Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 179
Filtrar
1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 996-1004, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587869

RESUMO

Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels convert physical forces into electrical signals. Despite the importance of this function, the involvement of mechanosensitive ion channels in human disease is poorly understood. Here we report heterozygous missense mutations in the gene encoding the MA ion channel TMEM63A that result in an infantile disorder resembling a hypomyelinating leukodystrophy. Four unrelated individuals presented with congenital nystagmus, motor delay, and deficient myelination on serial scans in infancy, prompting the diagnosis of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher (like) disease. Genomic sequencing revealed that all four individuals carry heterozygous missense variants in the pore-forming domain of TMEM63A. These variants were confirmed to have arisen de novo in three of the four individuals. While the physiological role of TMEM63A is incompletely understood, it is highly expressed in oligodendrocytes and it has recently been shown to be a MA ion channel. Using patch clamp electrophysiology, we demonstrated that each of the modeled variants result in strongly attenuated stretch-activated currents when expressed in naive cells. Unexpectedly, the clinical evolution of all four individuals has been surprisingly favorable, with substantial improvements in neurological signs and developmental progression. In the three individuals with follow-up scans after 4 years of age, the myelin deficit had almost completely resolved. Our results suggest a previously unappreciated role for mechanosensitive ion channels in myelin development.

2.
Brain ; 142(10): 3009-3027, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504254

RESUMO

N-methyl d-aspartate receptors are ligand-gated ionotropic receptors mediating a slow, calcium-permeable component of excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS. Variants in genes encoding NMDAR subunits have been associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we report six novel GRIN2D variants and one previously-described disease-associated GRIN2D variant in two patients with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. GRIN2D encodes for the GluN2D subunit protein; the GluN2D amino acids affected by the variants in this report are located in the pre-M1 helix, transmembrane domain M3, and the intracellular carboxyl terminal domain. Functional analysis in vitro reveals that all six variants decreased receptor surface expression, which may underline some shared clinical symptoms. In addition the GluN2D(Leu670Phe), (Ala675Thr) and (Ala678Asp) substitutions confer significantly enhanced agonist potency, and/or increased channel open probability, while the GluN2D(Ser573Phe), (Ser1271Phe) and (Arg1313Trp) substitutions result in a mild increase of agonist potency, reduced sensitivity to endogenous protons, and decreased channel open probability. The GluN2D(Ser573Phe), (Ala675Thr), and (Ala678Asp) substitutions significantly decrease current amplitude, consistent with reduced surface expression. The GluN2D(Leu670Phe) variant slows current response deactivation time course and increased charge transfer. GluN2D(Ala678Asp) transfection significantly decreased cell viability of rat cultured cortical neurons. In addition, we evaluated a set of FDA-approved NMDAR channel blockers to rescue functional changes of mutant receptors. This work suggests the complexity of the pathological mechanisms of GRIN2D-mediated developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, as well as the potential benefit of precision medicine.

3.
World J Pediatr ; 15(5): 454-464, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare neurological degenerative disorder caused by the mutations of MLC1 or GLIALCAM with autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant inheritance and a different prognosis, characterized by macrocephaly, delayed motor and cognitive development, and bilateral abnormal signals in cerebral white matter (WM) with or without cysts on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aimed to reveal the clinical and genetic features of MLC patients with GLIALCAM mutations and to explore the brain pathological characteristics and prognosis of mouse models with different modes of inheritance. METHODS: Clinical information and peripheral venous blood were collected from six families. Genetic analysis was performed by Sanger sequencing of GLIALCAM. GlialcamArg92Trp/+ and GlialcamLys68Met/Thr132Asn mouse models were generated based on mutations from patients (c.274C>T(p.Arg92Trp) (c.203A>T(p.Lys68Met), and c.395C>A (p.Thr132Asn))). Brain pathologies of the mouse models at different time points were analyzed. RESULTS: Six patients were clinically diagnosed with MLC. Of the six patients, five (Pt1-Pt5) presented with a heterozygous mutation in GLIALCAM (c.274C>T(p.Arg92Trp) or c.275G>C(p.Arg92Pro)) and were diagnosed with MLC2B; the remaining patient (Pt6) with two compound heterozygous mutations in GLIALCAM (c.203A>T (p.Lys68Met) and c.395C>A (p.Thr132Asn)) was diagnosed with MLC2A. The mutation c.275C>G (p.Arg92Pro) has not been reported before. Clinical manifestations of the patient with MLC2A (Pt6) progressed with regression, whereas the course of the five MLC2B patients remained stable or improved. The GlialcamArg92Trp/+ and GlialcamLys68Met/ Thr132Asn mouse models showed vacuolization in the anterior commissural WM at 1 month of age and vacuolization in the cerebellar WM at 3 and 6 months, respectively. At 9 months, the vacuolization of the GlialcamLys68Met/ Thr132Asn mouse model was heavier than that of the GlialcamArg92Trp/+ mouse model. Decreased expression of Glialcam in GlialcamArg92Trp/+ and GlialcamLys68Met/ Thr132Asn mice may contribute to the vacuolization. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and genetic characterization of patients with MLC and GLIALCAM mutations revealed a novel mutation, expanding the spectrum of GLIALCAM mutations. The first Glialcam mouse model with autosomal recessive inheritance and a new Glialcam mouse model with autosomal dominant inheritance were generated. The two mouse models with different modes of inheritance showed different degrees of brain pathological features, which were consistent with the patients' phenotype and further confirmed the pathogenicity of the corresponding mutations.

