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Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5242, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475398


Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at >250 loci in the human genome to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. For each locus, identifying the functional variant(s) among multiple SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium is critical to understand molecular mechanisms underlying T2D genetic risk. Using massively parallel reporter assays (MPRA), we test the cis-regulatory effects of SNPs associated with T2D and altered in vivo islet chromatin accessibility in MIN6 ß cells under steady state and pathophysiologic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions. We identify 1,982/6,621 (29.9%) SNP-containing elements that activate transcription in MIN6 and 879 SNP alleles that modulate MPRA activity. Multiple T2D-associated SNPs alter the activity of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE)-containing elements that are strongly induced by ER stress. We identify 220 functional variants at 104 T2D association signals, narrowing 54 signals to a single candidate SNP. Together, this study identifies elements driving ß cell steady state and ER stress-responsive transcriptional activation, nominates causal T2D SNPs, and uncovers potential roles for repetitive elements in ß cell transcriptional stress response and T2D genetics.

Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Alelos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Camundongos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Elementos Nucleotídeos Curtos e Dispersos/genética
Diabetes ; 67(11): 2466-2477, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181159


Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disorder in which both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to islet dysfunction and failure. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), most of which are noncoding, in >200 loci to islet dysfunction and T2D. Identification of the putative causal variants and their target genes and whether they lead to gain or loss of function remains challenging. Here, we profiled chromatin accessibility in pancreatic islet samples from 19 genotyped individuals and identified 2,949 SNPs associated with in vivo cis-regulatory element use (i.e., chromatin accessibility quantitative trait loci [caQTL]). Among the caQTLs tested (n = 13) using luciferase reporter assays in MIN6 ß-cells, more than half exhibited effects on enhancer activity that were consistent with in vivo chromatin accessibility changes. Importantly, islet caQTL analysis nominated putative causal SNPs in 13 T2D-associated GWAS loci, linking 7 and 6 T2D risk alleles, respectively, to gain or loss of in vivo chromatin accessibility. By investigating the effect of genetic variants on chromatin accessibility in islets, this study is an important step forward in translating T2D-associated GWAS SNP into functional molecular consequences.

Cromatina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Alelos , Cromatina/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos