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1.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478055

RESUMO

Unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy characterized by foci in the unilateral temporal lobe grey matters of regions such as the hippocampus. However, it remains unclear how the functional features of white matter are altered in TLE. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on 71 left TLE (LTLE) patients, 79 right TLE (RTLE) patients and 47 healthy controls (HC). Clustering analysis was used to identify fourteen white matter networks (WMN). The functional connectivity (FC) was calculated among WMNs and between WMNs and grey matter. Furthermore, the FC laterality of hemispheric WMNs was assessed. First, both patient groups showed decreased FCs among WMNs. Specifically, cerebellar white matter illustrated decreased FCs with the cerebral superficial WMNs, implying a dysfunctional interaction between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex in TLE. Second, the FCs between WMNs and the ipsilateral hippocampus (grey matter foci) were also reduced in patient groups, which may suggest insufficient functional integration in unilateral TLE. Interestingly, RTLE showed more severe abnormalities of white matter FCs, including links to the bilateral hippocampi and temporal white matter, than LTLE. Taken together, these findings provide functional evidence of white matter abnormalities, extending the understanding of the pathological mechanism of white matter impairments in unilateral TLE.

3.
Schizophr Res ; 236: 29-37, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain dynamics abnormalities in the triple-network, which involves the salience network (SN), the default mode network (DMN) and the central executive network (CEN), have been reported in schizophrenia. However, it remains to be clarified how antipsychotics affect dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) within the triple-network and whether differences in clinical outcomes are associated with varying levels of network model dysfunction. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 64 first-episode schizophrenia patients (SZ) and 67 healthy controls (HC). All patients were scanned before and after 12-week antipsychotic treatment and the HC were scanned only at baseline. RESULTS: At baseline, SZ participants showed significantly reduced dynamic functional interactions across the triple-network compared to HC. The SZ group displayed a pattern of reduction in resting-state DFC among the triple-network compared with HC. After medication, the mean dynamic network interaction index (dNII) value was improved. A significant quadratic relation was observed between longitudinal change of mean dNII and the reduction ratio of PANSS total score within the SZ group. The DFC within inter-network (between DMN and SN, and between DMN and CEN) and intra-network connections of DMN were significantly higher relative to baseline. Intra-SN DFC, intra-DMN DFC and DFC between SN and DMN were found to be predictive of clinical features at baseline. Intra-CEN DFC and DFC between DMN and CEN were predictive of treatment response. CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant brain dynamics in the triple-network could be regulated with medication. DFC organization in the triple network was found to predict the clinical outcome.

4.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe psychiatric disorder typically characterized by multidimensional psychotic syndromes. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment option for medication-resistant patients with SZ or to resolve acute symptoms. Although the efficacy of ECT has been demonstrated in clinical use, its therapeutic mechanisms in the brain remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to summarize brain changes on structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) after ECT. METHODS: According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review was carried out. The PubMed and Medline databases were systematically searched using the following medical subject headings (MeSH): (electroconvulsive therapy OR ECT) AND (schizophrenia) AND (MRI OR fMRI OR DTI OR DWI). RESULTS: This review yielded 12 MRI studies, including 4 with sMRI, 5 with fMRI and 3 with multimodal MRI. Increases in volumes of the hippocampus and its adjacent regions (parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala) as well as insula and frontotemporal regions were noted after ECT. fMRI studies found ECT-induced changes in different brain regions/networks, including the hippocampus, amygdala, default model network, salience network and other regions/networks that are thought to highly correlate with the pathophysiologic characteristics of SZ. The results of the correlation between brain changes and symptom remissions are inconsistent Conclusion: Our review provides evidence supporting ECT-induced brain changes on sMRI and fMRI in SZ and explores the relationship between these changes and symptom remission.

5.
Schizophr Bull ; 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313782

RESUMO

Cortical thickness reductions are evident in schizophrenia (SZ). Associations between antipsychotic medications (APMs) and cortical morphometry have been explored in SZ patients. This raises the question of whether the reconfiguration of morphological architecture by APM plays potential compensatory roles for abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was obtained from 127 medication-naive first-episode SZ patients and 133 matched healthy controls. Patients received 12 weeks of APM and were categorized as responders (n = 75) or nonresponders (NRs, n = 52) at follow-up. Using surface-based morphometry and structural covariance (SC) analysis, this study investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on cortical thickness and cortico-cortical covariance. Global efficiency was computed to characterize network integration of the large-scale structural connectome. The relationship between covariance and cortical thinning was examined by SC analysis among the top-n regions with thickness reduction. Widespread cortical thickness reductions were observed in pre-APM patients. Post-APM patients showed more reductions in cortical thickness, even in the frontotemporal regions without baseline reductions. Covariance analysis revealed strong cortico-cortical covariance and higher network integration in responders than in NRs. For the NRs, some of the prefrontal and temporal nodes were not covariant between the top-n regions with cortical thickness reduction. Antipsychotic effects are not restricted to a single brain region but rather exhibit a network-level covariance pattern. Neuroimaging connectomics highlights the positive effects of antipsychotics on the reconfiguration of brain architecture, suggesting that abnormalities in regional morphology may be compensated by increasing interregional covariance when symptoms are controlled by antipsychotics.

