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1.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462533

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a complex infectious disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) which has coexisted with humanity since the Neolithic. Recent research indicated that SIRT3 plays a pivotal role in promoting the antimycobacterial response of mitochondria and autophagy during Mtb infection. A case-control study comprised 900 TB patients and 1534 healthy controls who were retrospectively enrolled to assess the association between Sirt3 gene polymorphisms and TB susceptibility. In total, five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs511744, rs3782118, rs7104764, rs536715 and rs28365927) were selected through database 1000 Genomes Project and offline software Haploview V4.2 and genotyped by a customized 2 × 48-Plex SNPscan™ Kit. Our results suggested that the minor allele genotypes (A carriers) of rs3782118 confers the decreased risk of TB susceptibility (pBonferroni = 0.032), and a similar but more significant effect was observed under the dominant model analysis (OR 0.787, 95% CI 0.666-0.931, pBonferroni = 0.026). Haplotype analysis showed that haplotype AGAAG (rs511744/rs3782118/rs7104764/rs536715/rs28365927) was associated with an increased risk of TB (p = 0.023, OR 1.159, 95% CI 1.019-1.317). In stratification analysis, we found that rs3782118 was associated with decreased risk of TB in female subgroup under the dominant model analysis (pBonferroni = 0.016, OR 0.678, 95% CI 0.523-0.878). Moreover, functional annotations for three loci (rs7930823, rs3782116 and rs3782115) which are strongly linked to rs3782118 indicated that they may be responsible for the changes in some motifs. In conclusion, our study suggested that the SNP rs3782118 was associated with a lower susceptibility to TB, especially under the dominant model analysis and that the haplotype AGAAG (containing the major allele G of rs3782118) was associated with an increased risk of TB. Further independent cohort studies are necessary to validate the protective effect of Sirt3 genetic variants on the risk of TB.

2.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(4): 419-22, 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275373

RESUMO

Professor CHEN Ri-xin's academic idea of "pain in joint and disorder in tendon region of meridian" was explored in this paper. According to the particular characteristics of the occurrence and development of the disease, knee arthralgia is divided into 4 stages, named tendon spasm, tendon blockage, tendon contraction and tendon atrophy. It is proposed that "tendon disorder results in bone disorder", implying the relationship between the disorders of tendon and bone. It is pointed that yang qi insufficiency occurs throughout knee arthralgia. "The tendon disorder should be treated at the first-line procedure for the bone disorder, and the tendon softening benefits the recovery of knee joints". The treatment principle includes "removing obstruction from meridian, eliminating pathogen, warming up yang and softening tendon". In clinical application, the heat-sensitive moxibustion is predominated. The various regimens are developed align with the pathogenesis characteristics of the disease at different stages.

3.
Infect Genet Evol ; 83: 104324, 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Host immune response have a pivotal role in the course of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. IL27 plays both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities in infectious diseases via STAT1/STAT3 mechanism. To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL27 and STAT3 on the susceptibility of tuberculosis, we conducted a large size of case-control study in western Chinese Han population. METHODS: A total of seven SNPs were genotyped using multiplex ligation detection reaction method in 900 patients with tuberculosis and 1534 healthy controls. RESULTS: Variants of three SNPs (rs181206, rs17855750, rs26528) within IL27 gene, the genotype and allele frequencies of rs17855750 were significantly different (p = .013, p = .004, respectively) between the TB patients and healthy controls. Subjects carrying C allele for rs17855750 showed a decreased tuberculosis risk (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.62-0.91, p = .004). Genetic model analysis revealed that dominant modal was associated with lower TB risk (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.60-0.92, p = .042). Haplotype of ACG (representing rs181206, rs17855750 and rs26528) showed a reduced risk to TB (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.65-0.96, p = .017). There were no significant differences between TB cases and healthy controls in the variants of four SNPs (rs1053005, rs2293152, rs744166, rs4796793) within STAT3 gene. CONCLUSIONS: The polymorphisms of IL27, rs17855750, but not rs181206 and rs26528, plays a protective role on the susceptibility to TB.

4.
Ann Bot ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Development of the velamen radicum on the outer surface of the root epidermis is an important characteristic for water uptake and retention in some plant families, particularly in epiphytic orchids, for survival under water-limited environments. Velamen radicum cells derive from the primary root meristem, however, following this development, velamen radicum cells die by incompletely understood processes of programmed cell death (PCD). METHODS: We combined the use of transmission electron microscopy, x-ray microtomography, and transcriptome methods to characterize the major anatomical and molecular changes that occur during the development and death of velamen radicum cells of Cymbidium tracyanum, a typical epiphytic orchid, to determine how PCD occurs. KEY RESULTS: Typical changes of PCD in anatomy and gene expression were observed in the development of velamen radicum cells. During the initiation of PCD, we found that both cell and vacuole size increased, and several genes involved in brassinosteroid and ethylene pathways were up-regulated. In the stage of secondary cell wall formation, significant anatomical changes included DNA degradation, cytoplasm thinning, organelle decrease, vacuole rupture and cell wall thickening. Changes were found in the expression of genes related to the biosynthesis of cellulose and lignin, which are instrumental in the formation of secondary cell walls, and are regulated by cytoskeleton-related factors and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. In the final stage of PCD, cell autolysis was terminated from the outside to the inside of the velamen radicum. The regulation of genes related to autophagy, vacuolar processing enzyme, cysteine proteases and metacaspase were involved in the final execution of cell death and autolysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results found that the development of the root velamen radicum in an epiphytic orchid was controlled by the process of PCD, which included initiation of PCD, followed by formation of the secondary cell wall, and execution of autolysis following cell death.

5.
J Clin Microbiol ; 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295893

RESUMO

Background Clinically diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients lack Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) microbiologic evidence, and misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis often occurs as a consequence. We investigated the potential of lncRNAs and corresponding predictive models to diagnose these patients.Methods We enrolled 1764 subjects, including clinically diagnosed PTB patients, microbiologically-confirmed PTB cases, non-TB disease controls and healthy controls, in three cohorts (Screening, Selection and Validation). Candidate lncRNAs differentially expressed in blood samples of the PTB and healthy control groups were identified by microarray and qRT-PCR in the Screening Cohort. Logistic regression models were developed using lncRNAs and/or electronic health records (EHRs) from clinically diagnosed PTB patients and non-TB disease controls in the Selection Cohort. These models were evaluated by AUC and decision curve analysis, and the optimal model was presented as a Web-based nomogram, which was evaluated in the Validation Cohort.Results Three differentially expressed lncRNAs (ENST00000497872, n333737, n335265) were identified. The optimal model (i.e., nomogram) incorporated these three lncRNAs and six EHRs (age, hemoglobin, weight loss, low-grade fever, CT calcification and TB-IGRA). The nomogram showed an AUC of 0.89, sensitivity of 0.86 and specificity of 0.82 in differentiating clinically diagnosed PTB from non-TB disease controls of the Validation Cohort, which demonstrated better discrimination and clinical net benefit than the EHR model. The nomogram also had a discriminative power (AUC: 0.90, sensitivity 0.85, specificity 0.81) in identifying microbiologically-confirmed PTB patients.Conclusions LncRNAs and the user-friendly nomogram could facilitate the early identification of PTB cases among suspected patients with negative MTB microbiologic evidence.

6.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170986

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Combination regimens of six-month duration may increase the incidence of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury (ATLI), which is clinically characterized by mild cholestasis and hepatocanalicular lesions. UGT2B4 is a predominant UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzyme in the human liver that plays an important role in the detoxification of bile acids, which yields water-soluble inactive compounds that can easily be excreted in the bile or urine. This study aimed to investigate the potential association between UGT2B4 variants and the susceptibility to ATLI. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood sample of each patient, and all SNPs were genotyped using an improved multiplex ligation detection reaction method. Clinical symptoms and laboratory results were recorded regularly. Five genetic variants at UGT2B4 (rs1131878, rs1966151, rs28361541, rs4557343 and rs79407331) were identified in a prospective study of 118 ATLI cases and 628 non-ATLI controls. All participants were treated by first-line anti-TB drugs in Western China Hospital. The potential association between SNPs, ATLI risk and clinical phenotypes were determined based on the distribution of allelic frequencies and different genetic models. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Statistical comparisons of cases and controls after correction for multiple testing did not yield any significant association between genetic variants at UGT2B4 and risk of ATLI via the analyses of single locus and subgroup differences. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: This is the first study aimed to investigate the association of UGT2B4 polymorphisms with ATLI risk. Our results revealed that UGT2B4 genetic variants are unlikely to confer susceptibility to ATLI in the Western Chinese Han population.

7.
Nature ; 579(7800): 523-527, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214254

RESUMO

Spin-triplet superconductors are condensates of electron pairs with spin 1 and an odd-parity wavefunction1. An interesting manifestation of triplet pairing is the chiral p-wave state, which is topologically non-trivial and provides a natural platform for realizing Majorana edge modes2,3. However, triplet pairing is rare in solid-state systems and has not been unambiguously identified in any bulk compound so far. Given that pairing is usually mediated by ferromagnetic spin fluctuations, uranium-based heavy-fermion systems containing f-electron elements, which can harbour both strong correlations and magnetism, are considered ideal candidates for realizing spin-triplet superconductivity4. Here we present scanning tunnelling microscopy studies of the recently discovered heavy-fermion superconductor UTe2, which has a superconducting transition temperature of 1.6 kelvin5. We find signatures of coexisting Kondo effect and superconductivity that show competing spatial modulations within one unit cell. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy at step edges reveals signatures of chiral in-gap states, which have been predicted to exist at the boundaries of topological superconductors. Combined with existing data that indicate triplet pairing in UTe2, the presence of chiral states suggests that UTe2 is a strong candidate for chiral-triplet topological superconductivity.

8.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 19: 974-985, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036249

RESUMO

Drug resistance is the major obstacle of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy for the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are reported to play vital roles in cancer initiation and progression. Here, we report that lncRNA SLC7A11-AS1 is involved in gemcitabine resistance of PDAC. SLC7A11-AS1 is overexpressed in PDAC tissues and gemcitabine-resistant cell lines. Knockdown of SLC7A11-AS1 weakens the PDAC stemness and potentiates the sensitivity of resistant PDAC cells toward gemcitabine in vitro and in vivo. SLC7A11-AS1 promotes chemoresistance through reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by stabilizing nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2), the key regulator in antioxidant defense. Mechanically, SLC7A11-AS1 is co-localized with ß-TRCP1 in the nucleus. The exon 3 of SLC7A11-AS1 interacts with the F-box motif of ß-TRCP1, the critical domain that recruits ß-TRCP1 to the SCFß-TRCP E3 complex. This interaction prevents the consequent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of NRF2 in the nucleus. Our results demonstrate that the overexpression of SLC7A11-AS1 in gemcitabine-resistant PDAC cells can scavenge ROS by blocking SCFß-TRCP-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of NRF2, leading to a low level of intracellular ROS, which is required for the maintenance of cancer stemness. These findings suggest SLC7A11-AS1 as a therapeutic target to overcome gemcitabine resistance for PDAC treatment.

9.
Science ; 367(6473): 104-108, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896719

RESUMO

The possible realization of Majorana fermions as quasiparticle excitations in condensed-matter physics has created much excitement. Most studies have focused on Majorana bound states; however, propagating Majorana states with linear dispersion have also been predicted. Here, we report scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements of crystalline domain walls (DWs) in FeSe0.45Te0.55 We located DWs across which the lattice structure shifts by half a unit cell. These DWs have a finite, flat density of states inside the superconducting gap, which is a hallmark of linearly dispersing modes in one dimension. This signature is absent in DWs in the related superconductor, FeSe, which is not in the topological phase. Our combined data are consistent with the observation of dispersing Majorana states at a π-phase shift DW in a proximitized topological material.

10.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(1): 57-62, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794672

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of the disease tuberculosis (TB). Macrophages eliminate the Mtb, delivering it to the degradative, phagolysosomal compartment for degradation, in which reactive oxygen species generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPHO) plays an important role. In our study, we aimed at investigating the association of polymorphisms in neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 (NCF2) gene, the core component of NADPHO, with susceptibility of TB in the Western Chinese Han population. We conducted a case-control study of 900 cases and 1534 controls and genotyped four single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the NCF2 gene. We found that the rs10911362 variants were associated with a decreased TB risk in this population (odds ratio [ORG] = 0.83 [0.72-0.95], ORadd = 0.83 [0.72-0.95], ORdom = 0.78 [0.66-0.93], p < 0.05). rs10911362 might fall in a transcriptional factor binding site associated with ZNF410 and may be the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) for the SMG7 gene according to the Ensembl data. Our study demonstrated for the first time that the G allele of NCF2 rs10911362 provided a protective role against TB risk in the Western Chinese Han population.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tuberculose/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Gene Med ; 22(2): e3148, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The negative signal provided by some co-inhibitory factors such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) has been associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection induced-T cell exhaustion, although the correlation of CpG methylation of the Pdcd1 gene with PD-1 expression and medical laboratory indicators in CHB infection has not yet been elucidated. METHODS: Blood samples from 20 CHB infection patients and 20 spontaneous clearance (SC) patients were collected. Percentages of PD-1-positive CD8+ T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of CpG methylation at the Pdcd1 locus was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing. Student's t test, Pearson and Spearman's correlation, and Mann-Whitney tests were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Percentages of PD-1-positive CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood T cells were significantly higher in CHB patients than in the SC group (p < 0.001). The methylation level of Pdcd1 was significantly lower in CHB patients (p < 0.001) and the methylation level of Pdcd1 was negatively correlated with PD-1 expression level in CD8+ T cells (p < 0.001) and hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest that Pdcd1 methylation is correlated with PD-1 expression on CD8+ T cells and correlated with HBsAg and alanine aminotransferase. The results may provide new ideas regarding anti-PD-1 inhibitors, and epigenetic regulators such as demethylation inhibitors could represent more successful therapeutic strategies in hepatitis B infection patients.

12.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 60(3): 361-368, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648372

RESUMO

Six-month combination regimens could lead to serious hepatotoxicity, which may limit the clinical use of antituberculosis drugs. ABCC transporters are critical to the influx and efflux of compounds into and out of cells. The aim of this study was to explore whether the genetic variants in ABCC genes were related to the development of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Here, we screened and genotyped 39 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 13 ABCC genes in 746 eligible patients treated by first-line antituberculosis drugs in Western China Hospital. Genomic DNA was extracted from a peripheral blood sample of each patient, and clinical symptoms and laboratory results were recorded regularly. We found that the incidence rate of hepatotoxicity was 15.8% in the western Chinese Han population. As a result, the ABCC2 rs3740065 genotype, sex, and the baseline level of alanine aminotransferase are independent risk factors of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity, with P values of .008, .014, and <.001, respectively. Our findings revealed a fraction of the underlying mechanism of hepatotoxicity, and larger validation studies on different populations are warranted to confirm these findings.

13.
Pathol Res Pract ; 216(1): 152762, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is one of the major malignant tumors in the world. Integrins expressed in cancer cells can promote tumor progression and migration. MiRNAs can inhibit the expression of target genes by directly binding to their mRNAs and can affect various important biological processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-124- 3p and ITGB3 in gastric cancer. METHODS: RT-PCR and western blot are used to detect the expression of miR-124-3p, ITGB3 and integrin ß3 in gastric cancer tissues and cells. The wound healing, CCK-8 assay, transwell migration and invasion assay were performed to determine the cell proliferation, migration and invasion. What's more, bioinformatics prediction and luciferase assay was conducted to demonstrated the binding efficiency between miR-124-3p and ITGB3. RESULTS: We verified that ITGB3 and miR-124-3p changes the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells in vitro. The overexpression or silencing of miR-124-3p inhibited or promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of both selected gastric cancer cells, and ITGB3 is just the reverse. Meanwhile, we validated that ITGB3 is the target of miR-124-3p by bioinformatics prediction and luciferase assay. Lastly, the expression of ITGB3 in 40 pairs of gastric cancer tissues were significantly higher than that in the adjacent normal tissues, while the expression level of miR-124-3p was significantly decreased in cancer tissues. CONCLUSIONS: miR-124-3p inhibits the migration and invasion of Gastric cancer by targeting ITGB3 in gastric cancer cells. Our results suggested that miR-124-3p and ITGB3 may reasonably serve as a promising therapeutic target.

14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 91: 223-231, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) polymorphisms and susceptibility to anti-tuberculous therapy-associated drug-induced liver injury (ATT-DILI). METHODS: A total of 746 tuberculosis (TB) patients were enrolled in this study. Twenty-one selected single nucleotide polymorphisms in BCL2 were analyzed by custom-by-design 2×48-Plex SNPscan kit. The allele and genotype frequencies between patients with and without ATT-DILI were compared using three different genetic models. RESULTS: A total of 727/746 participants were successfully genotyped, and 112 of them were diagnosed with ATT-DILI. The A allele of rs8085707, G allele of rs76986960, and A allele of rs949037 conferred an increased risk of ATT-DILI, with estimated odd ratios (ORs) of 2.181 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.345-3.536, p=0.001), 1.983 (95% CI 1.060-3.709, p=0.029), and 1.390 (95% CI 1.032-1.873, p=0.03), respectively. Bonferroni correction indicated that the A allele of rs8085707 was a risk factor for ATT-DILI (Bonferroni correction: p=0.026). The additive model suggested that patients with the AA genotype of rs8085707 had a significantly higher risk of ATT-DILI compared with those with the GG genotype (Bonferroni correction: p=0.036). The influence of BCL2 polymorphisms on clinical characteristics (clinical symptoms, disease subtypes, and laboratory indicators) was also identified. CONCLUSIONS: This study is novel in suggesting an association between BCL2 polymorphisms and the risk of ATT-DILI.

15.
Infect Genet Evol ; 78: 104145, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The infection process of tuberculosis is related to the interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and the host immune system. Polymorphisms in genes involved in the host immune system are related to susceptibility to tuberculosis. The Notch signalling pathway regulates innate and adaptive immunity. Notch4 is a member of the Notch receptor family and may be a negative regulator of Mtb-induced inflammation. However, little is known about the association between Notch4 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to tuberculosis; therefore, we explored the association between Notch4 variants and susceptibility to tuberculosis in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 900 tuberculosis patients and 1534 healthy people serving as controls were enrolled consecutively at West China Hospital between January 2014 and February 2016 Twelve selected SNPs (rs2071277, rs2071285, rs206016, rs438475, rs2256594, rs429853, rs422951, rs415929, rs915895, rs443198, rs3830041 and rs375244) were genotyped by a custom-by-design 2 48-plex SNP scan TM kit. The frequencies of the alleles, genotypes and genetic models of the variants were compared between the two groups, while the SNP-SNP interactions were analysed by Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) software. The odds ratio (OR) with a corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. RESULTS: The G allele rs2071277 of Notch4 was associated with a decreased risk for tuberculosis (OR 0.844; 95% CI 0.748-0.954, p = .006). The G allele rs422951 of Notch4 was associated with a decreased risk for tuberculosis (OR 0.818; 95% CI 0.703-0.950, p = .008). These findings were consistent with the results from both the dominant model and additive model. The allele, genotype and genetic model frequencies for the other SNPs were similar in the two groups (all P > .05). One haplotype (GTG) consisting of rs2071277, rs2071285 and rs206016 was associated with tuberculosis risk (p = .011). CONCLUSION: Ours is the first study implies that the G allele variants of rs2071277 and rs422951 in Notch4 influence susceptibility to tuberculosis in a Chinese population, suggesting that Notch signalling is involved in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. More studies with functional verification will refine our understanding of the role of Notch signalling and provide novel avenues for therapeutic intervention.

16.
New Phytol ; 225(1): 135-142, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571219

RESUMO

Few studies have explored how - within the same system - clonality and positive plant-plant interactions might interact to regulate plant community composition. Canopy-dwelling epiphytes in species-rich forests provide an ideal system for studying this because many epiphytic vascular plants undertake clonal growth and because vascular epiphytes colonize canopy habitats after the formation of nonvascular epiphyte (i.e. bryophyte and lichen) mats. We investigated how clonal integration of seven dominant vascular epiphytes influenced inter-specific interactions between vascular epiphytes and nonvascular epiphytes in a subtropical montane moist forest in southwest China. Both clonal integration and environmental buffering from nonvascular epiphytes increased survival and growth of vascular epiphytes. The benefits of clonal integration for vascular epiphytes were higher when nonvascular epiphytes were removed. Similarly, facilitation from nonvascular epiphytes played a more important role when clonal integration of vascular epiphytes was eliminated. Overall, clonal integration had greater benefits than inter-specific facilitation. This study provides novel evidence for interactive effects of clonality and facilitation between vascular and nonvascular species, and has implications for our understanding of a wide range of ecosystems where both high levels of clonality and facilitation are expected to occur.

17.
Infect Genet Evol ; 79: 104147, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857256

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury (ATDILI) is a common and sometimes severe adverse drug reaction (ADR). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms of two genes, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), and the risk of ATDILI in Western Chinese Han population. METHODS: A total of 118 tuberculosis (TB) patients with ATDILI and 628 TB patients without ATDILI during anti-TB treatment were recruited from West China Hospital of Sichuan University. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, and genotypes of the selected 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (3 SNPs in the POR gene and 9 SNPs in the PPARα gene) were determined. Three genetic models (additive, dominant, and recessive), as well as a haplotype, were used to test the genetic risk of ATDILI. Extended subgroup analysis was conducted according to age, sex and different causality assessments. RESULTS: The mutant allele, genotype and genetic model of rs3898649 in the POR gene were found to be associated with increased risk of ATDILI, especially in the younger (<50 years old), female and pulmonary tuberculosis subgroup. The other two SNPs rs28737229 and rs4728533 in the POR gene showed only a potential association with susceptibility to ATDILI after Bonferroni correction (P < .05 but PBonferroni > .05). The other 9 SNPs loci (rs135549, rs9626730, rs4253712, rs4823613, rs4253730, rs6007662, rs4253728, rs2024929 and rs135561) in the PPARα gene showed no significant differences between ATDILI and non-ATDILI in either allele frequencies or genotype (all P >.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated the strong correlation between POR gene SNP rs3898649 and ATDILI susceptibility, suggesting the importance of POR rs3898649 in the pathogenesis and development of ATDILI. Therefore, our results indicated that POR rs3898649 might be a valuable biomarker potentially involved in ATDILI.

18.
Org Biomol Chem ; 17(47): 10073-10087, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750499

RESUMO

We developed a general and sustainable approach for the regioselective deoxygenative chalcogenation of 7-azindole N-oxides; the combination of an internal oxidant and a green solvent has been used successfully for the synthesis of mono- and dichalcogenyl 7-azaindoles which are of pharmaceutical interest. The regioselectivity is tunable by the variation of the reaction conditions. I2/PEG was established as an efficient and reusable catalytic system for C-H chalcogenation. This developed methodology has great potential for practical utility, with a broad substrate scope, green reaction conditions, and operational simplicity.

19.
J Food Sci ; 84(12): 3804-3814, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750942

RESUMO

The human gastrointestinal tract represents one of the most densely populated microbial ecosystems studied to date. Although this microbial consortium has been recognized to have a crucial impact on human health, its precise composition is still subject to intense investigation, as people from different regions have different gut microbiota structures. The Kazakh nomads in Xinjiang, China still retain their nomadic lifestyle and traditional diet. Their specific diet style and ancient genetic background shaped their gut microbiota to contain unique characteristics. In present study, the compositions of the gut microbiota and fermented dairy foods were assessed by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Twenty-nine Kazakh nomads were recruited, and 33 traditional fermented dairy foods were collected from five pasturing areas (Buerjin, Zhaosu, Nilka, Tekes, and Fuhai) in northern Xinjiang, China. The correlation of the physical index with the gut microbiota was also analyzed. The unique diet style of Kazakh may be a critical factor in keeping their gut microbiota in a balanced state and help them to remain in good health. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research shows that the consumption of spontaneous fermented dairy food plays an important role in increasing gut microbial diversity. Some probiotics in fermented dairy food, such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, have positive correlation with human body health index such as body mass index and blood glucose. These may provide some theoretical supports to adjuvant therapy of obesity and diabetes through scientific dietary intervention.

20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(23)2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757030

RESUMO

Airborne LiDAR bathymetry (ALB) has shown great potential in shallow water and coastal mapping. However, due to the variability of the waveforms, it is hard to detect the signals from the received waveforms with a single algorithm. This study proposed a depth-adaptive waveform decomposition method to fit the waveforms of different depths with different models. In the proposed method, waveforms are divided into two categories based on the water depth, labeled as "shallow water (SW)" and "deep water (DW)". An empirical waveform model (EW) based on the calibration waveform is constructed for SW waveform decomposition which is more suitable than classical models, and an exponential function with second-order polynomial model (EFSP) is proposed for DW waveform decomposition which performs better than the quadrilateral model. In solving the model's parameters, a trust region algorithm is introduced to improve the probability of convergence. The proposed method is tested on two field datasets and two simulated datasets to assess the accuracy of the water surface detected in the shallow water and water bottom detected in the deep water. The experimental results show that, compared with the traditional methods, the proposed method performs best, with a high signal detection rate (99.11% in shallow water and 74.64% in deep water), low RMSE (0.09 m for water surface and 0.11 m for water bottom) and wide bathymetric range (0.22 m to 40.49 m).

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