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1.
Gut ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a prevalent and aggressive cancer usually arising on a background of chronic liver injury involving inflammatory and hepatic regenerative processes. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) is predominantly expressed in hepatic non-parenchymal cells and inhibits Toll-like receptor signalling, protecting the liver from various hepatotoxic injuries, yet its role in liver cancer is poorly defined. Here, we investigated the impact of TREM-2 on liver regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis. DESIGN: TREM-2 expression was analysed in liver tissues of two independent cohorts of patients with HCC and compared with control liver samples. Experimental HCC and liver regeneration models in wild type and Trem-2-/- mice, and in vitro studies with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and HCC spheroids were conducted. RESULTS: TREM-2 expression was upregulated in human HCC tissue, in mouse models of liver regeneration and HCC. Trem-2-/- mice developed more liver tumours irrespective of size after diethylnitrosamine (DEN) administration, displayed exacerbated liver damage, inflammation, oxidative stress and hepatocyte proliferation. Administering an antioxidant diet blocked DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in both genotypes. Similarly, Trem-2-/- animals developed more and larger tumours in fibrosis-associated HCC models. Trem-2-/- livers showed increased hepatocyte proliferation and inflammation after partial hepatectomy. Conditioned media from human HSCs overexpressing TREM-2 inhibited human HCC spheroid growth in vitro through attenuated Wnt ligand secretion. CONCLUSION: TREM-2 plays a protective role in hepatocarcinogenesis via different pleiotropic effects, suggesting that TREM-2 agonism should be investigated as it might beneficially impact HCC pathogenesis in a multifactorial manner.

2.
Liver Int ; 40(7): 1670-1685, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Polycystic liver diseases (PLDs) are genetic disorders characterized by progressive development of multiple biliary cysts. Recently, novel PLD-causative genes, encoding for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident proteins involved in protein biogenesis and transport, were identified. We hypothesized that aberrant proteostasis contributes to PLD pathogenesis, representing a potential therapeutic target. METHODS: ER stress was analysed at transcriptional (qPCR), proteomic (mass spectrometry), morphological (transmission electron microscopy, TEM) and functional (proteasome activity) levels in different PLD models. The effect of ER stress inhibitors [4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA)] and/or activators [tunicamycin (TM)] was tested in polycystic (PCK) rats and cystic cholangiocytes in vitro. RESULTS: The expression levels of unfolded protein response (UPR) components were upregulated in liver tissue from PLD patients and PCK rats, as well as in primary cultures of human and rat cystic cholangiocytes, compared to normal controls. Cystic cholangiocytes showed altered proteomic profiles, mainly related to proteostasis (ie synthesis, folding, trafficking and degradation of proteins), marked enlargement of the ER lumen (by TEM) and hyperactivation of the proteasome. Notably, chronic treatment of PCK rats with 4-PBA decreased liver weight, as well as both liver and cystic volumes, of animals under baseline conditions or after TM administration compared to controls. In vitro, 4-PBA downregulated the expression (mRNA) of UPR effectors, normalized proteomic profiles related to protein synthesis, folding, trafficking and degradation and reduced the proteasome hyperactivity in cystic cholangiocytes, reducing their hyperproliferation and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Restoration of proteostasis in cystic cholangiocytes with 4-PBA halts hepatic cystogenesis, emerging as a novel therapeutic strategy.

3.
Cells ; 9(3)2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183400

RESUMO

: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) comprises a group of heterogeneous biliary cancers with dismal prognosis. The etiologies of most CCAs are unknown, but primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a risk factor. Non-invasive diagnosis of CCA is challenging and accurate biomarkers are lacking. We aimed to characterize the transcriptomic profile of serum and urine extracellular vesicles (EVs) from patients with CCA, PSC, ulcerative colitis (UC), and healthy individuals. Serum and urine EVs were isolated by serial ultracentrifugations and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and immunoblotting. EVs transcriptome was determined by Illumina gene expression array [messenger RNAs (mRNA) and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs)]. Differential RNA profiles were found in serum and urine EVs from patients with CCA compared to control groups (disease and healthy), showing high diagnostic capacity. The comparison of the mRNA profiles of serum or urine EVs from patients with CCA with the transcriptome of tumor tissues from two cohorts of patients, CCA cells in vitro, and CCA cells-derived EVs, identified 105 and 39 commonly-altered transcripts, respectively. Gene ontology analysis indicated that most commonly-altered mRNAs participate in carcinogenic steps. Overall, patients with CCA present specific RNA profiles in EVs mirroring the tumor, and constituting novel promising liquid biopsy biomarkers.