6.
Neuroimage Clin ; 31: 102714, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the structural and functional reorganization of contralateral hippocampus in patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) who achieved seizure-freedom after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL). METHODS: We obtained high-resolution structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI data in 28 unilateral mTLE patients and 29 healthy controls. Patients were scanned before and three and 24 months after surgery while controls were scanned only once. Hippocampal gray matter volume (GMV) and functional connectivity (FC) were assessed. RESULTS: No obvious GMV changes were observed in contralateral hippocampus before and after successful surgery. Before surgery, ipsilateral hippocampus showed increased FC with ipsilateral insula (INS) and temporoparietal junction (TPJ), but decreased FC with widespread bilateral regions, as well as contralateral hippocampus. After successful ATL, contralateral hippocampus showed: (1) decreased FC with ipsilateral INS at three months follow-up, without further changes; (2) decreased FC with ipsilateral TPJ, postcentral gyrus and rolandic operculum at three months, with an obvious increase at 24 months follow-up; (3) increased FC with bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and superior frontal gyrus (SFG) at three months follow-up, without further changes. CONCLUSIONS: Successful ATL may not lead to an obvious structural reorganization in contralateral hippocampus. Surgical manipulation may lead to a transient FC reduction of contralateral hippocampus. Increased FC between contralateral hippocampus and bilateral MPFC and SFG may be related to postoperative functional remodeling.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Lobectomia Temporal Anterior , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Substância Cinzenta , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
7.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(12): 4022-4034, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110075

RESUMO

White matter (WM) microstructure deficit may be an underlying factor in the brain dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, WM dysfunction is unclear in schizophrenia. This study aimed to investigate the association between structural deficits and functional disturbances in major WM tracts in schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and DTI, we developed the skeleton-based WM functional analysis, which could achieve voxel-wise function-structure coupling by projecting the fMRI signals onto a skeleton in WM. We measured the fractional anisotropy (FA) and WM low-frequency oscillation (LFO) and their couplings in 93 schizophrenia patients and 122 healthy controls (HCs). An independent open database (62 schizophrenia patients and 71 HCs) was used to test the reproducibility. Finally, associations between WM LFO and five behaviour assessment categories (cognition, emotion, motor, personality and sensory) were examined. This study revealed a reversed pattern of structure and function in frontotemporal tracts, as follows. (a) WM hyper-LFO was associated with reduced FA in schizophrenia. (b) The function-structure association was positive in HCs but negative in schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, function-structure dissociation was exacerbated by long illness duration and severe negative symptoms. (c) WM activations were significantly related to cognition and emotion. This study indicated function-structure dys-coupling, with higher LFO and reduced structural integration in frontotemporal WM, which may reflect a potential mechanism in WM neuropathologic processing of schizophrenia.

8.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021560

RESUMO

Understanding the functional consequence of noncoding variants is of great interest. Though genome-wide association studies or quantitative trait locus analyses have identified variants associated with traits or molecular phenotypes, most of them are located in the noncoding regions, making the identification of causal variants a particular challenge. Existing computational approaches developed for prioritizing noncoding variants produce inconsistent and even conflicting results. To address these challenges, we propose a novel statistical learning framework, which directly integrates the precomputed functional scores from representative scoring methods. It will maximize the usage of integrated methods by automatically learning the relative contribution of each method and produce an ensemble score as the final prediction. The framework consists of two modes. The first 'context-free' mode is trained using curated causal regulatory variants from a wide range of context and is applicable to predict regulatory variants of unknown and diverse context. The second 'context-dependent' mode further improves the prediction when the training and testing variants are from the same context. By evaluating the framework via both simulation and empirical studies, we demonstrate that it outperforms integrated scoring methods and the ensemble score successfully prioritizes experimentally validated regulatory variants in multiple risk loci.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 288: 23-30, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although previous studies have revealed that dysfunctional brain organization is associated with internet gamingdisorder (IGD), the neuroanatomical basis that underlies IGD remains elusive. In this work, we aimed to investigate gray matter (GM) volume alterations and structural covariance patterns in relation to IGD severity. METHODS: Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from two hundred and thirty young adults encompassing a wide range of IGD severity. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was applied to examine GM volume changes associated with IGD severity. Furthermore, the organization of whole-brain structural covariance network (SCN) was analyzed using the regions identified as seeds from VBM analysis. RESULTS: Individuals with greater IGD severity had increased GM volumes in the midline components of the default mode network (DMN), namely, the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and precuneus. More importantly, the SCN results revealed impaired patterns of structural covariance between the DMN-related regions and areas associated with visuospatial attention and reward craving processing as the addiction severity of IGD worsened. LIMITATIONS: Only young Chinese adults were enrolled in our study andthe extent to which findings generalize to samples in other age groups and diverse cultures is unclear. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed volume expansion of the DMN components and its weakened structural association with visuospatial attention and motivational craving regions with increasing IGD severity. This study deepens our understanding of the underlying neuroanatomical correlates of IGD, which may help to explain why some individuals are more vulnerable to compulsive gaming usage than others.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Rede de Modo Padrão , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100581, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771559

RESUMO

The formation of UV-induced DNA damage and its repair are influenced by many factors that modulate lesion formation and the accessibility of repair machinery. However, it remains unknown which genomic sites are prioritized for immediate repair after UV damage induction, and whether these prioritized sites overlap with hotspots of UV damage. We identified the super hotspots subject to the earliest repair for (6-4) pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproduct by using the eXcision Repair-sequencing (XR-seq) method. We further identified super coldspots for (6-4) pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproduct repair and super hotspots for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair by analyzing available XR-seq time-course data. By integrating datasets of XR-seq, Damage-seq, adductSeq, and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer-seq, we show that neither repair super hotspots nor repair super coldspots overlap hotspots of UV damage. Furthermore, we demonstrate that repair super hotspots are significantly enriched in frequently interacting regions and superenhancers. Finally, we report our discovery of an enrichment of cytosine in repair super hotspots and super coldspots. These findings suggest that local DNA features together with large-scale chromatin features contribute to the orders of magnitude variability in the rates of UV damage repair.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genoma Humano/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Dímeros de Pirimidina/metabolismo
11.
Redox Biol ; 41: 101942, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770521

RESUMO

Sorafenib is a first-line molecular-target drug for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its clinical effects are still limited. In this study we identify Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) acting as a cellular pro-oxidant, specifically in the context of sorafenib treatment of HCC. QSOX1 disrupts redox homoeostasis and sensitizes HCC cells to oxidative stress by inhibiting activation of the master antioxidant transcription factor NRF2. A negative correlation between QSOX1 and NRF2 expression was validated in tumor tissues from 151 HCC patients. Mechanistically, QSOX1 restrains EGF-induced EGFR activation by promoting ubiquitination-mediated degradation of EGFR and accelerating its intracellular endosomal trafficking, leading to suppression of NRF2 activity. Additionally, QSOX1 potentiates sorafenib-induced ferroptosis by suppressing NRF2 in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the data presented identify QSOX1 as a novel candidate target for sorafenib-based combination therapeutic strategies in HCC or other EGFR-dependent tumor types.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Ferroptose , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Receptores ErbB , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Oxirredutases , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo Enxofre , Sorafenibe
12.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(1): 416-427, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925417

RESUMO

Recent advances in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) enable characterization of transcriptomic profiles with single-cell resolution and circumvent averaging artifacts associated with traditional bulk RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data. Here, we propose SCDC, a deconvolution method for bulk RNA-seq that leverages cell-type specific gene expression profiles from multiple scRNA-seq reference datasets. SCDC adopts an ENSEMBLE method to integrate deconvolution results from different scRNA-seq datasets that are produced in different laboratories and at different times, implicitly addressing the problem of batch-effect confounding. SCDC is benchmarked against existing methods using both in silico generated pseudo-bulk samples and experimentally mixed cell lines, whose known cell-type compositions serve as ground truths. We show that SCDC outperforms existing methods with improved accuracy of cell-type decomposition under both settings. To illustrate how the ENSEMBLE framework performs in complex tissues under different scenarios, we further apply our method to a human pancreatic islet dataset and a mouse mammary gland dataset. SCDC returns results that are more consistent with experimental designs and that reproduce more significant associations between cell-type proportions and measured phenotypes.

