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1.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 6880036, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646889

RESUMO

Tobacco smoke is an established risk factor for thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). However, little is known about its underlying mechanisms due to the lack of validated animal models. The present study developed a mouse model that may be utilized to investigate exacerbation of TAAD formation by mimetics of tobacco smoke. TAADs were created via inducible deletion of smooth muscle cell-specific Tgfbr2 receptors. Using this model, the first set of experiments evaluated the efficacy of nicotine salt (34.0 mg/kg/day), nicotine free base (NFB, 5.0 mg 90-day pellets), and cigarette smoke extract (0.1 ml/mouse/day). Compared with their respective control groups, only NFB pellets promoted TAAD dilation (23 ± 3% vs. 12 ± 2%, P = 0.014), and this efficacy was achieved at a cost of >50% acute mortality. Infusion of NFB with osmotic minipumps at extremely high, but nonlethal, doses (15.0 or 45.0 mg/kg/day) failed to accelerate TAAD dilation. Interestingly, costimulation with ß-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) promoted TAAD dilation and aortic rupture at dosages of 3.0 and 45.0 mg/kg/day, respectively, indicating that BAPN sensitizes the response of TAADs to NFB. In subsequent analyses, the detrimental effects of NFB were associated with clustering of macrophages, neutrophils, and T-cells in areas with structural destruction, enhanced matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 2 production, and pathological angiogenesis with attenuated fibrosis in the adventitia. In conclusion, modeling nicotine exacerbation of TAAD formation requires optimization of chemical form, route of delivery, and dosage of the drug as well as the pathologic complexity of TAADs. Under the optimized conditions of the present study, chronic inflammation and adventitial mal-remodeling serve as critical pathways through which NFB exacerbates TAAD formation.

2.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 165, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Domestication alters several phenotypic, neurological, and physiological traits in domestic animals compared to those in their wild ancestors. Domestic ducks originated from mallards, and some studies have shown that spot-billed ducks may have also made minor genetic contributions to domestication. Compared with the two ancestral species, domestic ducks generally differ in body size and bone morphology. In this study, we performed both genomic and transcriptomic analyses to identify candidate genes for elucidating the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation. METHODS: In this study, the duck genome data from eight domestic breeds and two wild species were collected to study the genetic changes during domestication. And the transcriptome data of different tissues from wild ducks and seven domestic ducks were used to reveal the expression difference between wild and domestic ducks. RESULTS: Using fixation index (Fst) algorithm and transcriptome data, we found that the genes related to skeletal development had high Fst values in wild and domestic breeds, and the differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in the ossification pathway. Our data strongly suggest that the skeletal systems of domestic ducks were changed to adapt to artificial selection for larger sizes. In addition, by combining the genome and transcriptome data, we found that some Fst candidate genes exhibited different expression patterns, and these genes were found to be involved in digestive, immune, and metabolic functions. CONCLUSIONS: A wide range of phenotypic differences exists between domestic and wild ducks. Through both genome and transcriptome analyses, we found that genes related to the skeletal system in domestic ducks were strongly selected. Our findings provide new insight into duck domestication and selection effects during the domestication.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Patos , Animais , Patos/genética , Genoma , Esqueleto , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand Clonorchis sinensis re-infection and the determinants in endemic areas is important in establishment of control measures. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was implemented in Hengxian County, Guangxi, China. Individuals with C. sinensis infection were completely treated, and those cured were enrolled as study subjects and followed up for 3, 6 and 12 months. The re-infection frequency and incidence were calculated, and a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was constructed to capture re-infection determinants. RESULTS: Among 635 enrolled subjects, 436 (68.7%) completed follow-up. Of these, 177 (40.6%) were re-infected; 133 (75.1%) were re-infected once, 41 (23.2%) twice and 3 (1.7%) three times. The incidence of re-infection was 64.0 per 100 person-years. Males (aHR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.14-2.44), those with underlying diseases (aHR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.02-1.95), and those with moderate- and heavy-intensity infections (aHR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.14-1.85) had increasing re-infection probabilities. CONCLUSIONS: C. sinensis re-infection is high in endemic areas. Males and high-intensity infection are important determinants of re-infection. Repeated chemotherapy is necessary to control re-infection and its associated morbidities, especially in high-risk individuals. In addition, behavioural education is advised to decrease overall re-infection in endemic areas.

4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 270: 118372, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364616

RESUMO

This work demonstrated a facile and sustainable approach to functionalize cellulose nanopaper (CNP) by impregnation of chitosan (CS) and the followed halogenation. It was found that the tensile strength of the functionalized CNP (CNP/CS-Cl) was enhanced by 38.3% and 512.6% at dry and wet conditions, respectively. Meanwhile, the total transmittance (at 550 nm) of CNP/CS-Cl was increased from 75% of pure CNP to 85%, with 35% decrease in optical haze. Moreover, the CNP/CS-Cl exhibited significant enhancement in barrier properties. Importantly, part of the amino groups on CS were transformed into N-halamines during the halogenation process, which endowed the CNP/CS-Cl with excellent antibacterial performance against both S. aureus and E. coli with 100% bacterial reduction after 10 min of contact. Thus, this work provides a simple and efficient approach to functionalize CNP with water resistance, high transparency, excellent antibacterial and barrier properties, which will expand the potential applications of CNP.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15904, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354101

RESUMO

Blastocystis hominis and Cystoisospora belli are considered to be common opportunistic intestinal protozoa in HIV/AIDS patients. In order to investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of B. hominis and C. belli in HIV/AIDS patients, a total of 285 faecal samples were individually collected from HIV/AIDS patients in Guangxi, China. B. hominis and C. belli were investigated by amplifying the barcode region of the SSU rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region of the rRNA gene, respectively. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were conducted to assess the risk factors related to B. hominis and C. belli infection. The prevalence of B. hominis and C. belli was 6.0% (17/285) and 1.1% (3/285) respectively. Four genotypes of B. hominis were detected, with ST3 (n = 8) and ST1 (n = 6) being predominant, followed by ST6 (n = 2) and ST7 (n = 1). Females had a statistically higher prevalence of B. hominis (11.6%) than males (4.2%). The statistical analysis also showed that the prevalence of B. hominis was significantly associated with age group and educational level. Our study provides convincing evidence for the genetic diversity of B. hominis, which indicates its potential zoonotic transmission and is the first report on the molecular characteristics of C. belli in HIV/AIDS patients in China.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/parasitologia , Blastocystis hominis/genética , Isospora/genética , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/genética , Adulto , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Blastocystis hominis/patogenicidade , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Isospora/patogenicidade , Isosporíase/epidemiologia , Isosporíase/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
6.
Bioanalysis ; 13(14): 1123-1134, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275328

RESUMO

Aim: To investigate the feasibility of singlicate analysis in anti-drug antibody (ADA) assay by comparing performance characteristics for assays qualified in duplicate and singlicate formats. Materials & methods: We employed modeling to assess and quantify the impact of singlicate to cut point factor (CPF) in scenarios with the duplicate precision from 1-20% and the proportion of well-to-well variance to overall assay variance from 0.01-0.90. The impact to CPF by singlicate is marginal if the well-to-well coefficient of variation is <10% and represents <25% of the overall variability. Results & conclusion: The assay parameters including sensitivity, precision, selectivity, drug and target tolerance were comparable between singlicate and duplicate based assays. Our results suggested the minimal impact of singlicate analysis on ADA assay with good duplicate precision. The study provided additional supportive evidence that the singlicate-based analysis is feasible in ADA ligand binding assays.

7.
FASEB J ; 35(8): e21780, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320253

RESUMO

The specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator maresin 1 (MaR1) is involved in the resolution phase of tissue inflammation. It was hypothesized that exogenous administration of MaR1 would attenuate abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth in a cytokine-dependent manner via LGR6 receptor signaling and macrophage-dependent efferocytosis of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). AAAs were induced in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and smooth muscle cell specific TGF-ß2 receptor knockout (SMC-TGFßr2-/- ) mice using a topical elastase AAA model. MaR1 treatment significantly attenuated AAA growth as well as increased aortic SMC α-actin and TGF-ß2 expressions in WT mice, but not SMC-TGFßr2-/- mice, compared to vehicle-treated mice. In vivo inhibition of LGR6 receptors obliterated MaR1-dependent protection in AAA formation and SMC α-actin expression. Furthermore, MaR1 upregulated macrophage-dependent efferocytosis of apoptotic SMCs in murine aortic tissue during AAA formation. In vitro studies demonstrate that MaR1-LGR6 interaction upregulates TGF-ß2 expression and decreases MMP2 activity during crosstalk of macrophage-apoptotic SMCs. In summary, these results demonstrate that MaR1 activates LGR6 receptors to upregulate macrophage-dependent efferocytosis, increases TGF-ß expression, preserves aortic wall remodeling and attenuate AAA formation. Therefore, this study demonstrates the potential of MaR1-LGR6-mediated mitigation of vascular remodeling through increased efferocytosis of apoptotic SMCs via TGF-ß2 to attenuate AAA formation.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/etiologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(27): 32115-32125, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185490

