46 patients) or NE (45 patients). NE numerically increased the pCR rate (22.2% versus 8.7%, P = 0.074). The ORRs for NE and PE were 82.2% and 76.1%, respectively. Interestingly, NE (15.4%) showed a significantly higher pCR rate than PE (0%) in the hormone receptor (HR)-positive subgroup (P = 0.044). Both regimens were well tolerated, with grade 3 and 4 toxicities reported at the expected levels. The biomarker analysis showed that UNC13D mutation predicted the pCR rate in NE (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Although the primary endpoint was not met, NE might bring clinical benefit to HR-positive patients or patients simultaneously carrying UNC13D mutations.

12.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 419, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy is becoming an emerging therapeutic option for chronic liver disease (CLD). However, whether stem cell therapy is more effective than conventional treatment remains questionable. We performed a large-scale meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the therapeutic effects and safety of stem cell therapy for CLD. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and ClinicalTrials.gov databases for the period from inception through March 16, 2020. Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and adverse events related to stem cell therapy. Secondary outcomes included the model for end-stage liver disease score, total bilirubin, albumin, alanine aminotransferase, prothrombin activity, and international normalized ratio. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Twenty-four RCTs were included and the majority of these studies showed a high risk of bias. The meta-analysis indicated that compared with conventional treatment, stem cell therapy was associated with improved survival and liver function including the model of end-stage liver disease score, total bilirubin, and albumin levels. However, it had no obvious beneficial effects on alanine aminotransferase level, prothrombin activity, and international normalized ratio. Subgroup analyses showed stem cell therapy conferred a short-term survival benefit for patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), a single injection was more effective than multiple injections, hepatic arterial infusion was more effective than intravenous infusion, and bone marrow-derived stem cells were more effective than those derived from the umbilical cord. Thirteen trials reported adverse events related to stem cell therapy, but no serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Stem cell therapy is a safe and effective therapeutic option for CLD, while patients with ACLF benefit the most in terms of improved short-term survival. A single injection administration of bone marrow-derived stem cells via the hepatic artery has superior therapeutic effects.

13.
Genes Dev ; 34(19-20): 1310-1315, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943575

RESUMO

SNAI2/SLUG, a metastasis-promoting transcription factor, is a labile protein that is degraded through the ubiquitin proteasome degradation system. Here, we conducted comprehensive gain- and loss-of-function screens using a human DUB cDNA library of 65 genes and an siRNA library of 98 genes, and identified USP20 as a deubiquitinase (DUB) that regulates SNAI2 ubiquitination and stability. Further investigation of USP20 demonstrated its function in promoting migration, invasion, and metastasis of breast cancer. USP20 positively correlates with SNAI2 protein level in breast tumor samples, and higher USP20 expression is associated with poor prognosis in ER- breast cancer patients.

14.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803712

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains the most aggressive cluster of all breast cancers, which is due to its rapid progression, high probabilities of early recurrence, and distant metastasis resistant to standard treatment. Following the advances in cancer genomics and transcriptomics that can illustrate the comprehensive profiling of this heterogeneous disease, it is now possible to identify different subclasses of TNBC according to both intrinsic signals and extrinsic microenvironment, which have a huge influence on predicting response to established therapies and picking up novel therapeutic targets for each cluster. In this review, we summarize basic characteristics and critical subtyping systems of TNBC, and particularly discuss newly found prospective targets and relevant medications, which were proved promising in clinical trials, thus shedding light on the future development of precision treatment strategies.

15.
Mol Cancer ; 19(1): 120, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762681

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment is highly complex, and immune escape is currently considered an important hallmark of cancer, largely contributing to tumor progression and metastasis. Named for their capability of killing target cells autonomously, natural killer (NK) cells serve as the main effector cells toward cancer in innate immunity and are highly heterogeneous in the microenvironment. Most current treatment options harnessing the tumor microenvironment focus on T cell-immunity, either by promoting activating signals or suppressing inhibitory ones. The limited success achieved by T cell immunotherapy highlights the importance of developing new-generation immunotherapeutics, for example utilizing previously ignored NK cells. Although tumors also evolve to resist NK cell-induced cytotoxicity, cytokine supplement, blockade of suppressive molecules and genetic engineering of NK cells may overcome such resistance with great promise in both solid and hematological malignancies. In this review, we summarized the fundamental characteristics and recent advances of NK cells within tumor immunometabolic microenvironment, and discussed potential application and limitations of emerging NK cell-based therapeutic strategies in the era of presicion medicine.

16.
Cell Res ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719455

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous disease, and molecular subtyping may result in improved diagnostic precision and targeted therapies. Our previous study classified TNBCs into four subtypes with putative therapeutic targets. Here, we conducted the FUTURE trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03805399), a phase Ib/II subtyping-based and genomic biomarker-guided umbrella trial, to evaluate the efficacy of these targets. Patients with refractory metastatic TNBC were enrolled and stratified by TNBC subtypes and genomic biomarkers, and assigned to one of these seven arms: (A) pyrotinib with capecitabine, (B) androgen receptor inhibitor with CDK4/6 inhibitor, (C) anti PD-1 with nab-paclitaxel, (D) PARP inhibitor included, (E) and (F) anti-VEGFR included, or (G) mTOR inhibitor with nab-paclitaxel. The primary end point was the objective response rate (ORR). We enrolled 69 refractory metastatic TNBC patients with a median of three previous lines of therapy (range, 1-8). Objective response was achieved in 20 (29.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 18.7%-41.2%) of the 69 intention-to-treat (ITT) patients. Our results showed that immunotherapy (arm C), in particular, achieved the highest ORR (52.6%, 95% CI: 28.9%-75.6%) in the ITT population. Arm E demonstrated favorable ORR (26.1%, 95% CI: 10.2%-48.4% in the ITT population) but with more high grade (≥ 3) adverse events. Somatic mutations of TOP2A and CD8 immunohistochemical score may have the potential to predict immunotherapy response in the immunomodulatory subtype of TNBC. In conclusion, the phase Ib/II FUTURE trial suggested a new concept for TNBC treatment, demonstrating the clinical benefit of subtyping-based targeted therapy for refractory metastatic TNBC.

