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J Exp Bot ; 62(13): 4617-25, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21642236


Changes in actual efficiency of PS II photochemistry, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), content of xanthophylls and kinetics of de-epoxidation were studied in ABA-fed and non-ABA-fed leaves of rice and cabbage under NaCl stress. Salt stress induced more progressive decrease in actual efficiency of PS II photochemistry (ФPS II), higher reduction state of PS II, and a small significant increase in NPQ in NaCl-sensitive rice plants as compared with NaCl-tolerant cabbage plants, whereas exogenously supplied ABA alleviated the decrease in actual efficiency of PS II photochemistry (ФPS II), induced a lower reduction state of PS II, and caused higher capacity of NPQ in ABA-fed plants than in non-ABA-fed plants. As a result, there were higher activities of photosynthetic electron transport, higher capacity of energy dissipation, and lower cumulation of excess light in cabbage than in rice plants, and in ABA-fed leaves than in non-ABA-fed leaves. The effect of ABA was more efficient in cabbage than in rice plants. Addition of exogenous ABA resulted in enhancement of the size of the xanthophyll cycle pool, promotion of de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle components, and a rise in the level of NPQ by altering the kinetics of de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle. Protection from photodamage appears to be achieved by coordinated contributions by exogenous ABA and xanthophyll cycle-mediated NPQ. This variety of photoprotective mechanisms may be essential for conferring photodamage tolerance under NaCl stress.

Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Brassica/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Oryza/efeitos da radiação , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/toxicidade , Xantofilas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/metabolismo , Meia-Vida , Cinética , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/metabolismo , Processos Fotoquímicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Processos Fotoquímicos/efeitos da radiação , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação
J Integr Plant Biol ; 50(2): 194-202, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18713442


In an attempt to explore the relationships between phosphatidylglycerol (PG) molecular species of thylakoid membrane lipids and sensitivities to chilling-induced photoinhibition, PG molecular species, D1 protein, electron transport activities of thylakoid membrane and the potential quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)) in rice treated under middle and low photon flux density (PFD) at 11 degrees C were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, enzyme hydrolysis, gas phase chromatography (GC) and so on. Results showed that the major molecular species of PGs in rice thylakoid membrane were 18:3/16:0, 18:3/16:1(3t), 18:2/16:0, 18:2/16:1(3t), 18:1/16:0, 18:1/16:1(3t), 16:0/16:0, 16:0/16:1(3t). There were large differences in the contents of unsaturated PG molecular species such as 18:1 approximately 3/16:0 approximately 16:1(3t) and saturated PG molecular species like 16:0/16:0 approximately 16:1(3t) among japonica cv 9516 (j-9516), japonica-indica hybrid F1 j-9516/i-SY63 (ji-95SY) and indica cv Shanyou 63 (i-SY63). J-9516 containing higher contents of unsaturated PG molecular species was manifest in stable D1 protein contents under chill and tolerant to chill-induced photoinhibition. In contrast to j-9516, i-SY63 with lower contents of unsaturated PG molecular species, exhibited unstable D1 protein contents under chill and was sensitive to chill-induced photoinhibition. ji-95SY containing middle contents of unsaturated PG molecular species between those of j-9516 and i-SY63, exhibited mid extent of sensitivity to chill-induced photoinhibition. The losses in D1 protein also account for the inhibition in electron transport activity of thylakoid membrane and the observed decline in F(v)/F(m). The PG molecular species that is efficient in raising chilling-resistant capacity were those containing unsaturated fatty acids, namely, unsaturated PG molecular species. These results implied that the substrate selectivity of the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase in chloroplasts towards 16:0 or 18:1 displayed greatly the difference between japonica and indica rice. It was possible to enhance the capacity of resistance to chilling-induced photoinhibition by improving or modifying the GPAT gene.

Temperatura Baixa , Luz , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos da radiação , Fosfatidilgliceróis/metabolismo , Tilacoides/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos da radiação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16775404


To study the nature and mechanisms of resistance of rice plants to chilling stress, the effects of low temperature treatment (8 degrees C) on the photosynthetic rate and some important compounds forming redox cycles were measured. The rice varieties used are two japonica rice varieties, i.e., Taipei 309 and Wuyujing; three indica rice varieties, i.e., IR64, Pusa and CA212; and one intermediate type, i.e., Shanyou 63. Three types of varieties were studied by comparing. The light intensity-photosynthesis curves, CO2-photosynthesis curves, primary photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), active oxygen species (AOS) (O2*- and H2O2), glutathione (both oxidized and reduced forms) and ascorbate contents in their six-week old seedlings were measured before and after chilling treatment. The results showed that relative to the rice varieties chilling tolerance such as Taipei 309 and Wuyujing, the sensitive ones indica IR64, Pusa and CA212 exhibited a stronger inhibition of maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmax) (Figs.1 and 2) and a decrease in Fv/Fm (Fig.3), which led to the accumulation of AOS (Fig.6). It was found that the glutathione disulphide (GSSG) content in glutathione pool and that of dehydroascorbate (DHA) in ascorbate pool of the leaves of these sensitive ones under chilling were induced to increase obviously (Table 3). The correlation coefficient between the increases in GSSG, DHA and the decrease of Chl content were -0.701**, -0.656** respectively (Table 4). This indicated that the regeneration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate was inhibited, resulting in accumulations of AOS and the reduction of Chl content (Fig.4) and the inhibition of photosynthetic activity (Fig.1 and Fig.2). The changes in japonica Taibei 309 and Wuyujing were small. And the changes in indica hybrid were lying between the above-mentioned types. Particularly, the ratio of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG (Fig.7) showed similar changes as those in Chl content (Fig.4). The correlation coefficient among Chl content and AsA/DHA, GSH/GSSG were 0.811**, 0.728** respectively (Table 4), significant at 0.01 probability levels. The levels of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG ratio in rice leaves may be the physiological indexes associated with the sensitivity to chilling in rice varieties.

Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Oryza/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
Yi Chuan Xue Bao ; 31(2): 195-201, 2004 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15473312


By cross breeding, the maize pepc gene in the pepc transgenic rice was successfully incorporated into the parents of two-, three-line hybrid rice, including sterile lines (Peiai64S, 2302S, 2304S, 2306S and Shuangjiu A) and restorer lines (5129, 02428 and Wanjing97) to breed the high-photosynthetic efficiency parents of hybrid rice and utilize heterosis between C4 and C4/C3 rice. Some lines of pepc transgenic rice (LPTR) have been developed. The study on the generations of LPTR suggests the following: (1) The segregation observed in F2 and BC1 progenies demonstrated that pepc transgene inherited as a single dominant gene in the progenies of LPTR. (2) The maize pepc gene is actively expressed at high level in LPTR, and changes of pepc gene expression in the progenies of LPTR may be related to position effect, difference of gene copy number and environmental factors. (3) Through the selection method of soaking seeds into hygromycin solution to germinate, tracing the pepc gene by PCR analysis, evaluating the performance of the rice plants in the field and examining PEPC activities, the segregation of the pepc transgene in LPTR was controlled effectively. Based on the above strategy three pepc transgene lines, H1596, H1597 and Y1470, have been selected. The result suggests that it is possible to breed practical, stable and high-expression pepc transgenic rice by conventional crossing.

Genes de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Zea mays/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Ligação Genética , Zea mays/enzimologia