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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(3): 682-689, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380910

RESUMO

SNCA, GBA, and VPS35 are three common genes associated with Parkinson's disease. Previous studies have shown that these three genes may be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is unclear whether these genes increase the risk of AD in Chinese populations. In this study, we used a targeted gene sequencing panel to screen all the exon regions and the nearby sequences of GBA, SNCA, and VPS35 in a cohort including 721 AD patients and 365 healthy controls from China. The results revealed that neither common variants nor rare variants of these three genes were associated with AD in a Chinese population. These findings suggest that the mutations in GBA, SNCA, and VPS35 are not likely to play an important role in the genetic susceptibility to AD in Chinese populations. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, China on March 9, 2016 (approval No. 201603198).

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127223, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600378

RESUMO

Pyrisoxazole, an isoxazoline-class fungicide, has been registered and used for approximately 19 years. However, its environmental transformation products (TPs) and corresponding ecotoxicological effects remain ambiguous. In this study, the photolysis, hydrolysis, and soil transformation behavior of pyrisoxazole were systematically investigated by indoor simulation experiments and analyzed by liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and UNIFI software. Transformation products in different environemnts were effectively identfied by a proposed workflow, which organically combined suspect and non-target screening strategies. In total, 17 TPs were screened out. Eight TPs were confirmed using the corresponding reference standards. Structures of another 9 compounds were tentatively proposed based on diagnostic evidence. Among them, 14 products were reported for the first time. The transformation pathways of pyrisoxazole in soil and water were proposed. Pathway analysis demonstrated that the different pH of aqueous solutions had little effect on the pathways, while the influence of different soil types and oxygen conditions was evident. Finally, the toxicity of the proposed TPs to fish and daphnids was predicted using ECOSAR software. These proposed TPs in soil and water, transformation pathways, and predicted ecotoxicity information could provide systematic insight into the fate and environmental risks of pyrisoxazole.

3.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551193

RESUMO

AIM: The role of vascular dementia (VaD)-associated genes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains elusive despite similar clinical and pathological features. We aimed to explore the relationship between these genes and AD in the Chinese population. METHODS: Eight VaD-associated genes were screened by a targeted sequencing panel in a sample of 3604 individuals comprising 1192 AD patients and 2412 cognitively normal controls. Variants were categorized into common variants and rare variants according to minor allele frequency (MAF). Common variant (MAF ≥ 0.01)-based association analysis was conducted by PLINK 1.9. Rare variant (MAF < 0.01) association study and gene-based aggregation testing of rare variants were performed by PLINK 1.9 and Sequence Kernel Association Test-Optimal (SKAT-O test), respectively. Age at onset (AAO) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) association studies were performed with PLINK 1.9. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, and APOE ε4 status. RESULTS: Four common COL4A1 variants, including rs874203, rs874204, rs16975492, and rs1373744, exhibited suggestive associations with AD. Five rare variants, NOTCH3 rs201436750, COL4A1 rs747972545, COL4A1 rs201481886, CST3 rs765692764, and CST3 rs140837441, showed nominal association with AD risk. Gene-based aggregation testing revealed that HTRA1 was nominally associated with AD. In the AAO and MMSE association studies, variants in GSN, ITM2B, and COL4A1 reached suggestive significance. CONCLUSION: Common variants in COL4A1 and rare variants in HTRA1, NOTCH3, COL4A1, and CST3 may be implicated in AD pathogenesis. Besides, GSN, ITM2B, and COL4A1 are probably involved in the development of AD endophenotypes.