4.
Gut ; 68(3): 533-546, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29374630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Liver injury impacts hepatic inflammation in part via Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) modulates TLR4-mediated inflammation in bone marrow (BM)-derived macrophages but its function in liver injury is unknown. Here we hypothesised that the anti-inflammatory effects of TREM-2 on TLR signalling may limit hepatic injury. DESIGN: TREM-2 expression was analysed in livers of humans with various forms of liver injury compared with control individuals. Acute and chronic liver injury models were performed in wild type and Trem-2-/- mice. Primary liver cells from both genotypes of mice were isolated for in vitro experiments. RESULTS: TREM-2 was expressed on non-parenchymal hepatic cells and induced during liver injury in mice and man. Mice lacking TREM-2 exhibited heightened liver damage and inflammation during acute and repetitive carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication, the latter of which TREM-2 deficiency was remarkably associated with worsened survival. Liver damage in Trem-2-/- mice following chronic injury and APAP challenge was associated with elevated hepatic lipid peroxidation and macrophage content. BM transplantation experiments and cellular reactive oxygen species assays revealed effects of TREM-2 in the context of chronic injury depended on both immune and resident TREM-2 expression. Consistent with effects of TREM-2 on inflammation-associated injury, primary hepatic macrophages and hepatic stellate cells lacking TREM-2 exhibited augmented TLR4-driven proinflammatory responses. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that by acting as a natural brake on inflammation during hepatocellular injury, TREM-2 is a critical regulator of diverse types of hepatotoxic injury.

6.
Hepatol Commun ; 2(7): 807-820, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027139

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common type of chronic liver disease worldwide and includes a broad spectrum of histologic phenotypes, ranging from simple hepatic steatosis or nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). While liver biopsy is the reference gold standard for NAFLD diagnosis and staging, it has limitations due to its sampling variability, invasive nature, and high cost. Thus, there is a need for noninvasive biomarkers that are robust, reliable, and cost effective. In this study, we measured 540 lipids and amino acids in serum samples from biopsy-proven subjects with normal liver (NL), NAFL, and NASH. Using logistic regression analysis, we identified two panels of triglycerides that could first discriminate between NAFLD and NL and second between NASH and NAFL. These noninvasive tests were compared to blinded histology as a reference standard. We performed these tests in an original cohort of 467 patients with NAFLD (90 NL, 246 NAFL, and 131 NASH) that was subsequently validated in a separate cohort of 192 patients (7 NL, 109 NAFL, 76 NASH). The diagnostic performances of the validated tests showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.88 ± 0.05, 0.94, and 0.57, respectively, for the discrimination between NAFLD and NL and 0.79 ± 0.04, 0.70, and 0.81, respectively, for the discrimination between NASH and NAFL. When the analysis was performed excluding patients with glucose levels >136 mg/dL, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the discrimination between NASH and NAFL increased to 0.81 ± 0.04 with sensitivity and specificity of 0.73 and 0.80, respectively. Conclusion: The assessed noninvasive lipidomic serum tests distinguish between NAFLD and NL and between NASH and NAFL with high accuracy. (Hepatology Communications 2018;2:807-820).

8.
Hepatology ; 67(4): 1420-1440, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28922472

RESUMO

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease associated with autoimmune phenomena targeting intrahepatic bile duct cells (cholangiocytes). Although its etiopathogenesis remains obscure, development of antimitochondrial autoantibodies against pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2 is a common feature. MicroRNA (miR) dysregulation occurs in liver and immune cells of PBC patients, but its functional relevance is largely unknown. We previously reported that miR-506 is overexpressed in PBC cholangiocytes and directly targets both Cl- / HCO3- anion exchanger 2 and type III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, leading to cholestasis. Here, the regulation of miR-506 gene expression and its role in cholangiocyte pathophysiology and immune activation was studied. Several proinflammatory cytokines overexpressed in PBC livers (such as interleukin-8 [IL8], IL12, IL17, IL18, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) stimulated miR-506 promoter activity in human cholangiocytes, as revealed by luciferase reporter assays. Experimental overexpression of miR-506 in cholangiocytes dysregulated the cell proteomic profile (by mass spectrometry), affecting proteins involved in different biological processes including mitochondrial metabolism. In cholangiocytes, miR-506 (1) induced dedifferentiation with down-regulation of biliary and epithelial markers together with up-regulation of mesenchymal, proinflammatory, and profibrotic markers; (2) impaired cell proliferation and adhesion; (3) increased oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress; (4) caused DNA damage; and (5) sensitized to caspase-3-dependent apoptosis induced by cytotoxic bile acids. These events were also associated with impaired energy metabolism in mitochondria (proton leak and less adenosine triphosphate production) and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2 overexpression. Coculture of miR-506 overexpressing cholangiocytes with PBC immunocytes induced activation and proliferation of PBC immunocytes. CONCLUSION: Different proinflammatory cytokines enhance the expression of miR-506 in biliary epithelial cells; miR-506 induces PBC-like features in cholangiocytes and promotes immune activation, representing a potential therapeutic target for PBC patients. (Hepatology 2018;67:1420-1440).


Assuntos
Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Apoptose , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Ensaios de Migração Celular , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Espectrometria de Massas , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteômica , Transdução de Sinais/genética
10.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 109(9): 658, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28715897

RESUMO

Hepatic abscesses subsequent to a gastrointestinal perforation after the ingestion of a foreign body are rare, even more so if the perforation passes through the gastric antrum to the common bile duct. We present the case of a 75-year-old male who had been suffering from fever, discomfort and weakness for a week.


Assuntos
Colestase/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso Hepático/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Colestase/complicações , Ducto Colédoco/diagnóstico por imagem , Tratamento Conservador , Corpos Estranhos/complicações , Humanos , Abscesso Hepático/etiologia , Abscesso Hepático/terapia , Masculino
11.
Hepatology ; 66(4): 1125-1143, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28555885

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) includes a heterogeneous group of biliary cancers with poor prognosis. Several conditions, such as primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), are risk factors. Noninvasive differential diagnosis between intrahepatic CCA and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is sometimes difficult. Accurate noninvasive biomarkers for PSC, CCA, and HCC are not available. In the search for novel biomarkers, serum extracellular vesicles (EV) were isolated from CCA (n = 43), PSC (n = 30), or HCC (n = 29) patients and healthy individuals (control, n = 32); and their protein content was characterized. By using nanoparticle tracking analysis, serum EV concentration was found to be higher in HCC than in all the other groups. Round morphology (by transmission electron microscopy), size (∼180 nm diameter by nanoparticle tracking analysis), and markers (clusters of differentiation 9, 63, and 81 by immunoblot) indicated that most serum EV were exosomes. Proteome profiles (by mass spectrometry) revealed multiple differentially expressed proteins among groups. Several of these proteins showed high diagnostic values with maximum area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.878 for CCA versus control, 0.905 for CCA stage I-II versus control, 0.789 for PSC versus control, 0.806 for noncirhottic PSC versus control, 0.796 for CCA versus PSC, 0.956 for CCA stage I-II versus PSC, 0.904 for HCC versus control, and 0.894 for intrahepatic CCA versus HCC. Proteomic analysis of EV derived from CCA human cells in vitro revealed higher abundance of oncogenic proteins compared to EV released by normal human cholangiocytes. Orthotopic implant of CCA human cells in the liver of immunodeficient mice resulted in the release to serum of EV containing some similar human oncogenic proteins. CONCLUSION: Proteomic signatures found in serum EV of CCA, PSC, and HCC patients show potential usefulness as diagnostic tools. (Hepatology 2017;66:1125-1143).


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Colangite Esclerosante/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteoma
12.
J Hepatol ; 67(1): 72-83, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28237397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a biliary malignancy linked to genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, such as hypermethylation of SOX17 promoter. Here, the role of SOX17 in cholangiocyte differentiation and cholangiocarcinogenesis was studied. METHODS: SOX17 expression/function was evaluated along the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) into cholangiocytes, in the dedifferentiation process of normal human cholangiocytes (NHC) in culture and in cholangiocarcinogenesis. Lentiviruses for SOX17 overexpression or knockdown were used. Gene expression and DNA methylation profiling were performed. RESULTS: SOX17 expression is induced in the last stage of cholangiocyte differentiation from iPSC and regulates the acquisition of biliary markers. SOX17 becomes downregulated in NHC undergoing dedifferentiation; experimental SOX17 knockdown in differentiated NHC downregulated biliary markers and promoted baseline and Wnt-dependent proliferation. SOX17 expression is lower in human CCA than in healthy tissue, which correlates with worse survival after tumor resection. In CCA cells, SOX17 overexpression decreased their tumorigenic capacity in murine xenograft models, which was related to increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. In contrast, SOX17 overexpression in NHC did not affect their survival but inhibited their baseline proliferation. In CCA cells, SOX17 inhibited migration, anchorage-independent growth and Wnt/ß-catenin-dependent proliferation, and restored the expression of biliary markers and primary cilium length. In human CCA, SOX17 promoter was found hypermethylated and its expression inversely correlates with the methylation grade. In NHC, Wnt3a decreased SOX17 expression in a DNMT-dependent manner, whereas in CCA, DNMT1 inhibition or silencing upregulated SOX17. CONCLUSIONS: SOX17 regulates the differentiation and maintenance of the biliary phenotype and functions as a tumor suppressor for CCA, being a potential prognostic marker and a promising therapeutic target. LAY SUMMARY: Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of CCA is key in finding new valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets. This study provides evidence that SOX17 regulates the differentiation and maintenance of the biliary phenotype, and its downregulation promotes their tumorigenic transformation. SOX17 acts as a tumor suppressor in CCA and its genetic, molecular and/or pharmacological restoration may represent a new promising therapeutic strategy. Moreover, SOX17 expression correlates with the outcome of patients after tumor resection, being a potential prognostic biomarker.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/etiologia , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/etiologia , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/fisiologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/fisiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/análise , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/genética
13.
Curr Drug Targets ; 18(8): 932-949, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26302803

