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J Hepatol ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227350


INTRODUCTION: Acute decompensation (AD) of cirrhosis may present without acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) (AD-No ACLF), or with ACLF phenotype (AD-ACLF) defined by organ failure(s). Precipitants may induce AD. This multicenter, prospective, observational PREDICT study (NCT03056612) analyzes and characterizes the precipitants leading to both of these AD phenotypes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The PREDICT study included 1273 non-electively hospitalized patients with AD (No-ACLF=1071; ACLF=202). Medical history, clinical and laboratory data were collected at enrolment and during 90-day follow up, with particular attention to the following characteristics of precipitants: induction of organ dysfunction or failure, systemic inflammation, chronology, intensity, and relationship to outcome. RESULTS: Among various clinical events, four distinct events were precipitants consistently related to AD, including proven bacterial infections, severe alcoholic hepatitis, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding with shock and toxic encephalopathy. Among patients with precipitants in the AD-No ACLF cohort and the AD-ACLF cohort (38% and 71%, respectively), almost all (96% and 97%, respectively) showed proven bacterial infection and severe alcoholic hepatitis, either alone or in combination with other events. In both AD phenotypes, patients with proven bacterial infections or severe alcoholic hepatitis had a similar survival. The number of precipitants was associated with significantly increased 90-day mortality, and was paralleled by increasing levels of surrogates for systemic inflammation. Importantly, adequate first-line antibiotic treatment of proven bacterial infections was associated with lower ACLF development rate and lower 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified precipitants that are significantly associated with a distinct clinical course and prognosis of patients with AD and specific preventive and therapeutic strategies targeting these events may improve outcome in decompensated cirrhosis.

J Hepatol ; 73(4): 842-854, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673741


BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute decompensation (AD) of cirrhosis is defined as the acute development of ascites, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hepatic encephalopathy, infection or any combination thereof, requiring hospitalization. The presence of organ failure(s) in patients with AD defines acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The PREDICT study is a European, prospective, observational study, designed to characterize the clinical course of AD and to identify predictors of ACLF. METHODS: A total of 1,071 patients with AD were enrolled. We collected detailed pre-specified information on the 3-month period prior to enrollment, and clinical and laboratory data at enrollment. Patients were then closely followed up for 3 months. Outcomes (liver transplantation and death) at 1 year were also recorded. RESULTS: Three groups of patients were identified. Pre-ACLF patients (n = 218) developed ACLF and had 3-month and 1-year mortality rates of 53.7% and 67.4%, respectively. Unstable decompensated cirrhosis (UDC) patients (n = 233) required ≥1 readmission but did not develop ACLF and had mortality rates of 21.0% and 35.6%, respectively. Stable decompensated cirrhosis (SDC) patients (n = 620) were not readmitted, did not develop ACLF and had a 1-year mortality rate of only 9.5%. The 3 groups differed significantly regarding the grade and course of systemic inflammation (high-grade at enrollment with aggravation during follow-up in pre-ACLF; low-grade at enrollment with subsequent steady-course in UDC; and low-grade at enrollment with subsequent improvement in SDC) and the prevalence of surrogates of severe portal hypertension throughout the study (high in UDC vs. low in pre-ACLF and SDC). CONCLUSIONS: Acute decompensation without ACLF is a heterogeneous condition with 3 different clinical courses and 2 major pathophysiological mechanisms: systemic inflammation and portal hypertension. Predicting the development of ACLF remains a major future challenge. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV NUMBER: NCT03056612. LAY SUMMARY: Herein, we describe, for the first time, 3 different clinical courses of acute decompensation (AD) of cirrhosis after hospital admission. The first clinical course includes patients who develop acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and have a high short-term risk of death - termed pre-ACLF. The second clinical course (unstable decompensated cirrhosis) includes patients requiring frequent hospitalizations unrelated to ACLF and is associated with a lower mortality risk than pre-ACLF. Finally, the third clinical course (stable decompensated cirrhosis), includes two-thirds of all patients admitted to hospital with AD - patients in this group rarely require hospital admission and have a much lower 1-year mortality risk.