RESUMO

Cellulose nanopaper (CNP) has been considered as a promising material with great application potential in diverse fields. However, the hydrophilic nature of CNP significantly limits its practical application. In order to improve its water resistance, we demonstrate a facile approach to functionalize CNP by impregnating it with chitosan (CS), followed by in situ polymerization of polypyrrole (PPy). The results indicate that the obtained CNP/CS/PPy shows excellent water resistance with the wet tensile strength of up to 80 MPa, which is more than 10 times higher than that of the pure CNP. Intriguingly, new features (e.g., electrical conductivity, antibacterial activity, and so forth) are achieved at the same time. The functionalized CNP/CS/PPy shows a high conductivity of 6.5 S cm-1, which can be used for electromagnetic interference shielding applications with a high shielding performance of around 18 dB. In addition, the CNP/CS/PPy exhibits good antibacterial activity toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, with the bacterial reductions of 99.28 and 95.59%, respectively. Thus, this work provides a simple and versatile approach to functionalize CNP for achieving multifunctional properties.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Celulose/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Papel , Polímeros/química , Pirróis/química , Água/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Condutividade Elétrica , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 1505-1513, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023372

RESUMO

The retro-aldol reaction is one of the key steps involved in the oxidative conversion of lignin to aromatic aldehydes and acids. In principle, the retro-aldol reaction can proceed in the absence of oxygen. In this work, a new approach based on the influence of oxygen on the oxidation of lignin was investigated. In this approach, the duration of oxygen charged during the reaction was optimized to, for the first time, improve the yield of aromatic aldehydes and acids. The effect of reaction chemistry, time, temperature, and lignin feedstock plays a key role on the yield of aromatic aldehydes and acids. At 140 °C, oxidation of softwood Lignoboost kraft lignin for 40 min results in combined maximum yield of 5.17% w/w of vanillin and vanillic acid. In comparison, using the new approach in which oxygen was charged for only 20 min during the 40 min reaction improved this yield considerably to 6.95%. Further, yield improvement was obtained when applying this approach to different lignin feedstocks. Oxidation also increased the carboxyl content in lignin from 0.49 mmol/g to 1.41 mmol/g which represents a marked improvement. The current study provides new evidence showing that the oxidation reaction is a crucial pathway for lignin valorization.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/química , Benzaldeídos/química , Lignina/química , Ácido Vanílico/química , Oxirredução
10.
Front Genet ; 12: 566047, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995468

RESUMO

Although the genetic foundation of chicken body feather color has been extensively explored, that of tail feather color remains poorly understood. In the present study, we used a synthetic chicken dwarf line (DW), derived from hybrids bred between a black tail chicken breed, Rhode Island Red (RIR), and a white tail breed, dwarf layer (DL), to investigate the genetic rules associated white/black tail color. Even though the body feathers are predominantly red, the DW line still comprises individuals with black or white tails after more than 10 generations of self-crossing and selection for the body feather color. We first performed four crosses using the DW chickens, including black-tailed males to females, reciprocal crosses between the black and white, and white males to females to elucidate the inheritance pattern of the white/black tail. We also performed a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis to determine the candidate genomic regions underlying the tail feather color using black tail chickens from the RIR and DW lines and white individuals from the DW line. In the crossing experiment, we found that (i) the white/black tail feather color is independent of body feather color; (ii) the phenotype is a simple autosomal trait; and (iii) the white is dominant to the black in the DW line. The GWA results showed that seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 24 were significantly correlated with tail feather color. The significant region (3.97-4.26 Mb) comprises nine known genes (NECTIN1, THY1, gga-mir-1466, USP2, C1QTNF5, RNF26, MCAM, CBL, and CCDC153) and five anonymous genes. This study revealed that the white/black tail feather trait is autosome-linked in DW chickens. Fourteen genes were found in the significant ~0.29 Mb genomic region, and some, especially MCAM, are suggested to play critical roles in the determination of white/black tail feather color. Our research is the first study on the genetics underlying tail feather color and could help further the understanding of feather pigmentation in chickens.

11.
Waste Manag ; 129: 35-46, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023801

RESUMO

Paper mill sludge (PMS) raises critical environmental issues due to its disposal problem, but its high sugar content and well-dispersed structure make it a great feedstock for biochemical production. The technical feasibility of integrating cellulase enzyme production into lactic acid (LA) fermentation from PMS was investigated in this study. The low ash content of PMS suggests a great potential for cellulase production. The enzyme produced using PMS without any treatment gave an activity of 7.8 FPU/ml, a performance comparable to the commercial enzyme, Cellic CTec 2. The LA yield from PMS with in-house enzyme was 64.7% and 73.7% at the enzyme loading of 10 and 15 FPU/g-glucan, respectively. The LA obtained was optically pure L- isomer with over 99% purity. The optimal condition of LA production by Bacillus coagulans was found to be 50 °C and pH 5.3 (with 50 g/L CaCO3). The nutrient effect of yeast extract (YE) and corn steep liquor (CSL) was substrate dependent, and CSL could substitute YE as an inexpensive nutrient when using PMS as a substrate.


Assuntos
Celulase , Esgotos , Fermentação , Ácido Láctico , Zea mays/metabolismo
12.
Food Waterborne Parasitol ; 22: e00109, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681487

RESUMO

To effectively promote the implementation of interventions, the identification of high-risk groups and the characteristics of Clonorchis sinensis infection in endemic regions are needed. In a clonorchiasis-endemic area, local residents were randomly enrolled for helminth egg examination in June 2016. The prevalence in subpopulations as well as the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours and the factors influencing clonorchiasis in egg-positive populations were analysed. A total of 2282 local residents participated in the survey; the C. sinensis prevalence was 48.6% (1109 persons). A higher prevalence was found in males (62.6%) than in females (29.7%). People older than 30 years had the highest prevalence (52.7%-57.6%). Among the 888 persons who were infected with C. sinensis and participated the questionnaire investigation, 19.0% (169/888) knew that it could cause cancer. In addition, 60.6% of people reported that they intended to keep eating raw fish despite knowing the risk of infection. The two primary reasons for continuing to eat raw fish were the disease being regarded as not serious (38.3%) and the belief that anti-parasite medications are effective (39.6%). A total of 94.4% (797/844) of responders reported eating raw fish more frequently in the home than outside of the home. Our study revealed a notably high C. sinensis prevalence in the study area. Awareness of clonorchiasis disease severity should be increased among high-risk individuals and families in highly endemic areas.

13.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(1): 119-133, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390838

RESUMO

Because of their relatively short lifespan (<4 years), rats have become the second most used model organism to study health and diseases in humans who may live for up to 120 years. First-, second- and third-generation sequencing technologies and platforms have produced increasingly greater sequencing depth and accurate reads, leading to significant advancements in the rat genome assembly during the last 20 years. In fact, whole genome sequencing (WGS) of 47 strains have been completed. This has led to the discovery of genome variants in rats, which have been widely used to detect quantitative trait loci underlying complex phenotypes based on gene, haplotype, and sweep association analyses. DNA variants can also reveal strain, chromosome and gene functional evolutions. In parallel, phenome programs have advanced significantly in rats during the last 15 years and more than 10 databases host genome and/or phenome information. In order to discover the bridges between genome and phenome, systems genetics and integrative genomics approaches have been developed. On the other hand, multiple level information transfers from genome to phenome are executed by differential usage of alternative transcriptional start (ATS) and polyadenylation (APA) sites per gene. We used our own experiments to demonstrate how alternative transcriptome analysis can lead to enrichment of phenome-related causal pathways in rats. Development of advanced genome-to-phenome assays will certainly enhance rats as models for human biomedical research.

14.
Environ Pollut ; 273: 116450, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477062

RESUMO

Microplastic pollution in marine environments and organisms has received a great deal of international attention. However, the long-term field studies of microplastics are rare. Here, we assessed annual variation in microplastic abundance in the Maowei Sea, a classic mariculture bay in southern China, and analyzed the long-term accumulation in oyster tissues. U-shaped time trends of microplastics in water were observed from January to December in 2018 in the estuarine region, inner bay, and mouth bay sites, representing an inverse relationship with the local rainfall patterns. The common microplastic particles in Maowei Sea are PET/PE fibers, and polystyrene foams, which are mainly related to textile pollution and fishery activities. After one year of continuous monitoring, we did not find accumulation of microplastics in the whole soft tissues of oyster after 10% KOH digestion. No significant correlation of microplastic abundances between water and oysters was observed. The microplastic abundance in oyster was correlated with some environmental variables (i.e. salinity, pH, nutrients and total organic carbon) of the surrounding water following Spearman correlation analysis. The microplastic levels in oysters could probably be influenced by the environmental variables.