4.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368639

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate clinical characteristics and surgery outcomes of young children with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II. METHODS: Young children (onset age ≤6 years) with FCDII who underwent epileptic surgery in Children Epilepsy Center of Peking University First Hospital in 2014-2018 were followed up for at least 6 months after surgery. RESULTS: One hundred and twelve children with FCDII were included, with median age of onset 0.9 years (0.01-5.9), who underwent surgery at 4.1 years old (0.8-16.2). Focal seizures were most frequent (90.2%) and epileptic spasms presented in 23 (20.5%) cases. Epileptic encephalopathy was not uncommon (12.5%), associated with earlier epilepsy onset and higher rate of bilateral onset on ictal EEG (OR = 0.213, 9.059; P = .041, .004). At the last follow-up, 88.4% achieved seizure-free. Before surgery, 49.1% showed moderate/severe developmental delay, associated with earlier seizure onset and higher rate of history of epileptic encephalopathy (OR = 0.740, 5.160, P = .023, .042). For 48 children with preoperatively moderate/severe developmental delay, DQ rank at 6 months postsurgery was improved in only four cases. CONCLUSION: For young children with FCDII, they tend to present with epileptic encephalopathies and show moderate/severe developmental delay before surgery. The seizure outcome was favorable after surgery. For children with preoperatively moderate/severe developmental delay, developmental outcome at 6 months after surgery was not satisfactory.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11371, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388081

RESUMO

The measurements of lysine metabolites provide valuable information for the rapid diagnosis of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE). Here, we aimed to develop a sensitive method to simultaneously quantify multiple lysine metabolites in PDE, including α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (a-AASA), piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C), pipecolic acid (PA) and α-aminoadipic acid (α-AAA) in plasma, serum, dried blood spots (DBS), urine and dried urine spots (DUS). Fifteen patients with molecularly confirmed PDE were detected using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Compared to the control groups, the concentrations of a-AASA, P6C and the sum of a-AASA and P6C (AASA-P6C) in all types of samples from PDE patients were markedly elevated. The PA and a-AAA concentrations ranges overlapped partially between PDE patients and control groups. The concentrations of all the analytes in plasma and serum, as well as in urine and DUS were highly correlated. Our study provided more options for the diverse sample collection in the biochemical tests according to practical requirements. With treatment modality of newly triple therapy investigated, biomarker study might play important role not only on diagnosis but also on treatment monitoring and fine tuning the diet. The persistently elevated analytes with good correlation between plasma and DBS, as well as urine and DUS made neonatal screening using DBS and DUS possible.

6.
Epileptic Disord ; 21(4): 330-336, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403464

RESUMO

Adverse drug reactions are a leading cause of treatment failure with antiepileptic drugs. Adverse drug reactions are also a major source of morbidity and mortality, and a substantial burden on the use and costs of health care. Recent pharmacogenetic studies have shown that some adverse drug reactions are associated with genetic variants, which has changed how we select antiepileptic drugs for individual patients. This article, beginning with a case of an adverse drug reaction induced by carbamazepine, will answer four key questions about pharmacogenetics of adverse drug reactions: (1) What types of adverse drug reactions can be caused by antiepileptic drugs? (2) What is pharmacogenetics? (3) How does pharmacogenetics play a role in the adverse drug reactions of antiepileptic drugs? and (4) How do we apply pharmacogenetic testing in clinical practice? Our goal is to increase awareness of the contributions of genetic variation to adverse drug reactions of antiepileptic drugs.

7.
Brain ; 142(7): 1938-1954, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056671

RESUMO

We performed next generation sequencing on 1696 patients with epilepsy and intellectual disability using a gene panel with 480 epilepsy-related genes including all GABAA receptor subunit genes (GABRs), and we identified six de novo GABR mutations, two novel GABRA5 mutations (c.880G>T, p.V294F and c.1238C>T, p.S413F), two novel GABRA1 mutations (c.778C>T, p.P260S and c.887T>C, p.L296S/c.944G>T, p.W315L) and two known GABRA1 mutations (c.335G>A, p.R112Q and c.343A>G, p.N115D) in six patients with intractable early onset epileptic encephalopathy. The α5(V294F and S413F) and α1(P260S and L296S/W315L) subunit residue substitutions were all in transmembrane domains, while the α1(R112Q and N115R) subunit residue substitutions were in the N-terminal GABA binding domain. Using multidisciplinary approaches, we compared effects of mutant GABAA receptor α5 and α1 subunits on the properties of recombinant α5ß3γ2 and α1ß3γ2 GABAA receptors in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells and characterized their effects on receptor clustering, biogenesis and channel function. GABAA receptors containing mutant α5 and α1 subunits all had reduced cell surface and total cell expression with altered endoplasmic reticulum processing, impaired synaptic clustering, reduced GABAA receptor function and decreased GABA binding potency. Our study identified GABRA5 as a causative gene for early onset epileptic encephalopathy and expands the mutant GABRA1 phenotypic spectrum, supporting growing evidence that defects in GABAergic neurotransmission contribute to early onset epileptic encephalopathy phenotypes.

8.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 76, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome (BVVLS), a rare neurological disorder characterized by motor, sensory, and cranial neuronopathies, is mainly associated with defective riboflavin transporters encoded by SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 genes. Clinical outcomes have been shown to be improved significantly by high-dose riboflavin supplementation. The aim of this study was to identify genetic causes and further evaluate the clinical course and response to riboflavin in a Chinese pedigree with BVVLS. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the novel compound heterozygous variants c.1328G>A p.(Cys443Tyr) and c.1022_1023insC p. (Leu341Profs*103) of SLC52A2 gene in a female proband who presented in our out-patient clinic at the age of one-year-old with progressive mental and motor regression, breath holding, and brain stem dysfunction including facial weakness, hearing loss, dysphagia. Following high-dose riboflavin supplementation, the respiratory insufficiency and mental, motor, and bulbar function improved. However, sensorineural hearing loss was not improved. The missense variant site was highly conserved. Both variants were not found in the population database gnomAD. The two variants were inherited from her mother and father, respectively. Both variants were predicted to be deleterious by Polyphen2, Mutation taster, and SIFT and were classified as likely pathogenic according to the ACMG guideline. CONCLUSIONS: Two novel pathogenic variations of SLC52A2 gene were firstly found from a Chinese pedigree with BVVLS. Clinical outcomes could be improved by early diagnosis and riboflavin supplementation.


Assuntos
Paralisia Bulbar Progressiva/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Mutação , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Linhagem , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/química , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
9.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 80, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intellectual disability/developmental delay is a complex condition with extraordinary heterogeneity. A large proportion of patients lacks a specific diagnosis. Next generation sequencing, enabling identification of genetic variations in multiple genes, has become an efficient strategy for genetic analysis in intellectual disability/developmental delay. METHODS: Clinical data of 112 Chinese families with unexplained intellectual disability/developmental delay was collected. Targeted next generation sequencing of 454 genes related to intellectual disability/developmental delay was performed for all 112 index patients. Patients with promising variants and their other family members underwent Sanger sequencing to validate the authenticity and segregation of the variants. RESULTS: Fourteen promising variants in genes EFNB1, MECP2, ATRX, NAA10, ANKRD11, DHCR7, LAMA1, NFIX, UBE3A, ARID1B and PTPRD were identified in 11 of 112 patients (11/112, 9.82%). Of 14 variants, eight arose de novo, and 13 are novel. Nine patients (9/112, 8.03%) got definite molecular diagnoses. It is the first time to report variants in EFNB1, NAA10, DHCR7, LAMA1 and NFIX in Chinese intellectual disability/developmental delay patients and first report about variants in NAA10 and LAMA1 in affected individuals of Asian ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted next generation sequencing of 454 genes is an effective test strategy for patients with unexplained intellectual disability/developmental delay. Genetic heterogenicity is significant in this Chinese cohort and de novo variants play an important role in the diagnosis. Findings of this study further delineate the corresponding phenotypes, expand the mutation spectrum and support the involvement of PTPRD in the disease.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Cromossomos Humanos X , Feminino , Genes Dominantes , Genes Recessivos , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo
10.
Epilepsy Res ; 154: 55-61, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054517

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify monogenic mutations from Chinese patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and summarize their characteristics. A total of 100 patients with CAE were recruited in Peking University First Hospital from 2005 to 2016 and underwent telephone and outpatient follow-up review. We used targeted disease-specific gene capture sequencing (involving 300 genes) to identify pathogenic variations for these patients. We identified three de novo epilepsy-related gene mutations, including missense mutations of SCN1A (c. 5399 T > A; p. Val1800Asp), SCN8A (c. 2371 G > T; p. Val791Phe), and CLCN2 (c. 481 G > A; p. Gly161Ser), from three patients, separately. All recruited patients presented typical CAE features and good prognosis. To date, CAE has been considered a complex disease caused by multiple susceptibility genes. In this study, we observed that 3% of typical CAE patients had a de novo mutation of a known monogenic epilepsy-related gene. Our study suggests that a significant proportion of typical CAE cases may be monogenic forms of epilepsy. For genetic generalized epilepsies, such as CAE, further studies are needed to clarify the contributions of de novo or inherited rare monogenic coding, noncoding and copy number variants.

11.
Clin Genet ; 96(3): 207-215, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066047

RESUMO

Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous conditions. We launched a nationwide study to determine the frequency of CMD in the Chinese population and assess the status of diagnosis and disease management for CMD in China. Cases were chosen from databases in 34 tertiary academic hospitals from 29 first-level administrative divisions (provinces, municipalities, autonomous regions, and special administrative regions), and medical records were reviewed to confirm the diagnoses. The study included 409 patients, of those patients who consented to genetic testing (n = 340), mutations were identified in 286 of them. The most common forms identified were LAMA2-related CMD (36.4%), followed by COL6-related CMD (23.2%) and α-dystroglycanopathy (21.0%). The forms of CMD related to mutations in LMNA and SEPN1 were less frequent (12.5% and 2.4%, respectively). We also recorded a significant difference in the diagnostic capabilities and disease management of CMD, with this being relatively backward in research centers from less developed regions. We provide, for the first time, comprehensive epidemiologic information of CMD in a large cohort of Chinese people. To our knowledge, this is the largest sample size of its kind so far highlighting the prevalence of CMD in China.

12.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 25(8): 865-875, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895737

RESUMO

AIM: To reveal the pathogenesis and find the precision treatment for the childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) patients with NIPA2 mutations. METHODS: We performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to measure the electrophysiological properties of layer V neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons in wild-type (WT) and NIPA2-knockout mice. RESULTS: We identified that layer V neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons isolated from the NIPA2-knockout mice displayed higher frequency of spontaneous and evoked action potential, broader half-width of evoked action potential, and smaller currents of BK channels than those from the WT mice. NS11021, a specific BK channel opener, reduced neuronal excitability in the NIPA2-knockout mice. Paxilline, a selective BK channel blocker, treated WT neurons and could simulate the situation of NIPA2-knockout group, thereby suggesting that the absence of NIPA2 enhanced the excitability of neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons by decreasing the currents of BK channels. Zonisamide, an anti-epilepsy drug, reduced action potential firing in NIPA2-knockout mice through increasing BK channel currents. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the absence of NIPA2 enhances neural excitability through BK channels. Zonisamide is probably a potential treatment for NIPA2 mutation-induced epilepsy, which may provide a basis for the development of new treatment strategies for epilepsy.