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a heterogeneous group of dysplastic disorders affecting the biliary epithelium. It is the second most common primary liver tumor which accounts for around 3% of all gastrointestinal cancers. CCA is very deadly due to its aggressiveness, late diagnosis and high chemoresistance. The incidence is increasing worldwide and the therapeutic options are very limited. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery and/or liver transplantation may be indicated in patients who meet certain criteria, but chances of success are low. There is therefore increasing interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this cancer type and in identifying new targets for therapy. Current strategies are based on targeting key signaling pathways involved in proliferation, survival, apoptosis and migration. In this review, the most relevant molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of CCA are discussed and the main preclinical and clinical studies are highlighted. Moreover, future directions in basic and clinical research are indicated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular
15.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 12(10): 1838-1846, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27576208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is the major trigger of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is further favored by the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) p.I148M, transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) p.E167K, and membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 7 (MBOAT7) rs641738 variants. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between the PNPLA3, TM6SF2, and MBOAT7 genotypes and the outcomes of bariatric surgery. SETTING: University hospital. METHODS: Prospectively we monitored 84 obese individuals (body mass index 35-64 kg/m2) scheduled for bariatric surgery. The PNPLA3 p.I148M, TM6SF2 p.E167K, and MBOAT7 rs641738 variants were genotyped using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and TaqMan assays. Hepatic steatosis was determined before surgery using analysis of liver biopsy samples and a novel magnetic resonance imaging-based equation. One year later, steatosis was reevaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The presence of the PNPLA3 allle [M] was associated with increased hepatic triglyceride content (P = .03), steatosis detected by magnetic resonance imaging (P = 0.04), and decreased serum glucose concentrations (P = .04). Neither variant TM6SF2 nor MBOAT7 increased hepatic steatosis (all P>.05); however, the MBOAT7 polymorphism was associated with increased triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and serum glucose levels (all P<.05). Patients carrying the prosteatotic PNPLA3 allele [M] lost more weight (P<.01) and liver fat (P = .04) one year after surgery, as compared to individuals having the common genotype. The PNPLA3 genotype and initial grade of steatosis, but not the TM6SF2 or MBOAT7 variants, were independent predictors of NAFLD improvement (P = .03 and P<.01, respectively). CONCLUSION: In obese patients, the presence of the PNPLA3 p.I148M allele might be associated with greater improvement of hepatic steatosis after bariatric surgery in comparison to carriers of PNPLA3 wild-type alleles.


Assuntos
Lipase/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Obesidade Mórbida/genética , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Obesidade Mórbida/patologia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Hepatol ; 63(4): 952-61, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26044126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Polycystic liver diseases (PLDs) are genetic disorders characterized by progressive biliary cystogenesis. Current therapies show short-term and/or modest beneficial effects. Cystic cholangiocytes hyperproliferate as a consequence of diminished intracellular calcium levels ([Ca(2+)]i). Here, the therapeutic value of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was investigated. METHODS: Effect of UDCA was examined in vitro and in polycystic (PCK) rats. Hepatic cystogenesis and fibrosis, and the bile acid (BA) content were evaluated from the liver, bile, serum, and kidneys by HPLC-MS/MS. RESULTS: Chronic treatment of PCK rats with UDCA inhibits hepatic cystogenesis and fibrosis, and improves their motor behaviour. As compared to wild-type animals, PCK rats show increased BA concentration ([BA]) in liver, similar hepatic Cyp7a1 mRNA levels, and diminished [BA] in bile. Likewise, [BA] is increased in cystic fluid of PLD patients compared to their matched serum levels. In PCK rats, UDCA decreases the intrahepatic accumulation of cytotoxic BA, normalizes their diminished [BA] in bile, increases the BA secretion in bile and diminishes the increased [BA] in kidneys. In vitro, UDCA inhibits the hyperproliferation of polycystic human cholangiocytes via a PI3K/AKT/MEK/ERK1/2-dependent mechanism without affecting apoptosis. Finally, the presence of glycodeoxycholic acid promotes the proliferation of polycystic human cholangiocytes, which is inhibited by both UDCA and tauro-UDCA. CONCLUSIONS: UDCA was able to halt the liver disease of a rat model of PLD through inhibiting cystic cholangiocyte hyperproliferation and decreasing the levels of cytotoxic BA species in the liver, which suggests the use of UDCA as a potential therapeutic tool for PLD patients.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Cistos/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/patologia , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/farmacologia , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Colagogos e Coleréticos/farmacologia , Cistos/metabolismo , Cistos/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/patologia , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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