4.
NPJ Genom Med ; 6(1): 69, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389718

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative dementias are a group of diseases with highly heterogeneous pathology and complicated etiology. There exist potential genetic component overlaps between different neurodegenerative dementias. Here, 1795 patients with neurodegenerative dementias from South China were enrolled, including 1592 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 110 with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and 93 with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Genes targeted sequencing analysis were performed. According to the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) guidelines, 39 pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants were identified in 47 unrelated patients in 14 different genes, including PSEN1, PSEN2, APP, MAPT, GRN, CHCHD10, TBK1, VCP, HTRA1, OPTN, SQSTM1, SIGMAR1, and abnormal repeat expansions in C9orf72 and HTT. Overall, 33.3% (13/39) of the variants were novel, the identified P/LP variants were seen in 2.2% (35/1592) and 10.9% (12/110) of AD and FTD cases, respectively. The overall molecular diagnostic rate was 2.6%. Among them, PSEN1 was the most frequently mutated gene (46.8%, 22/47), followed by PSEN2 and APP. Additionally, the age at onset of patients with P/LP variants (51.4 years), ranging from 30 to 83 years, was ~10 years earlier than those without P/LP variants (p < 0.05). This study sheds insight into the genetic spectrum and clinical manifestations of neurodegenerative dementias in South China, further expands the existing repertoire of P/LP variants involved in known dementia-associated genes. It provides a new perspective for basic research on genetic pathogenesis and novel guiding for clinical practice of neurodegenerative dementia.

5.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 695808, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220489

RESUMO

The strategies of classifying APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 variants varied substantially in the previous studies. We aimed to re-evaluate these variants systematically according to the American college of medical genetics and genomics and the association for molecular pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines. In our study, APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 variants were collected by searching Alzforum and PubMed database with keywords "PSEN1," "PSEN2," and "APP." These variants were re-evaluated based on the ACMG-AMP guidelines. We compared the number of pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants of APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2. In total, 66 APP variants, 323 PSEN1 variants, and 63 PSEN2 variants were re-evaluated in our study. 94.91% of previously reported pathogenic variants were re-classified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants, while 5.09% of them were variants of uncertain significance (VUS). PSEN1 carried the most prevalent pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants, followed by APP and PSEN2. Significant statistically difference was identified among these three genes when comparing the number of pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants (P < 2.2 × 10-16). Most of the previously reported pathogenic variants were re-classified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants while the others were re-evaluated as VUS, highlighting the importance of interpreting APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 variants with caution according to ACMG-AMP guidelines.

6.
Front Neurol ; 12: 628710, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248812

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence has revealed that immunity plays an important role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) progression. However, the results regarding the serum levels of immunoglobulin and complement are inconsistent in patients with ALS. Although immune dysfunctions have also been reported in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, few studies have explored whether immune dysfunction in ALS is similar to that in other neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we performed this study to address these gaps. In the present study, serum levels of immunoglobulin and complement were measured in 245 patients with ALS, 65 patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), 60 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 82 healthy controls (HCs). Multiple comparisons revealed that no significant differences existed between patients with ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases in immunoglobulin and complement levels. Meta-analysis based on data from our cohort and eight published articles was performed to evaluate the serum immunoglobulin and complement between patients with ALS and HCs. The pooled results showed that patients with ALS had higher C4 levels than HCs. In addition, we found that the IgG levels were lower in early-onset ALS patients than in late-onset ALS patients and HCs, and the correlations between age at onset of ALS and IgG or IgA levels were significant positive. In conclusion, our data supplement existing literature on understanding the role of peripheral immunity in ALS.

7.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172279

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) overlap clinically and pathologically. However, the role of FTD-associated genes in patients with AD remained unclear. To explore the relationship between FTD-associated genes and AD risk, we investigated 14 FTD-associated genes via targeted next-generation sequencing panel or whole-genome sequencing in a total of 721 AD patients and 1391 controls. Common variant-based association analysis and gene-based association test of rare variants were performed by PLINK 1.9 and Sequence Kernel Association Test-Optimal (SKAT-O test) respectively. As a result, 2 common variants, UBQLN1 rs1044175 (p value = 2.76 × 10-4) and MAPT rs2258689 (p value = 5.71 × 10-4), differed significantly between AD patients and controls. Additionally, gene-based analysis aggregating rare variants demonstrated that HNRNPA1 reached statistical significance in the SKAT-O test (p value = 2.24 × 10-3). Protein-protein interaction analysis showed that UBQLN1, MAPT, and HNRNPA1 interacted with proteins encoded by well-recognized AD-associated genes. Our study indicated that UBQLN1, MAPT, and HNRNPA1 are implicated in the pathogenesis of AD in the mainland Chinese population.