13.
Clin Genet ; 96(1): 43-52, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891744

RESUMO

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare and severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by recurrent hemiplegic episodes. Most AHC cases are sporadic and caused by de novo ATP1A3 pathogenic variants. In this study, the aim was to identify the origin of ATP1A3 pathogenic variants in a Chinese cohort. In 105 probands including 101 sporadic and 4 familial cases, 98 patients with ATP1A3 pathogenic variants were identified, and 96.8% were confirmed as de novo. Micro-droplet digital polymerase chain reaction was applied for detecting ATP1A3 mosaicism in 80 available families. In blood samples, four asymptomatic parents, including two paternal and two maternal, and one proband with a milder phenotype were identified as mosaicism. Six (7.5%) parental mosaicisms were identified in multiple tissues, including four previously identified in blood and two additional cases identified from paternal sperms. Mosaicism was identified in multiple tissues with varied mutant allele fractions (MAFs, 0.03%-33.03%). The results suggested that MAF of mosaicism may be related to phenotype severity. This is the first systematic report of ATP1A3 mosaicism in AHC and showed mosaicism as an unrecognized source of previously considered "de novo" AHC. Identifying ATP1A3 mosaicism provides more evidence for estimating recurrence risk and has implications in genetic counseling of AHC.

14.
Gene ; 700: 168-175, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904718

RESUMO

To evaluate the additional diagnostic yield of whole exome sequencing (WES) reanalysis in patients with epilepsy and intellectual disability/mental retardation, we reanalyzed raw WES data and clinical information for 76 patient trios whose initial reports returned negative results. Eight patients (10.5%, 8/76) had positive genetic diagnoses finally, including six novel mutations in five genes. The reasons for the previous false-negative reports were divided into four categories: specific gene-disease associations had not been established at the time of the initial report; the disease database of the genetic test center had not been updated in a timely manner; the patient's clinical phenotype had not been carefully or correctly collected, submitted and reviewed when applicating genetic test and analyzing the variants; and the first round of data analysis missed a synonymous variant that affected splicing. Therefore, physicians should not give up the discovery of disease-causing mutations before re-examining the WES data and clinical phenotype by themselves or by collaborating with bioinformatic experts in the genetic test centers, especially for patients with strongly suspected genetic disease whose initial WES result was "negative". The suitable time points for reanalysis might be the 6-12 months after initial report.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo
15.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 25(6): 759-771, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720246

RESUMO

AIMS: Vanishing white matter disease (VWM) is an inherited leukoencephalopathy in children attributed to mutations in EIF2B1-5, encoding five subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). Although the defects are in the housekeeping genes, glial cells are selectively involved in VWM. Several studies have suggested that astrocytes are central in the pathogenesis of VWM. However, the exact pathomechanism remains unknown, and no model for VWM induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been established. METHODS: Fibroblasts from two VWM children were reprogrammed into iPSCs by using a virus-free nonintegrating episomal vector system. Control and VWM iPSCs were sequentially differentiated into neural stem cells (NSCs) and then into neural cells, including neurons, oligodendrocytes (OLs), and astrocytes. RESULTS: Vanishing white matter disease iPSC-derived NSCs can normally differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes precursor cells (OPCs), and oligodendrocytes in vitro. By contrast, VWM astrocytes were dysmorphic and characterized by shorter processes. Moreover, δ-GFAP and αB-Crystalline were significantly increased in addition to increased early and total apoptosis. CONCLUSION: The results provided further evidence supporting the central role of astrocytic dysfunction. The establishment of VWM-specific iPSC models provides a platform for exploring the pathogenesis of VWM and future drug screening.