13.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(3)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672832

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms are oscillations of behavior, physiology and metabolism in many organisms. Recent advancements in omics technology make it possible for genome-wide profiling of circadian rhythms. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of seven existing algorithms commonly used for circadian rhythm detection. Using gold-standard circadian and non-circadian genes, we systematically evaluated the accuracy and reproducibility of the algorithms on empirical datasets generated from various omics platforms under different experimental designs. We also carried out extensive simulation studies to test each algorithm's robustness to key variables, including sampling patterns, replicates, waveforms, signal-to-noise ratios, uneven samplings and missing values. Furthermore, we examined the distributions of the nominal $P$-values under the null and raised issues with multiple testing corrections using traditional approaches. With our assessment, we provide method selection guidelines for circadian rhythm detection, which are applicable to different types of high-throughput omics data.

14.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(3)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406914

RESUMO

With the development and decreasing cost of next-generation sequencing technologies, the study of the human microbiome has become a rapid expanding research field, which provides an unprecedented opportunity in various clinical applications such as drug response predictions and disease diagnosis. It is thus essential and desirable to build a prediction model for clinical outcomes based on microbiome data that usually consist of taxon abundance and a phylogenetic tree. Importantly, all microbial species are not uniformly distributed in the phylogenetic tree but tend to be clustered at different phylogenetic depths. Therefore, the phylogenetic tree represents a unique correlation structure of microbiome, which can be an important prior to improve the prediction performance. However, prediction methods that consider the phylogenetic tree in an efficient and rigorous way are under-developed. Here, we develop a novel deep learning prediction method MDeep (microbiome-based deep learning method) to predict both continuous and binary outcomes. Conceptually, MDeep designs convolutional layers to mimic taxonomic ranks with multiple convolutional filters on each convolutional layer to capture the phylogenetic correlation among microbial species in a local receptive field and maintain the correlation structure across different convolutional layers via feature mapping. Taken together, the convolutional layers with its built-in convolutional filters capture microbial signals at different taxonomic levels while encouraging local smoothing and preserving local connectivity induced by the phylogenetic tree. We use both simulation studies and real data applications to demonstrate that MDeep outperforms competing methods in both regression and binary classifications. Availability and Implementation: MDeep software is available at https://github.com/lichen-lab/MDeep Contact:chen61@iu.edu.

15.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 143(3): 261-270, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the dynamic changes of gray matter volume and intrinsic brain activity following anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) who achieved seizure-free for 2 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High-resolution T1-weighted MRI and resting-state functional MRI data were obtained in ten mTLE patients at five serial timepoints: before surgery, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. The gray matter volume (GMV) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were compared among the five scans to depict the dynamic changes after ATL. RESULTS: After successful ATL, GMV decreased in several ipsilateral brain regions: ipsilateral insula, thalamus, and putamen showed gradual gray matter atrophy from 3 to 24 months, while ipsilateral superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus, caudate nucleus, lingual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus showed significant GMV decrease at 3 months follow-up, without further changes. Ipsilateral insula showed gradual ALFF decrease from 3 to 24 months after surgery. Ipsilateral superior temporal gyrus showed ALFF decrease at 3 months follow-up, without further changes. Ipsilateral thalamus and cerebellar vermis showed obvious ALFF increase after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical resection may lead to a short-term reduction of gray matter volume and intrinsic brain activity in neighboring regions, while the progressive gray matter atrophy may be due to possible intrinsic mechanism of mTLE. Dynamic ALFF changes provide evidence that disrupted focal spontaneous activities were reorganized after successful surgery.


Assuntos
Lobectomia Temporal Anterior/métodos , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/patologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Adulto , Atrofia/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging characteristics have demonstrated disrupted functional organization in schizophrenia (SZ), involving large-scale networks within grey matter (GM). However, previous studies have ignored the role of white matter (WM) in supporting brain function. METHODS: Using resting-state functional MRI and graph theoretical approaches, we investigated global topological disruptions of large-scale WM and GM networks in 93 SZ patients and 122 controls. Six global properties [clustering coefficient (Cp), shortest path length (Lp), local efficiency (Eloc), small-worldness (σ), hierarchy (ß) and synchronization (S) and three nodal metrics [nodal degree (Knodal), nodal efficiency (Enodal) and nodal betweenness (Bnodal)] were utilized to quantify the topological organization in both WM and GM networks. RESULTS: At the network level, both WM and GM networks exhibited reductions in Eloc, Cp and S in SZ. The SZ group showed reduced σ and ß only for the WM network. Furthermore, the Cp, Eloc and S of the WM network were negatively correlated with negative symptoms in SZ. At the nodal level, the SZ showed nodal disturbances in the corpus callosum, optic radiation, posterior corona radiata and tempo-occipital WM tracts. For GM, the SZ manifested increased nodal centralities in frontoparietal regions and decreased nodal centralities in temporal regions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide the first evidence for abnormal global topological properties in SZ from the perspective of a substantial whole brain, including GM and WM. Nodal centralities enhance GM areas, along with a reduction in adjacent WM, suggest that WM functional alterations may be compensated for adjacent GM impairments in SZ.