8.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 27(8): 930-940, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942994

RESUMO

AIMS: NOTCH3 gene mutations predominantly cause cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, a common etiology of subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD). Besides, there may be a pathogenic link between NOTCH3 variants and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to study the role of NOTCH3 variants in AD and SVaD patients. METHODS: We recruited 763 patients with dementia (667 AD and 96 SVaD) and 365 healthy controls from the Southern Han Chinese population. Targeted capture sequencing was performed on NOTCH3 coding and adjacent intron regions to detect the pathogenic variants in AD and SVaD. The relationship between common or rare NOTCH3 variants and AD was further analyzed using Plink1.9. RESULTS: Five known pathogenic variants (p.R182C, p.C201S, p.R544C, p.R607C, and p.R1006C) and two novel likely pathogenic variants (p.C201F and p.C1061F) were detected in 16 SVaD patients. Additionally, no pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were found in AD patients. NOTCH3 was not associated with AD in either single-variant association analysis or gene-based association analysis. CONCLUSION: Our findings broaden the mutational spectrum of NOTCH3 and validate the pathogenic role of NOTCH3 mutations in SVaD, but do not support the notion that NOTCH3 variation influences the risk of AD.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(8): 11352-11362, 2021 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three polymorphisms in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T, A1298C, and A1793G) were reported associated with AD. However, their genotype distributions and associations with age at onset (AAO), homocysteine, and white matter lesions (WML) were unclear in the Chinese AD population. METHOD: We determined the presence of C677T, A1298C, and A1793G polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene using Sanger sequencing in a Chinese cohort comprising 721 AD patients (318 early-onset AD patients (EOAD) and 403 late-onset AD patients (LOAD)) and 365 elderly controls. Additionally, the homocysteine level and WML were evaluated in 121 AD patients. RESULTS: The frequency of allele T of C677T polymorphism was significantly higher in AD patients than in controls (P = 0.040), while no statistical difference was observed in A1298C and A1793G (P > 0.05). Besides, genotype distributions of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms statistically varied between AD patients and controls (P = 0.021, P = 0.012). Moreover, the AAO was significantly lower in CT/TT (C677T) genotypes carriers (P = 0.042) and higher in AC/CC (A1298C) and AG/GG (A1793G) genotypes carriers (P = 0.034, P = 0.009) in patients with LOAD. We also found that patients with CT/TT (C677T) genotypes were prone to present an increased homocysteine level (P = 0.036) and higher Fazekas score (P = 0.024). In comparison, patients with AG/GG genotypes (A1793G) had a significantly lower Fazekas score (P = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: The genotype distributions of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are associated with AD in the Chinese population. Moreover, AD patients with C677T polymorphism are prone to present an earlier onset, higher homocysteine level, and more severe WML.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Homocisteína/sangue , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Substância Branca/patologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Alelos , Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
Front Genet ; 12: 583695, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692822

RESUMO

Background: Vitamin D insufficiency has been considered a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in several studies. Recently, four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to be genome-wide significant for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were identified to have an association with the risk of AD. These include GC rs2282679 A>C, CYP2R1 rs10741657 T>C, DHCR7 rs12785878 T>C, and CYP24A1 rs6013897 T>A. However, the association between these polymorphisms and AD susceptibility in the Chinese population remains unclear. Methods: A case-control cohort study was conducted in 676 AD patients (mean age at onset was 69.52 ± 10.90 years, male: 39.2%) and 551 healthy controls (mean age was 67.73 ± 6.02 years, male: 44.8%). Genotyping was determined by PCR and SNaPshot sequencing. To determine whether the four SNPs account for risks in AD in Chinese population, multivariate logistic regression models were performed. Stratified analysis was performed based on gender and age of onset of AD, separately. Statistical significance was set at 0.0125 (0.05/4) based on Bonferroni correction. Findings: DHCR7 rs12785878 T>C was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) (n = 300, risk allele C, adjusted OR = 1.542, adjusted 95% CI = 1.176-2.023, p = 0.002). There was no statistical significance of the other three SNPs between the two groups. Interpretation: Our results suggested that DHCR7 rs12785878 T>C might be associated with an increased risk of EOAD in the Chinese population, while other polymorphisms related to vitamin D insufficiency might not be. However, due to the limited data in this study, replication studies in a larger sample are required.

11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(10): 893-901, 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749734

RESUMO

GGGGCC repeats in a non-coding region of the C9orf72 gene have been identified as a major genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. We previously showed that the GGGGCC expanded repeats alone were sufficient to cause neurodegeneration in Drosophila. Recent evidence indicates that GGGGCC expanded repeats can modify various gene transcriptomes. To determine the role of these genes in GGGGCC-mediated neurotoxicity, we screened an established Drosophila model expressing GGGGCC expanded repeats in this study. Our results showed that knockdown of the DNA topoisomerase II (Top2) gene can specifically modulate GGGGCC-associated neurodegeneration of the eye. Furthermore, chemical inhibition of Top2 or siRNA-induced Top2 downregulation could alleviate the GGGGCC-mediated neurotoxicity in Drosophila assessed by eye neurodegeneration and locomotion impairment. By contrast, upregulated Top2 levels were detected in Drosophila strains, and moreover, TOP2A level was also upregulated in Neuro-2a cells expressing GGGGCC expanded repeats, as well as in the brains of Sod1G93A model mice. This indicated that elevated levels of TOP2A may be involved in a pathway common to the pathophysiology of distinct ALS forms. Moreover, through RNA-sequencing, a total of 67 genes, involved in the pathways of intracellular signaling cascades, peripheral nervous system development, and others, were identified as potential targets of TOP2A to modulate GGGGCC-mediated neurodegeneration.

12.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 46(2): 189-194, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678657

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common senile neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive dysfunction, psychological and behavioral abnormalities, and impaired ability of activities of daily living. A family with a total of 3 patients were admitted to the Department of Neurology of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University in 2018. The proband showed memory decline as the presenting symptoms, and subsequently showed psychological and behavioral abnormalities, personality changes, seizures, and motor retardation. Definite diagnosis of early-onset familial AD (EOFAD) with missense mutation of presenilin 2 (PSEN2) (c.715A>G p.M239V) was established by whole exome sequencing (WES) technology. We reported the mutation in Chinese Han population for the first time, which expanded the mutation spectrum ofPSEN2 gene and aid to enrich the characterization of clinical phenotype in EOFAD associated to PSEN2 mutations. Patients with early onset age and complex clinical manifestations of AD can be diagnosed with the help of genetic testing to avoid misdiagnosis.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Atividades Cotidianas , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Presenilina-1/genética , Presenilina-2/genética
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538206

RESUMO

Backgbround: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common presenile dementia, characterized by prominent behavioral, language, and cognitive impairment, which has a strong genetic component contributing to its pathogenesis. Due to geographical and ethnic variability, the prevalence of the causative genes of FTD may be different. Methods: To explore the genetics of FTD in the Chinese population, we reviewed 97 closely related studies that were searched in PubMed and Web of Science. In this review, we summarized the characteristics of each FTD gene. We also reassessed their pathogenicity and revised some mutations from pathogenic to uncertain significance according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG). Results: Thirty-two rare variants in genes of MAPT, GRN, C9orf72, CHCHD10, VCP, and TBK1 were identified in Chinese FTD populations, including 25 pathogenic mutations and seven variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Among them, the frequency of rare variants in the CHCHD10 gene was the highest. Surprisingly, twelve variants reported as pathogenic mutations were revised as VUS by ACMG. The correlations between genes and clinical manifestations were MAPT and frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), GRN and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP), C9orf72/CHCHD10/TBK1 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-FTD spectrum, and VCP corresponds inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). Conclusions: It is necessary to strictly interpret the contributions of genes to diseases by ACMG. MAPT is the most common pathogenic gene for FTD in China.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Demência Frontotemporal , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal , China/epidemiologia , Demência Frontotemporal/epidemiologia , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Humanos , Mutação/genética
14.
Neurobiol Aging ; 97: 145.e17-145.e22, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690342

RESUMO

Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10 (LRP10) is associated with a series of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease which share genetic risk factors and pathophysiological processes with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To investigate whether LRP10 variants could cause a predisposition to ALS, we screened rare, pathogenic LRP10 variants among a cohort of 584 patients with ALS from mainland China and performed burden analysis using data from a large external database. A total of 7 rare, pathogenic variants in LRP10, of which one (c.1182A>T, p.R394S) was novel, were identified in 11 unrelated patients. Burden analysis revealed significant associations between ALS and LRP10 at both the gene and single-variant levels (c.1721G>A, p.R574Q; c.1182A>T, p.R394S; and c.1681C>T, p.R561C). Interestingly, patients with sporadic ALS carrying variant c.1721G>A tended to have a bulbar onset, increased phenotype severity, and a worse prognosis. Our findings first provide independent evidence that rare, pathogenic LRP10 variants may be risk factors for ALS and delineate a special phenotype in patients with sporadic ALS carrying variant c.1721G>A.

15.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 11(1): 93-105, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104043

RESUMO

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is an atypical parkinsonism with prominent 4R-tau neuropathology, and the classical clinical phenotype is characterized by vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, unprovoked falls, akinetic-rigid syndrome and cognitive decline. Though PSP is generally regarded as sporadic, there is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of common and rare genetic variants impact on sporadic and familial forms of PSP. To date, more than 10 genes have been reported to show a potential association with PSP. Among these genes, the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) is the risk locus with the strongest effect size on sporadic PSP in the case-control genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Additionally, MAPT mutations are the most common cause of familial PSP while the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a rare monogenic cause of PSP, and several other gene mutations may mimic the PSP phenotype, like the dynactin subunit 1 (DCTN1). In total, 15 MAPT mutations have been identified in cases with PSP, and the mean age at onset is much earlier than in cases carrying LRRK2 or DCTN1 mutations. GWAS have further identified several risk loci of PSP, proposing molecular pathways related to PSP. The present review focused on genetic studies on PSP and summarized genetic factors of PSP, which may help to elucidate the underlying pathogenesis and provide new perspectives for therapeutic strategies.

16.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 581524, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192475

RESUMO

Amyloid protein deposition is a common mechanism of hereditary amyloidosis (HA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mutations of gelsolin (GSN), cystatin C (CST3), transthyretin (TTR), and integral membrane protein 2B (ITM2B) genes can lead to HA. But the relationship is unclear between these genes and AD. Genes targeted sequencing (GTS), including GSN, CST3, TTR, and ITM2B, was performed in a total of 636 patients with clinical AD and 365 normal controls from China. As a result, according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines, two novel likely pathogenic frame-shift mutations (GSN:c.1036delA:p.K346fs and GSN:c.8_35del:p.P3fs) were detected in five patients with AD, whose initial symptom was memory decline, accompanied with psychological and behavioral abnormalities later. Interestingly, the patient with K346fs mutation, presented cerebral ß-amyloid protein deposition, had an early onset (48 years) and experienced rapid progression, while the other four patients with P3fs mutation had a late onset [(Mean ± SD): 69.50 ± 5.20 years] and a long course of illness [(Mean ± SD): 9.24 ± 4.86 years]. Besides, we also discovered 17 variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in these four genes. To our knowledge, we are the first to report AD phenotype with GSN mutations in patients with AD in the Chinese cohort. Although mutations in the GSN gene are rare, it may explain a small portion of clinically diagnosed AD.

17.
Front Neurol ; 11: 538301, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178099

RESUMO

Objective: This review summarizes recent findings on the epigenetics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and provides therapeutic strategies for AD. Methods: We searched the following keywords: "genetics," "epigenetics," "Alzheimer's disease," "DNA methylation," "DNA hydroxymethylation," "histone modifications," "non-coding RNAs," and "therapeutic strategies" in PubMed. Results: In this review, we summarizes recent studies of epigenetics in AD, including DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. There are no consistent results of global DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation in AD. Epigenetic genome-wide association studies show that many differentially methylated sites exist in AD. Several studies investigate the role of histone modifications in AD; for example, histone acetylation decreases, whereas H3 phosphorylation increases significantly in AD. In addition, non-coding RNAs, such as microRNA-16 and BACE1-antisense transcript (BACE1-AS), are associated with the pathology of AD. These epigenetic changes provide us with novel insights into the pathogenesis of AD and may be potential therapeutic strategies for AD. Conclusion: Epigenetics is associated with the pathogenesis of AD, including DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs, which provide potential therapeutic strategies for AD.

18.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 584801, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240075

RESUMO

The genes involved in the metabolic pathways of amyloid-ß (Aß) and tau proteins significantly influence the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Various studies have explored the associations between some of these genes and AD in the Caucasian population; however, researches regarding these associations remain limited in the Chinese population. To systematically evaluate the associations of these genes with AD, we investigated 19 genes involved in the metabolism of Aß and tau based on previous studies selected using the PubMed database. This study included 372 patients with sporadic late-onset AD (sLOAD) and 345 cognitively healthy individuals from southern China. The results were replicated in the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP). Protein-protein interactions were determined using the STRING v11 database. We found that a single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs11682128, of BIN1 conferred susceptibility to sLOAD after adjusting for age, sex, and APOE ε4 status and performing the Bonferroni correction {corrected P = 0.000153, odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.403 (1.079-1.824)}, which was replicated in the IGAP. Protein-protein interactions indicated that BIN1 was correlated with MAPT. Moreover, rare variants of NEP and FERMT2 (0.0026 < corrected P < 0.05), and the Aß degradation, tau pathology, and tau phosphatase pathways (0.01 < corrected P < 0.05), were nominally significantly associated with sLOAD. This study suggested that the genes involved in the metabolic pathways of Aß and tau contributed to the etiology of sLOAD in the southern Han Chinese population.

19.
Front Genet ; 11: 821, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193563

RESUMO

Variants in the DNAJC7 gene have been shown to be novel causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the contributions of DNAJC7 mutations in Asian ALS patients remain unclear. In this study, we screened rare pathogenic variants in the DNAJC7 gene in a cohort of 578 ALS patients from Mainland China. A novel, rare, putative pathogenic variant c.712A>G (p.R238G) was identified in one sporadic ALS patient. The carrier with this variant exhibited symptom onset at a relatively younger age and experienced rapid disease progression. Our results expand the pathogenic variant spectrum of DNAJC7 and indicate that variants in the DNAJC7 gene may also contribute to ALS in the Chinese population.

20.
Front Genet ; 11: 562758, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983232

RESUMO

The expanded GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat in the non-coding region of the C9orf72 gene is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). There are three main disease mechanisms: loss of function of C9ORF72 protein, gain of function from the accumulation of sense and antisense (GGGGCC)n in RNA, and from the production of toxic dipeptides repeat proteins (DPRs) by non-AUG initiated translation. While many of the downstream mechanisms have been identified, the specific pathogenic pathway is still unclear. In this article, we provide an overview on the currently available literature and propose several hypotheses: (1) The pathogenesis of C9orf72-associated ALS/FTD, which cannot be explained by a single mechanism, involves a dual mechanism of both loss and gain of function. (2) The loss of function and gain of function can cause TDP-43 aggregation and damage nucleocytoplasmic transport. (3) Neurodegeneration can be caused by an accumulation of toxic substances in neurons themselves. In addition, we suggest that microglia may cause neurodegeneration by releasing inflammatory factors to neurons. Finally, we summarize several of the most promising treatment strategies.

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