16.
Pediatr Neurol ; 94: 38-47, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to delineate the pattern of natural course, neuroimaging features, and the genotypic spectrum of cavitating leukoencephalopathies. METHODS: Children (age of onset ≤16 years) who met the criteria for cavitating leukoencephalopathies from January 2009 to October 2018 were identified. Whole-exome sequencing and prospective follow-up study of the natural history and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. RESULTS: Thirty-seven children were clinically diagnosed with cavitating leukoencephalopathies. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations in eight genes were identified in 31 individuals (83.78%): IBA57 (17/37), NDUFS1 (5/37), NDUFV1 (2/37), NDUFV2 (3/37), NDUFAF5 (1/37), LYRM7 (1/37), NDUFB8 (1/37), and GLRX5 (1/37). All genes were engaged in mitochondrial function. IBA57 was identified in half of children. Mutations in NDUFV2, NDUFAF5, NDUFB8, or GLRX5 were first found to be related to cavitating leukoencephalopathies. Follow-up with a median of 23.5 months (four to 107 months) was available. The median age at disease onset was 11 months. All cases presented acute or subacute onset, and the initial presentation was rapid motor regression in 35 cases. Thirty-five children (35/37) exhibited a stabilized or improved pattern. Cavities and high-intensity diffusion-weighted imaging signals were the common MRI features during the acute stage. Although clinically stable, 21 children had reserved high diffusion-weighted imaging signals for a long time. Patients with different gene mutations show different MRI patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The study expands the number of genes involved in cavitating leukoencephalopathies to 22. IBA57 is the most common candidate gene. Most cases showed a stabilized or improved pattern after an acute or subacute onset, which is different from most other inherited metabolic diseases or leukodystrophies. More cases and a longer follow-up period are needed.