17.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 18: 367-375, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665963

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new type of pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. COVID-19 is affecting millions of patients, and the infected number keeps increasing. SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious, has a long incubation period, and causes a relatively high death rate, resulting in severe health problems all over the world. Currently there is no effective proven drug for the treatment of COVID-19; therefore, development of effective therapeutic drugs to suppress SARS-CoV-2 infection is urgently needed. In this review, we first summarize the structure and genome features of SARS-CoV-2 and introduce its infection and replication process. Then, we review the clinical symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options of COVID-19 patients. We further discuss the potential molecular targets and drug development strategies for treatment of the emerging COVID-19. Finally, we summarize clinical trials of some potential therapeutic drugs and the results of vaccine development. This review provides some insights for the treatment of COVID-19.

18.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 154, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with isolated methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) usually experience recurrent episodes of acute metabolic decompensation or metabolic stroke, require frequent hospitalization, and have a relatively high mortality rate. The aim of our study was to assess factors predicting the in-hospital death of pediatric patients with isolated MMA. We performed a retrospective study using data from the Hospital Quality Monitoring System, a national inpatient database in China collected from 2013 to 2017. All patients under 18 years old with a diagnosis of isolated MMA were included. Demographic, hospital-related, and clinical features were collected. Poisson regression was performed to identify potential influencing variables associated with in-hospital death. RESULTS: From 2013 to 2017, among 2317 admissions for pediatric patients diagnosed with isolated MMA, 1.77% had the outcome of death. In the univariate analysis, patients aged under 1 year had a higher risk of death than did those aged 1 year or older (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36-5.07). There was a higher risk of in-hospital death for patients admitted through emergency departments or via referrals than for those admitted through other routes (OR = 3.76, 95% CI: 1.84-7.67). Deaths were higher in hospitals with volumes of less than 50 patients with isolated MMA during the five study years (OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.46-5.83). Moreover, the risk of in-hospital death gradually decreased over time (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.57-0.90). In the multivariate analysis, the abovementioned associations with the risk of in-hospital death remained statistically significant. However, no significant associations were observed between specific clinical signs and in-hospital death in either the univariate or the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Younger age, admission to hospitals with low patient volumes, and admission through emergency departments or referrals are associated with higher risk of in-hospital death. The co-existence of specific clinical signs appears to have no effect on in-hospital death.

19.
Cancer ; 126(14): 3209-3218, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age at the time of breast cancer diagnosis not only predicts clinical outcome but also indicates distinct molecular characteristics that provide the rationale for appropriate treatment strategies. However, to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding the molecular profile and biological basis of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) occurring in young and elderly patients. METHODS: Using the study institution's largest, single-center, multiomics TNBC data set, the authors analyzed the clinical and genomic features of young (aged ≤39 years) and elderly (aged ≥65 years) patients with TNBC. RESULTS: In the current study, a total of 50 patients, 354 patients, and 69 patients, respectively, were grouped as young, intermediate, and elderly patients with TNBC. Young patients with TNBC had worse short-term survival, upregulation of DNA repair, cell cycle and RNA metabolism gene sets, frequent pathogenic germline variants, and predominant homologous recombination deficiency-related mutational signatures. Several copy number alterations also were found to be enriched in young patients with TNBC. Nearly one-half of the TNBC cases in elderly patients were of the luminal androgen receptor subtype. TNBC in elderly patients was identified as being associated with severe fibrosis; a lower Ki-67 index; and somatic mutations in PIK3CA, KMT2D, ERBB2, ERBB3, and their corresponding pathways. Elderly patients with TNBC also were more likely to harbor targetable mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study indicated that young patients with TNBC had an enhanced cell cycle, which may have helped to explain their inferior short-term survival, whereas the homologous recombination deficiency and enriched pathogenic germline variants observed among young patients with TNBC suggested the need for genetic counseling and testing, as well as the potential use of DNA damage agents and poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Molecular characteristics of elderly patients with TNBC, although suggesting less response to chemotherapy, provided a rationale for the routine detection of actionable somatic mutations.

20.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(6): 701-715, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424275

RESUMO

Acquired therapy resistance is a major problem for anticancer treatment, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Using an established breast cancer cellular model, we show that endocrine resistance is associated with enhanced phenotypic plasticity, indicated by a general downregulation of luminal/epithelial differentiation markers and upregulation of basal/mesenchymal invasive markers. Consistently, similar gene expression changes are found in clinical breast tumours and patient-derived xenograft samples that are resistant to endocrine therapies. Mechanistically, the differential interactions between oestrogen receptor α and other oncogenic transcription factors, exemplified by GATA3 and AP1, drive global enhancer gain/loss reprogramming, profoundly altering breast cancer transcriptional programs. Our functional studies in multiple culture and xenograft models reveal a coordinated role of GATA3 and AP1 in re-organizing enhancer landscapes and regulating cancer phenotypes. Collectively, our study suggests that differential high-order assemblies of transcription factors on enhancers trigger genome-wide enhancer reprogramming, resulting in transcriptional transitions that promote tumour phenotypic plasticity and therapy resistance.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Reprogramação Celular , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/farmacologia , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/genética , Ativação Transcricional , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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