17.
Cell Syst ; 10(5): 445-452.e6, 2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437686

RESUMO

Whole-genome single-cell DNA sequencing (scDNA-seq) enables characterization of copy-number profiles at the cellular level. We propose SCOPE, a normalization and copy-number estimation method for the noisy scDNA-seq data. SCOPE's main features include the following: (1) a Poisson latent factor model for normalization, which borrows information across cells and regions to estimate bias, using in silico identified negative control cells; (2) an expectation-maximization algorithm embedded in the normalization step, which accounts for the aberrant copy-number changes and allows direct ploidy estimation without the need for post hoc adjustment; and (3) a cross-sample segmentation procedure to identify breakpoints that are shared across cells with the same genetic background. We evaluate SCOPE on a diverse set of scDNA-seq data in cancer genomics and show that SCOPE offers accurate copy-number estimates and successfully reconstructs subclonal structure. A record of this paper's transparent peer review process is included in the Supplemental Information.

18.
Schizophr Res ; 218: 209-218, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been shown to be effective in schizophrenia (SZ), particularly in drug-refractory cases or when rapid symptom relief is needed. However, its precise mechanisms of action remain largely unclear. To clarify the mechanisms underlying modified electroconvulsive therapy (mECT) for SZ, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study evaluating functional connectivity of the thalamus before and after mECT treatment using sub-regions of thalamus as regions of interest (ROIs). METHODS: Twenty-one SZ individuals taking only antipsychotics (DSZ group) for 4 weeks and 21 SZ patients receiving a regular course of mECT combining with antipsychotics (MSZ group) were observed in parallel. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline (t1) and follow-up (t2, ~4 weeks) time points. Data were compared to a matched healthy control group (HC group) consisting of 23 persons who were only scanned at baseline. Group differences in changes of thalamic functional connectivity between two SZ groups over time, as well as in functional connectivity among two SZ groups and HC group were assessed. RESULTS: Significant interaction of group by time was found in functional connectivity of the right thalamus to right putamen during the course of about 4-week treatment. Post-hoc analysis showed a significantly enhanced functional connectivity of the right thalamus to right putamen in the MSZ group contrasting to the DSZ group. In addition, a decreased and an increased functional connectivity of the thalamus to sensory cortex were observed within the MSZ and DSZ group after 4-week treatment trial, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that changes in functional connectivity of the thalamus may be associated with the brain mechanisms of mECT for schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Esquizofrenia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Vias Neurais , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Veg Hist Archaeobot ; 29(1): 61-73, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956277

RESUMO

The introduction of wheat into central China is thought to have been one of the significant contributions of interactions between China and Central Asia which began in the 3rd millennium bc. However, only a limited number of Neolithic wheat grains have been found in central China and even fewer have been directly radiocarbon dated, making the date when wheat was adopted in the region and its role in subsistence farming uncertain. Based on systematic archaeobotanical data and direct dating of wheat remains from the Xiazhai site in central China, as well as a critical review of all reported discoveries of Neolithic and Bronze Age wheat from this region, we conclude that many wheat finds are intrusive in Neolithic contexts. We argue that the role of wheat in the subsistence of the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age of central China was minimal, and that wheat only began to increase in its subsistence role in the later Bronze Age during the Zhou dynasty after ca. 1000 bc.

20.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 14(5): 1350-1360, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689171

RESUMO

The disruption of salience network (SN) has been consistently found in patients with schizophrenia and thought to give rise to specific symptoms. However, the functional dysconnectivity pattern of SN remains unclear in first-episode schizophrenia (FES). Sixty-five patients with FES and sixty-six health controls (HC) were enrolled in this study and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). The eleven regions of interest (ROIs) within SN were derived from the peaks of the group independent component analysis (gICA). Seed-based whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) analyses were performed with all SN ROIs as the seeds. Both hyper- and hypo-connectivity of SN were found in the FES. Specifically, the increased FC mainly existed between the SN and cortico-cerebellar sub-circuit and prefrontal cortex, while the reduced FC mainly existed within cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) sub-circuit. Our findings suggest that FES is associated with pronounced dysregulation of SN, characterized prominently by hyperconnectivity of SN-prefrontal cortex and cerebellum, as well as hypoconnectivity of CSTC sub-circuit of the SN.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo
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