15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0009116, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507969

RESUMO

Clonorchis sinensis infection is highly prevalent in Asia. Diverse hepatobiliary morbidity has been documented for C. sinensis infection. This study aimed to assess the association between C. sinensis infection and hepatobiliary morbidity, taking into consideration of the control, confounders and infection intensity. A cross-sectional community survey was implemented in Hengxian county, southeastern China. Helminth infections were detected by fecal examination. Physical examination and abdominal ultrasonography were then conducted. After excluding confounding effects from gender, age and alcohol drinking, quantitative association between C. sinensis infection and hepatobiliary morbidity was assessed, and the effect from infection intensity was also evaluated, through adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). 696 villagers older than 10 years were enrolled. The prevalence and infection intensity of C. sinensis were higher in male, elder people and the individuals consuming alcohol. Light C. sinensis infection was associated with the increase of diarrhoea (aOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.5). C. sinensis infection was associated with the increase of fatty liver (aOR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.2), and the effect was similar in different infection intensities. Moderate C. sinensis infection was associated with the increase of gallbladder stone (aOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.1-8.6), while moderate and heavy infections with the increase of intrahepatic bile duct dilatation (aOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.9 and aOR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.9-9.9, respectively). C. sinensis infection had an effect on the development of periductal fibrosis (aOR: 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1-4.9), which showed increasing trend by infection intensity. The length and width of gallbladder in those with C. sinensis infection were enlarged, especially in those over 30 years old. C. sinensis infection is significantly associated with hepatobiliary morbidity. The occurrence of some morbidity was strongly related to the infection intensity. Awareness on harm of clonorchiasis should be raised both for policy-makers and villagers to adopt effective interventions.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase/epidemiologia , Clonorquíase/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Animais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Clonorquíase/diagnóstico , Clonorchis sinensis , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Vesícula Biliar , Cálculos Biliares , Humanos , Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Trop Med Health ; 49(1): 6, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), such as hookworm, roundworm and whipworm, and food-borne trematodiases, including Clonorchis sinensis, remain a public health problem worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the current prevalence of these parasites in Guangxi, China, which is located in a subtropical region. METHODS: A cross-sectional study and a 4-year longitudinal surveillance study were carried out. Stool samples were collected and examined microscopically for parasite eggs using the modified Kato-Katz thick smear method. RESULTS: The study subjects selected using stratified random cluster sampling for the cross-sectional study and longitudinal surveillance study numbered 15,683 and 24,429, respectively. In the cross-sectional study, hookworm, roundworm, whipworm, pinworm, C. sinensis, and tapeworm were found. The total prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) was 6.4% (95% CI, 6.0-6.8). The prevalences of C. sinensis, hookworm, roundworm, whipworm, and pinworm were 10.6%, 4.2%, 0.3%, 0.3%, and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of C. sinensis in males (14.0%, 95% CI, 13.3-14.8) was significantly higher than in females (7.2%, 95% CI, 6.7-7.8) (P = 0.0001). The prevalence also was significantly higher in the medical worker group (20.8%, 95% CI, 12.9-28.7) than in all other occupational groups (10.5%, 95% CI, 10.0-11.0) (P = 0.0001). The prevalence of hookworm in females (5.3%, 95% CI, 4.8-5.8) was significantly higher than in males (3.0%, 95% CI, 2.6-3.3) (P = 0.0001). In the longitudinal surveillance study, the prevalence of C. sinensis and STHs in 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019 were 12.0%, 6.0%, 11.0%, and 10.0% and 2.6%, 2.8%, 1.5%, and 1.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adult male and occupation of and medical workers are risk factors for infection with C. sinensis and hookworm. The prevalence rate of C. sinensis remains high while those of the other STHs are decreasing, suggesting that enhanced health education should be focused on C. sinensis in Guangxi.

17.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 2): 128170, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038807

RESUMO

Accurate quantification of species fractions is critical to determine meat adulteration. This study aimed to develop a novel quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method for detection of mammalian and poultry DNA. A shared single-copy nuclear DNA sequence derived from the first exon of the LcoR gene was identified as a multi-species universal reference for a qRT-PCR assay. The conservation and copy number of the LcoR gene were evaluated among different species. The limit of detection was 0.01 ng DNA or 0.01% meat ingredient, and the limit of quantification was 0.01 ng DNA or 0.05% meat ingredient. Both the relative error (R.E.) and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) were ≤ 25%. Moreover, modified coefficient k was introduced into this quantitative system to improve the accuracy and reliability of results, with maximum R.E. improved from 19.43% to 16.16%. The quantitative method would contribute to fighting against meat adulteration and maintaining a fair market.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mamíferos/genética , Aves Domésticas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA/análise , Primers do DNA , DNA Complementar , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Dosagem de Genes , Limite de Detecção , Produtos da Carne/análise , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Talanta ; 224: 121913, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379115

RESUMO

The annual amount of food waste or loss is about one-third of the total edible food globally produced for human consumption. Continuous and real-time monitoring by spoilage detectors can significantly reduce food waste. A novel paper-based pH-sensitive meat spoilage detector was developed. A mixture of soybean hulls (SBHs) (hydrothermally-treated in an acidic environment), bentonite, and bromocresol purple (BCP) was coated on paper to produce the detector. The resultant meat spoilage detector was evaluated as a real-time freshness and spoilage indicator of catfish fillets (Ictalurus punctatus). Freshness and spoilage of fish meat with varying weights and headspace were determined by tailoring the detector's pH. Elemental, structural, and functional analysis verified the formation of a packed SBH-bentonite matrix with enhanced gas adsorption capacity and effective BCP-immobilization. Binder nanofibrillation increased the overall visual color vibrancy and decreased the binder demand in the coating formulation. Headspace volume in the studied range (40 and 160 cm3) did not affect the activation time of the detectors. However, increasing fish weight decreased the detectors' optimum activation time and pH. The findings of this study show that the developed detectors can be tailored for a wide range of sample and packaging sizes by simply adjusting the pH of the detector.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Animais , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Carne/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
19.
Cell Rep ; 33(9): 108461, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264618

RESUMO

Although maternal exercise (ME) becomes increasingly uncommon, the effects of ME on offspring muscle metabolic health remain largely undefined. Maternal mice are subject to daily exercise during pregnancy, which enhances mitochondrial biogenesis during fetal muscle development; this is correlated with higher mitochondrial content and oxidative muscle fibers in offspring muscle and improved endurance capacity. Apelin, an exerkine, is elevated due to ME, and maternal apelin administration mirrors the effect of ME on mitochondrial biogenesis in fetal muscle. Importantly, both ME and apelin induce DNA demethylation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (Ppargc1a) promoter and enhance its expression and mitochondrial biogenesis in fetal muscle. Such changes in DNA methylation were maintained in offspring, with ME offspring muscle expressing higher levels of PGC-1α1/4 isoforms, explaining improved muscle function. In summary, ME enhances DNA demethylation of the Ppargc1a promoter in fetal muscle, which has positive programming effects on the exercise endurance capacity and protects offspring muscle against metabolic dysfunction.

20.
Physiol Rep ; 8(22): e14631, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242364

RESUMO

Fewer females develop AADs (ascending aortic aneurysms and dissections) and the reasons for this protection remain poorly understood. The present study seeks to develop a mouse model that may be utilized to address this sexual dimorphism. Adult normolipidemic mice were challenged with BAPN (ß-aminopropionitrile), AngII (angiotensin II), or BAPN + AngII. An initial protocol optimization found that 0.2% BAPN in drinking water plus AngII-infusion at 1,000 ng kg-1  min-1 produced favorable rates of AAD rupture (~50%) and dilation (~40%) in 28 days. Using these dosages, further experiments revealed that BAPN is toxic to naïve mature aortas and it acted synergistically with AngII to promote aortic tears and dissections. BAPN + AngII provoked early infiltration of myeloid cells and subsequent recruitment of lymphoid cells to the aortic wall. AADs established with BAPN + AngII, but not AngII alone, continued to expand after the cessation of AngII-infusion. This indefinite growth precipitated a 61% increase in the AAD diameter in 56 days. More importantly, with the optimized protocol, significant differences in AAD dilation (p = .012) and medial degeneration (p = .036) were detected between male and female mice. Treatment of ovariectomized mice with estradiol protected AAD formation (p = .014). In summary, this study developed a powerful mouse AAD model that can be used to study the sexual dimorphism in AAD formation.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/patologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Aminopropionitrilo/administração & dosagem , Aminopropionitrilo/toxicidade , Aneurisma Dissecante/etiologia , Aneurisma Dissecante/prevenção & controle , Angiotensina II/administração & dosagem , Angiotensina II/toxicidade , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/etiologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Mieloides/metabolismo
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