Eur Cardiol ; 15: 1-8, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256714


Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a relatively infrequent cause of acute coronary syndrome that usually affects young to middle-aged women. Mainly because of its low prevalence, until recently, most of the evidence on this condition was derived from case reports and small series. Over the last 5 years, more robust evidence has become available from larger retrospective and prospective cohorts of patients with SCAD. The increase in knowledge and recognition of this entity has led to the publication of expert consensus on both sides of the Atlantic. However, new data are continuously accumulating from larger cohorts of patients with SCAD, bringing new light to this little-understood condition. The aim of this article is to update the knowledge on SCAD, including new information from recent studies published since the consensus documents from the European Society of Cardiology and the American Heart Association.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(7): 1193-1201, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221772


Currently there is lack of data regarding the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to depict the hemodynamic relevance of coronary stenoses in diabetic patients. We sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of OCT-derived morphologic assessment in identifying hemodynamically significant coronary lesions as determined by both, the resting instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) and the hyperemic fractional flow reserve (FFR) in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients presenting with at least one intermediate coronary lesion were prospectively and consecutively enrolled. All lesions were systematically assessed by iFR, FFR and OCT. A total of 41 intermediate lesions were analysed. Mean iFR and FFR values were 0.90 ± 0.04 and 0.81 ± 0.06, respectively (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.49; 95% CI 0.22-0.79). A moderate correlation between iFR and OCT derived minimal lumen diameter (MLD, r = 0.49) and minimal lumen area (MLA, r = 0.50) was found. Conversely, there was a poor correlation between FFR and OCT-derived MLD (r = 0.34) and MLA (r = 0.32). The diagnostic efficiency of MLA and MLD to identify iFR significant stenoses showed an AUC of 0.82 (95% CI 0.69-0.95) for MLD and 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.96) for MLA. A worse diagnostic efficiency was found when FFR was used as the reference with an AUC of 0.71 (95% CI 0.54-0.87) for MLD and 0.70 (95% CI 0.53-0.87). OCT-derived MLA and MLD were the strongest independent anatomic predictors of abnormal iFR and FFR values. In diabetic patients, OCT-derived MLA and MLD showed a moderate diagnostic efficiency in identifying functionally significant coronary stenoses by FFR or iFR. In diabetics, anatomic OCT measurements better predicted resting than FFR-determined physiologically significant lesions.

Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico por imagem , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Angiografia Coronária , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(1): 31-41, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607677


BACKGROUND: Statins have beneficial effects on intrahepatic circulation and decrease portal hypertension and rifaximin modulates the gut microbiome and might prevent bacterial translocation in patients with cirrhosis. Therefore, this drug combination might be of therapeutic benefit in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. However, there is concern regarding the safety of statins in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. We assessed the safety of two different doses of simvastatin, in combination with rifaximin, in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: We did a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and moderate-to-severe liver failure from nine university hospitals in six European countries (Italy, France, Holland, Germany, the UK, and Spain). Patients older than 18 years with Child-Pugh class B or C disease were eligible. We randomly assigned patients (1:1:1) to receive either simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin 1200 mg/day, simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin 1200 mg/day, or placebo of both medications for 12 weeks. Randomisation was stratified according to Child-Pugh class (B vs C) and restricted using blocks of multiples of three. The primary endpoint was development of liver or muscle toxicity, as defined by changes in liver aminotransferases (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]), alkaline phosphastase, and creatine kinase. The study is registered with the European Union Clinical Trials Register, 2016-004499-23, and with, NCT03150459. FINDINGS: The study recruitment period was between July 28, 2017, and Jan 2, 2018. Follow-up finished on March 12, 2018. 50 patients were randomly assigned to simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin 1200 mg/day (n=18), simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin 1200 mg/day (n=16), or placebo of both medications (n=16). Six patients (two from each group) were excluded. Therefore, the full analysis set included 44 patients (16 in the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin 1200 mg/day group, 14 in the simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin mg/day group, and 14 in the placebo group). After a safety analyses when the first ten patients completed treatment, treatment was stopped prematurely in the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin group due to recommendations by the data safety monitoring board. Patients in the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin group showed a significant increase in AST and ALT compared with the placebo group (mean differences between the groups at the end of treatment for AST 130 IU/L [95% CI 54 to 205; p=0·0009] and for ALT 61 IU/L [22 to 100; p=0·0025]. We observed no significant differences at 12 weeks in AST and ALT between the simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin and placebo group (for AST -14 IU/L [-91 to 64; p=0·728] and for ALT -8 IU/L [-49 to 33; p=0·698]). We observed no significant differences in alkaline phosphatase between the the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin or the simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin groups compared with placebo. Patients in the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin group showed an increase in creatine kinase at the end of treatment compared with patients in the placebo group (1009 IU/L [208 to 1809]; p=0·014). We observed no significant changes in creatine kinase in the simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin group (4·2 IU/L [-804 to 813]; p=0·992). Three (19%) patients in the simvastatin 40 mg/day group developed liver and muscle toxicity consistent with rhabdomyolysis. The number of patients who stopped treatment because of adverse events was significantly higher in the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin group (nine [56%] of 16 patients) compared with the other two groups (two [14%] of 14 for both groups; p=0·017). There were no serious unexpected adverse reactions reported during the study. INTERPRETATION: Treatment with simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis was associated with a significant increase in adverse events requiring treatment withdrawal, particularly rhabdomyolysis, compared with simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin. We recommend simvastatin 20 mg/day as the dose to be used in studies investigating the role of statins in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. FUNDING: Horizon 20/20 European programme.

Hipertensão Portal/prevenção & controle , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Rifaximina/administração & dosagem , Sinvastatina/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Seguimentos , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Hipertensão Portal/fisiopatologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Pressão na Veia Porta/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
Rev. colomb. cir ; 35(4): 647-658, 2020. tab, fig
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147911


Introducción. Las malformaciones vasculares son anomalías que están presentes desde el nacimiento, no desaparecen y pueden crecer a lo largo de la vida. Se ha demostrado en estudios retrospectivos que la terminología para clasificar las anomalías vasculares es inexacta en un 69 % de casos, por lo que se hace un diagnostico inadecuado y en un 53 % de casos se brinda al paciente y su familia una información incorrecta del tratamiento y el curso clínico. Métodos. Estudio prospectivo longitudinal, realizado entre 2016 y 2019, donde se incluyeron pacientes con anomalías vasculares, que consultaron a nuestra institución, fueron valorados por el servicio de cirugía vascular, se hizo un plan diagnóstico y manejo integral, vía endovascular, quirúrgica o mixta, de acuerdo con cada caso. Resultados. La malformación más común fue la de tipo venoso, en el 40,3 % de los casos. Se realizó manejo endovascular en el 93,1 % de casos de malformaciones vasculares y quirúrgico en el 6,9 %. La mejoría de los síntomas que motivaron la consulta fue del 100 % para los tumores vasculares y del 70,8 % para las malformaciones. Sin embargo, los resultados son heterogéneos. Discusión. Es necesario realizar un adecuado diagnóstico de las anomalías vasculares, para alcanzar un trata-miento eficaz, con mejoría de los síntomas

Introduction. Vascular malformations are abnormalities that are present from birth, do not disappear and can grow throughout life. It has been shown in retrospective studies that the terminology to classify vascular anomalies is inaccurate in 69% of cases, an inappropriate diagnosis is made and in 53% of cases the patient and their family are given incorrect information on the treatment and the clinical course.Methods. Longitudinal prospective study conducted between 2016 and 2019. Patients with vascular anomalies and consulted to our institution were included. They were evaluated by the vascular surgery service, and a comprehensive diagnosis and management plan was made, including endovascular, surgical or mixed, according to each case. Results. The most common malformation was the venous type in 40.3% of the cases. Endovascular management was performed in 93.1% of cases and surgery in 6.9%. The improvement in the symptoms that led to the con-sultation was 100% for vascular tumors and 70.8% for malformations. However, the results are heterogeneous.Conclusions. It is necessary to obtain an adequate diagnosis of vascular anomalies, to achieve an effective treatment, with improvement of the symptoms

Humanos , Malformações Vasculares , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Prótese Vascular , Neoplasias de Tecido Vascular
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 26(3): 159-161, May-Jun. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058403


Resumen La coartación aortica en los niños ocurre en más del 80% de casos en la aorta torácica y en muy pocos casos en la aorta abdominal, constituyendo una entidad de difícil manejo y con alta morbimortalidad. Puede ocurrir a diferentes niveles anatómicos de la aorta abdominal y con compromiso variable de las arterias viscerales, conociéndose en la literatura como síndrome aórtico medio. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 3 meses a quien se le diagnosticó in útero la coartación aortica e hipertrofia cardiaca, con evolución hacia falla cardiaca severa, disfunción renal con requerimiento de diálisis e hipertensión arterial severa en el nacimiento. En vista de su mal estado general y edad muy temprana de presentación, se decidió manejo endovascular con angioplastia y stent aórtico, con evolución satisfactoria y mejoría clínica inmediata.

Abstract Coarctation of the abdominal aorta in infants occur, in more than 80% of cases, at thoracic aorta level, and in very cases, in the abdominal aorta. This makes it a difficult to manage condition, and with a high morbidity and mortality. It can occur at different anatomical levels of the abdominal aorta and with a variable compromise of the visceral arteries, being known in the literature as mid-aortic syndrome (MAS). The case is presented of a 3 months-old patient who was diagnosed in utero with aortic coarctation and cardiac hypertrophy, which developed into severe heart failure, kidney failure that required dialysis, and severe arterial hypertension at birth. Due to his poor general state and very young age of presentation, endovascular management was decided, with angioplasty and an aortic stent. The outcome was satisfactory and with an immediate clinical improvement.

Rev. colomb. cir ; 34(4): 386-393, 20190000. fig
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1049206


El síndrome de Budd-Chiari consiste en la oclusión de la circulación de salida venosa del hígado, desde las sinusoides hepáticas hasta la unión de la vena cava inferior con la aurícula derecha. Esta entidad es muy rara. Las causas son primarias, obstrucción congénita de la vena cava o trombosis espontánea, o secundarias, compresión extrínseca. Si no se trata la obstrucción esta enfermedad, lleva a cirrosis hepática. Se presenta un caso del síndrome de Budd-Chiari de causa primaria por obstrucción membranosa, tratado por vía endovascular de manera exitosa y con resolución de todos los síntomas. Es el primer reporte en Colombia de este tipo de tratamiento (AU)

Budd-Chiari syndrome refers to the occlusion of the venous outflow of the liver, from the hepatic sinusoids to the junction of the inferior vena cava with the right atrium. This entity is very rare. The causes can be divided in primary (congenital vena cava obstruction or spontaneous thrombosis), and secondary (extrinsic compression). If the obstruction is not treated, leads to liver cirrhosis. In this article, we present a case of Budd-Chiari syndrome, primary due to membranous obstruction, successfully managed by the endovascular route with resolution of all symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in Colombia utilizing this type of treatment (AU)

Humanos , Síndrome de Budd-Chiari , Veia Cava Superior , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Fígado
Rev. colomb. cir ; 34(3): 234-244, 20190813. fig, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016066


Introducción. La hemorragia digestiva ocasiona el 2 % de las hospitalizaciones; se clasifica en alta o baja, y la primera se presenta en el 80 % de casos. Después de la estabilización hemodinámica, se determinan la causa y el tratamiento mediante la endoscopia; no obstante, esta falla en 10 a 20 % de los casos, y del 15 al 20 % requieren cirugía mayor, con una mortalidad de más del 40 %. El tratamiento para la hemorragia digestiva mediante la formación de émbolos de los vasos mesentéricos, es una conducta bien establecida, produce buenos resultados, evita la cirugía y disminuye la morbimortalidad. Objetivos. Determinar la indicación y el éxito del tratamiento endovascular para la hemorragia digestiva en nuestra institución. Materiales y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo, se incluyeron 10 pacientes que requirieron la urgente formación de émbolos por falla o imposibilidad del manejo endoscópico, y que presentaban gran riesgo quirúr-gico y anestésico con la técnica abierta. Se evaluaron la causa de la hemorragia, la arteria comprometida, los hallazgos angiográficos, la hemoglobina antes y después de la formación de los émbolos, la reincidencia de la hemorragia, las complicaciones, la necesidad de intervención quirúrgica, la eficacia del procedimiento y la mortalidad a 30 días. Resultados. Todos los pacientes se intervinieron por vía endovascular, para la oclusión selectiva de las arterias comprometidas. La hemorragia se controló en todos ellos. Se presentaron dos muertes tempranas (<30 días) no asociadas con el procedimiento. No hubo complicaciones secundarias a la formación de los émbolos o al acceso percutáneo y, tampoco, necesidad de cirugías mayores posteriores para controlar la hemorragia. Conclusión. Los métodos endovasculares para controlar la hemorragia digestiva son eficaces, no se acompañan de complicaciones, y disminuyen la morbimortalidad y la necesidad de cirugías mayores. Se requieren estudios con mayor número de pacientes para lograr un mayor grado de certeza

Introduction: Gastrointestinal bleeding is a common problem, which represents 2% of hospitalizations. It is classified as high or low depending on their origin; 80% of cases are high bleeders. After hemodynamic stabilization, endoscopy is very important to determine the cause and carry out treatment, which in some cases is unsuccessful or cannot be performed, and 15% -20% will require major surgery with a mortality rate of over 40%. Occlusion of mesenteric vessels, as a treatment for gastrointestinal bleeding is a well defined and successful therapeutic, avoiding major surgery and reducing morbidity and mortality, it is a procedure with very low incidence of complications and repeated bleeding. We studied: the cause of bleeding, the compromised artery, the angiographic findings, the pre and post embolization hemoglobin, re-bleeding complications, need for additional surgery after embolization effectiveness of the procedure to control bleeding, and mortality at 30 days.Objectives: To determine the indication and success of endovascular treatment for the management of gastroin-testinal bleeding in our institutionMaterials and methods: A retrospective and descriptive study.Results: Ten patients (5 females, 5 males) are included, with an average age of 59.8 years; in six cases the bleeding was due to proximal acid-peptic disease, two patients with diverticular disease performed, and two patients bleeding due to gastroduodenal neoplastic disease; all patients required urgent embolization in view of failure or inability to endoscopic management, associated with progressive anemia, active bleeding, schock and requi-rement of more than 3 packed red blood cells; associated with high surgical and anesthetic risk for open surgery. All patients underwent endovascular procedure with selective embolization and the bleeding stop with hemo-dynamic stabilization, two early deaths (<30days) were presented but not associated with the procedure; there were no complications secondary to embolization or percutaneous access, nor was need for further surgery after the procedure to control bleedingConclusion: In our experience the use of endovascular methods to control gastrointestinal bleeding is effective and uncomplicated; reducing morbidity and mortality and the need for major surgery. More studies are needed to determine the number of patients a higher level of evidence

Humanos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Doenças Vasculares , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Dispositivos de Oclusão Vascular
Pharmaceutics ; 10(4)2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544604


This study aimed at investigating the effect of electrical current profile upon the iontophoretic transport of (i) ascorbic acid (AA) and (ii) ellagic acid (EA), into porcine skin in vitro, and the impact of the physicochemical properties of both actives on their mechanism of transport when formulated in cosmetic compositions. The experiments were performed using a proprietary iontophoretic device containing a roller to apply the formulation. Three current profiles were tested: (i) galvanic direct current (DC), (ii) square unipolar pulse current (SPC), and (iii) galvanic direct current (DC) + pulse current (PC). The skin samples were collected at different sampling points, extracted and analyzed by HPLC. Results suggested that the DC + PC mode for only 5 min was able to significantly increase the delivery of AA from o/w cosmetic compositions. The use of this current profile might improve the skin penetration of AA due to electromigration and passive diffusion, the latter being facilitated by the physical enhancement method. The SPC mode significantly improved the passage of EA in its neutral form from cosmetic o/w formulations by electroosmosis. Tailoring specific electrical current modes considering the ionization state of active ingredients would allow the design of short and personalized cosmetic treatments that significantly improve the penetration efficiency of the active ingredients and possibly reduce the doses applied.

Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 25(6): 407-407, nov.-dic. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058370


Resumen El uso de prótesis vasculares y dispositivos endovasculares ha permitido tratar muchas patologías que antes no se intervenían dado el gran riesgo quirúrgico, como es el caso de los aneurismas de aorta torácica. Los materiales usados para estas reconstrucciones son muy resistentes y de larga duración, pero son muy sensibles a ser colonizados y presentar infección, lo que genera morbimortalidad considerable. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 64 años con antecedente de aneurisma del arco aórtico y aorta descendente, tratado en forma extra institucional con prótesis de aorta torácica endovascular y debranchig de las ramas del arco aórtico, con injerto carótido-carotídeo y carótido-subclavio izquierdo en dacrón, por vía pretraqueal, con antecedente de intento de cubrimiento del injerto expuesto con un flap miocutáneo el cual fue fallido por necrosis; ingresó al Hospital Universitario Clínica de San Rafael, con exposición del injerto carótido-carotídeo a nivel cervical, signos locales de infección y sepsis secundaria.

Abstract The use of vascular replacements and endovascular devices has led to the treatment of many conditions that could not be operated on due to a high surgical risk, such as aortic aneurysms. The materials used for these reconstructions are very resistant and durable, but are very susceptible to being colonised and infected, which leads to a considerable morbidity and mortality. The case is presented of a 64 year-old patient with a history of an aortic arch and descending aortic aneurysm. This had been treated in another hospital with a thoracic aortic endovascular repair and debranching of the aortic arch, with carotid-carotid and left carotid-subclavian Dacron graft. The pretracheal route was used, after attempting to cover the exposed graft with a myocutaneous flap that failed due to necrosis. The patient was admitted to the Hospital Universitario Clínica de San Rafael, presenting with a carotid-carotid graft at cervical level, with local signs of infection and secondary sepsis.

Rev. colomb. cir ; 32(2): 146-151, 20170000.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-885085


La isquemia crítica de los miembros inferiores se define como la insuficiencia de flujo arterial a los miembros inferiores para mantener la viabilidad tisular, generalmente causada por enfermedad obstructiva arterial periférica. Las manifestaciones clínicas son dolor en reposo y presencia de úlceras o pérdida tisular espontánea. El manejo con reperfusión quirúrgica (surgical revascularization) y terapia endovascular ha permitido lograr salvamentos importantes de extremidades pero, a pesar de estos avances, aproximadamente, entre el 20 y el 40 % de los pacientes con isquemia crítica no son candidatos a ninguno de estos tratamientos. Se estima que anualmente se practican entre 120 y 500 amputaciones por cada millón de habitantes por enfermedad arterial; 25 % de los pacientes con amputaciones mayores no recibe ningún tipo de rehabilitación. Por lo tanto, se necesita contar con nuevas estrategias para promover el salvamento de extremidades y disminuir las tasas tan altas de amputaciones. En los últimos 20 años, el uso de células madre pluripotenciales ha demostrado ser un tratamiento efectivo y seguro para los pacientes con isquemia crítica con gran riesgo de pérdida de las extremidades

Critical ischemia of the lower limbs is defined as insufficiency of arterial flow to the lower limbs to maintain tissue viability, usually caused by obstructive peripheral arterial disease. The clinical manifestations are pain at rest and presence of ulcers or spontaneous tissue loss. Management with surgical revascularization and endovascular therapy has shown high limb salvage, but in spite of these advances approximately 20% to 40% of patients with critical limb ischemia are not candidates for any of these therapies. It is estimated that between 120 and 500 amputations are doing per year per million inhabitants per arterial disease; 25% of patients with major amputations do not receive rehabilitation. Therefore, we need new strategies to promote limb salvage and reduce such high amputation rates. The use of stem cells over the last 20 years has proven to be an effective and safe treatment for patients with critical ischemia with a high risk of limb loss

Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes , Isquemia , Doença Arterial Periférica , Transplante de Células-Tronco
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 25(2)2014. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-995202


Objetivos: Facilitar la comprensión del sistema AO de clasificación de las fracturas toracolumbares y difundir su uso entre radiólogos. Métodos: Revisión de la literatura en PubMed, usando como términos de búsqueda: ao spine injury classification system, thoracolumbar spine fractures and classifications, computed tomography and thoracolumbar fractures, magnetic resonance and thoracolumbar fractures y thoracolumbar fractures and treatment. En los archivos de IDIME se buscaron imágenes de radiografía convencional, tomografía y resonancia magnética de fracturas del segmento toracolumbar para seleccionar la mayoría de ejemplos ilustrativos de los diferentes grupos de fracturas de la clasificación AO. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 52 artículos y se recopilaron 35 imágenes para ilustrar los diferentes grupos de la clasificación AO. Conclusiones: Aunque no existe una clasificación ideal que cumpla cabalmente los principios de relevancia, fiabilidad y precisión, la clasificación AO hasta la fecha es la que más se acerca. Por lo tanto, el radiólogo debe estar familiarizado con esta clasificiación para aplicarla y mejorar su comunicación con el clínico.

Objectives: The purpose of this review is to ease the understanding of AO classification of thoracic lumbar fractures, and spread its usage throughout radiologists. Methods: Literature revision in PubMed, using the following search items: ao spine injury classification system, thoracolumbar spine fractures and classifications, computed tomography and thoracolumbar fractures, magnetic resonance and thoracolumbar fractures y thoracolumbar fractures and treatment. We searched for conventional radiography, tomography and magnetic resonance images of fractures of the thoracolumbar segment in order to select most illustrative examples of the different fracture groups of AO classification. Results: We selected 52 articles and compiled 35 images to illustrate the different AO classification groups. Conclusions: Even through an ideal classification which fulfills the principles of relevance, reliable and accuracy does not yet exist, the AO classification the closest method to date. Therefore, the radiologist must be familiarized with this classification in order to apply it, as well as improve communication with the doctor.

Humanos , Classificação , Coluna Vertebral , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral
Clin Nucl Med ; 38(12): 936-9, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24152635


AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree and incidence of bone involvement in patients with cat scratch disease. METHODS: Patients admitted between 2004 and 2011 at the pediatric department for cat scratch disease and a positive serology for Bartonella henselae were identified. Only those having undergone a bone scintigraphy (BS) were included in this retrospective study. RESULTS: Sixteen girls and 8 boys with a mean age of 7 years were studied. Bone scintigraphy was positive in 6 (25%), but only 2 had bone pain. Axial involvement was present in all 6 patients, and appendicular lesions in 3 of them. Three patients had a BS control, with improvement or normalization after treatment with antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Bone involvement occurs infrequently in patients with cat scratch disease and is not always associated with specific signs. Cat scratch disease must be suspected in patients with fever of unknown origin presenting multifocal lesions on BS.

Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Arranhadura de Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doença da Arranhadura de Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Admissão do Paciente , Cintilografia
Rev. colomb. cir ; 28(1): 48-53, ene.-mar. 2013. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-675258


El advenimiento de la tecnología endovascular para el manejo de aneurismas aórticos ha revolucionado la cirugía endovascular, los estudios sobre reparo endovascular de aneurisma (Endovascular Aneurysm Repair, EVAR) y el EUROSTAR (registro europeo de cirugía endovascular en aneurisma de aorta abdominal infrarrenal) ha reportado disminución de la mortalidad y morbilidad a los 30 días, con disminución de las estancias hospitalarias y del uso de productos hemáticos, entre otras ventajas. Las prótesis endovasculares deben tener un estricto seguimiento imaginológico y clínico de por vida, para detectar las complicaciones como migraciones de los dispositivos o presencia de fugas (endoleaks) que puedan generar ruptura tardía del aneurisma. En este artículo se presenta el caso de una endoprótesis aórtica abdominal colocada en el 2004, con un fuga tardía y crecimiento aneurismático, que se intentó manejar inicialmente con técnicas endovasculares sin éxito, y requirió el retiro de la prótesis y colocación de un injerto sintético de dacrón convencional por vía quirúrgica, con obtención de buenos resultados.

The advent of endovascular technology for the management of aortic aneurysms has revolutionized endovascular surgery. The Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) and the European Registry of Endovascular Surgery for infra-renal Aortic Aneurysms (EUROSTAR) trials have shown reduced 30-day morbidity and mortality rates, shorter hospital stays, and lesser use of blood products. Endovascular prostheses must be strictly life-long followed by clinical examination and diagnostic imaging, in order to detect possible migration of the endograft or leaks (endoleaks) that could generate rupture of the aneurysm. We report the case of an abdominal aortic stent placed in 2004 with late endoleak and aneurysmal growth with an initial failed attempt of management by endosurgery technique, that finally required explantation of the endograft and conversion to the surgical placement of a conventional Dacron synthetic graft with good results.

Planta Med ; 79(2): 131-6, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23250808


Percutaneous transdermal absorption of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin), an oxidative damage inhibitor, was evaluated by means of in vitro permeation studies in which vertical Franz-type diffusion cells and pig ear skin were employed. To determine the absorption of esculetin, we validated a simple, accurate, precise, and rapid HPLC-UV method. Additionally, the effects of several percutaneous enhancers were studied. Pretreatment of porcine skin was performed with ethanol (control vehicle), decenoic acid, oleic acid, R-(+)-limonene, and laurocapram (Azone®) (5% in ethanol, w/w, respectively). Pretreatment of skin with oleic acid or laurocapram led to statistically significant differences in the transdermal flux of esculetin with respect to controls. Of the two enhancers, laurocapram showed the greatest capacity to enhance the flux of esculetin across pig skin.

Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Azepinas/farmacologia , Ácido Oleico/farmacologia , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Umbeliferonas/farmacocinética , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/análise , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cicloexenos/farmacologia , Ácidos Decanoicos/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Orelha Externa , Limoneno , Permeabilidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Suínos , Terpenos/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Umbeliferonas/administração & dosagem , Umbeliferonas/análise
Rev. colomb. cir ; 27(4): 290-297, oct.-dic. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-663799


El trauma vascular representa un problema de salud pública a nivel nacional e internacional. La epidemia de violencia con mayor uso de armas de alta y baja velocidad en los conflictos militares y a nivel civil urbano, las velocidades más altas en las carreteras y los accidentes laborales, han aumentado la incidencia del trauma vascular. La aparición de procedimientos y tecnologías endovasculares ha ofrecido nuevas alternativas en casos complejos de trauma vascular, como accesos vasculares difíciles, complicaciones tardías y pacientes con enfermedades concomitantes. En este artículo se presenta la experiencia, desde enero de 2010 hasta enero de 2012, con siete pacientes que recibieron tratamiento endovascular y tuvieron seguimiento a seis meses. En 6 (86 %) pacientes fue posible la implantación de endoprótesis (stent) y en uno fue necesario crear un émbolo en la arteria ilio-lumbar mediante espirales de acero (coils). El tiempo promedio de duración del procedimiento quirúrgico fue de 60,7 minutos, con un rango de 40 a 90 minutos. En todos los casos se comprobó éxito angiográfico y permeabilidad del vaso lesionado.

Vascular trauma constitutes a public health problem both nationally and internationally. The epidemy of violence with greater use of high and low velocity weapons in the military conflicts as well as at the civil urban level, have increased the incidence of vascular trauma. The advent of endovascular procedures and technologies offer new alternative approaches in complex vascular trauma, such as those with difficult vascular access, late complications and patients with concomitant complications. Hereby we present our experience with seven patients that were submitted to endovascular treatment in the period January 2010 to January 2012, with six months follow-up. In six patients (86%) it was possible to implant a stent, and in one it became necessary to create an embolus in the ilio-lumbar artery by means of a steel spiral coil. Mean operating time was 60.7 minutes, with a rank of 40 to 90 minutes. Successful result was demonstrated in all cases by angiography and permeability of the affected vessel.

Rev. méd. Chile ; 140(6): 746-750, jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-649845


Background: Abnormal Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scintigraphy performed six months after an acute pyelonephritis (AP) is generally interpreted as scarring. Aim: To perform a follow up of childhood patients showing scintigraphic renal lesions during the acute phase of pyelonephritis (within 7 days from the beginning of fever). Material and Methods: A scintigraphic control was carried out at 5-7 months and, in case of persistent lesions, an additional late scintigraphy at 10-13 months. All patients were followed clinically for one year and those with a relapse of urinary tract infection were excluded from the study. Results: Eighty five patients with a median age of 8 months were included. Among these, the first scintigraphic control was normal in 59 (69%) and abnormal in 26 patients (31%). In five of these 26 patients (5/26:19%-5/85: 6%), a considerable regression of the lesions was obvious on the early control, and normalized completely on the late control. When expressing the results in kidney units, 107 showed lesions during the acute phase of infection; 69% was normal at the early control. Thirty three showed lesions persisting at the early control (31%) and 7 out of these 33 (21%) became normal on the late control (7/107: 7%). In total, 25% of the children included in the study (24% of the kidney units) remained with renal sequelae one year after the initial episode of AP. Conclusions: The persistence of scintigraphic lesions six months after an episode of AP, does not necessarily correspond to permanent scars, since normalization can sometimes be observed on late controls.

Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Cicatriz , Pielonefrite , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Infecções Urinárias , Doença Aguda , Cicatriz/etiologia , Rim/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Pielonefrite/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/complicações , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico
Rev. colomb. cir ; 27(2): 167-173, abr. 2012. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-650054


Las afecciones de la arteria innominada, o tronco braquiocefálico, son infrecuentes; se pueden presentar como fístulas arteriovenosas, pseudoaneurismas postraumáticos, rupturas o disecciones, así como aneurismas verdaderos. Usualmente, se detectan como masas asintomáticas que pueden llegar a comprometer la vida del paciente o generar complicaciones tromboembólicas en el sistema nervioso central o en el miembro superior derecho. Se presenta la revisión de la literatura científica sobre aneurismas de la arteria innominada y se describe un caso tratado quirúrgicamente.

Aneurysms of the innominate artery are widely considered to be rare entities; the innominate artery pathology includes a myriad of entities such as, arteriovenous fistulas, post traumatic pseudo aneurysms, rupture and dissection, as well as true aneurysms. Usually detected as asymptomatic masses, such aneurysms may cause life-threatening complications, including distal embolism to the central nervous system or upper extremity. We present a literature review and describe our experience with one patient that underwent surgical treatment for an aneurysm of the innominate artery.