17.
Trials ; 20(1): 44, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent clinical observations have reported the potential benefit of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) as an adjunctive therapy for pediatric epilepsy. Preliminary evidence suggests that VNS treatment is effective for seizure reduction and mental development in young participants between 3 and 6 years of age who suffer from intractable epilepsy. However, robust clinical evidence for quantifying the difference of the efficacy and safety of VNS treatment in this specific patient population has yet to be reported. METHODS/DESIGN: A two-armed, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, prospective trial will be carried out to evaluate whether VNS is beneficial and safe for pediatric epilepsy. Pediatric participants aged between 3 to 6 years old with intractable epilepsy will be recruited and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups with a 1:1 allocation using a computer-generating randomization schedule. Before enrollment, informed consent will be signed by the parents of the participants and the study researchers. Participants in the experimental group will receive electrical stimulation over 24 weeks under standard stimulation parameters. Participants in the control group will not receive any stimulation during the 12 weeks of the double-blind period. The guardians of the participants are required to keep a detailed diary to record seizure activity. Outcome assessments including seizure frequency, Gesell Mental Developmental Scale scores, use of antiepileptic drugs and dosages, and adverse events will be collected at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and/or 24 weeks after electrical stimulation is initiated. The effects of treatment will be analyzed with time and treatment group comparisons. DISCUSSION: This trial will evaluate quantitative differences in efficacy and safety with/without VNS treatment for pediatric participants aged between 3 to 6 years with intractable epilepsy and will explore whether the current age range of VNS therapy can be expanded. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03062514 , Registered on 23 February 2017.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/terapia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago , Fatores Etários , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/efeitos adversos
18.
Neurology ; 92(2): e96-e107, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the epileptology, a key part of the SYNGAP1 phenotypic spectrum, in a large patient cohort. METHODS: Patients were recruited via investigators' practices or social media. We included patients with (likely) pathogenic SYNGAP1 variants or chromosome 6p21.32 microdeletions incorporating SYNGAP1. We analyzed patients' phenotypes using a standardized epilepsy questionnaire, medical records, EEG, MRI, and seizure videos. RESULTS: We included 57 patients (53% male, median age 8 years) with SYNGAP1 mutations (n = 53) or microdeletions (n = 4). Of the 57 patients, 56 had epilepsy: generalized in 55, with focal seizures in 7 and infantile spasms in 1. Median seizure onset age was 2 years. A novel type of drop attack was identified comprising eyelid myoclonia evolving to a myoclonic-atonic (n = 5) or atonic (n = 8) seizure. Seizure types included eyelid myoclonia with absences (65%), myoclonic seizures (34%), atypical (20%) and typical (18%) absences, and atonic seizures (14%), triggered by eating in 25%. Developmental delay preceded seizure onset in 54 of 56 (96%) patients for whom early developmental history was available. Developmental plateauing or regression occurred with seizures in 56 in the context of a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). Fifty-five of 57 patients had intellectual disability, which was moderate to severe in 50. Other common features included behavioral problems (73%); high pain threshold (72%); eating problems, including oral aversion (68%); hypotonia (67%); sleeping problems (62%); autism spectrum disorder (54%); and ataxia or gait abnormalities (51%). CONCLUSIONS: SYNGAP1 mutations cause a generalized DEE with a distinctive syndrome combining epilepsy with eyelid myoclonia with absences and myoclonic-atonic seizures, as well as a predilection to seizures triggered by eating.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de ras GTPase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/complicações , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Espasmos Infantis/complicações , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico por imagem , Espasmos Infantis/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 28: 4-10, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies have reported clinical features of relapsing MOG-IgG-associated CNS demyelination principally in Caucasians children. It is not clear whether Chinese children share the same phenotype. OBJECTIVE: To delineate the clinical characteristics in Chinese children with relapsing MOG-IgG-associated demyelination. METHODS: A follow-up study on 23 Children with relapsing MOG-IgG-associated demyelination from two Chinese tertiary hospitals was performed. Phenotypic features at each demyelinating attacks, neuroimaging characteristics, autoimmune antibodies in CSF/serum, response to disease modifying drugs and functional deficits during the disease course were analyzed. RESULTS: The median age at disease onset was 5.38 (2.33-12.75) years. The male to female ratio was 1:1.30. The disease duration was 2.33(1.00-8.92) years at the last follow-up. (1) Clinical phenotypes: ADEM was the most common initial presentation (12/23, 52.17%). In 82 attacks during disease course, ADEM was also the most common phenotype (30/82, 36.59%), followed by ON (24/82, 29.27%). (2) Imaging findings: 57/70 (81.43%) brain MRI scans during acute attacks showed new lesions. The most common location of new lesions in brain was the juxtacortical white matter (45/57, 78.95%). In 46 brain MRI scans with supratentorial white matter lesions, ADEM-like patterns were most common (25/46, 54.35%), and 5/46 (10.87%) scans exhibited leukodystrophy-like patterns. (3) Laboratory examinations: Anti-NMDA receptor IgG in CSF was detected in two patients (2/12, 16.67%), with one patient presented with anti-NMDAR encephalitis associated symptoms. (4) Therapeutic responses and outcomes: In 19 patients treated with disease-modifying drugs (including rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine and so on) longer than 6 months, median annualised relapse rates decreased from 1.71 before treatment to 0.44 during treatment (P < 0.05), with eleven patients (11/19, 57.89%) having no relapses. Median EDSS score at the last follow-up was 1.0(0-3.5). Visual dysfunction (12/23, 52.17%) was the most common neurological sequela, with cognitive dysfunction and epilepsy in some of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The phenotypic features of Chinese children with relapsing MOG-IgG-associated CNS demyelination were similar to that in Caucasian children. ADEM was the most common phenotype in all demyelinating attacks, followed by ON. Cerebral lesions were common and extensive, manifested as ADEM-like or even leukodystrophy-like patterns. Visual dysfunction was the most common neurological sequela. Although some disease-modifying drugs could reduce ARR, optimal treatment needs future study.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes Desmielinizantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/imunologia , Idade de Início , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Doenças Autoimunes Desmielinizantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Autoimunes Desmielinizantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes Desmielinizantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Child Neurol ; : 883073818811176, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484357

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the treatment-related annual cost of childhood epilepsy and its related factors in mainland China. A total of 244 cases were collected at the outpatient clinics of Peking University First Hospital Pediatrics from April 2010 to August 2013. The median annual epilepsy treatment-related costs per patient were estimated to be RMB7822 (US$1160), accounting for 43.72% (median) of urban residents' disposable income in China. Those who lived far away or with uncontrolled seizures yielded much higher costs. This study concluded that the treatment of children with epilepsy produces a heavy burden on both families and society in mainland China. The constitution ratio of antiepileptic drugs and travel expenses are much higher than those of other countries. Adjusting medical insurance coverage, balancing medical resource distribution, and taking good control of seizures might be effective in reducing the economic burden of childhood epilepsy in China.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA