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1.
Chest ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual studies have reported widely variable rates for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and bleeding among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the incidence of VTE and bleeding among hospitalized patients with COVID-19? METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis we searched 15 standard and COVID-19 specific sources between January 1, 2020 and July 31, 2020, with no restriction by language. We pooled incidence estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. We evaluated heterogeneity using the I2 statistic. We assessed publication bias using Begg's and Egger's tests. RESULTS: The pooled incidence was 17.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.4%-20.9%) for VTE, 12.1% (95% CI, 8.4%-16.4%) for DVT, 7.1% (95% CI, 5.3%-9.1%) for PE, 7.8% (95% CI, 2.6%-15.3%) for bleeding, and 3.9% (95% CI, 1.2%-7.9%) for major bleeding. In subgroup meta-analyses, the incidence of VTE was higher when assessed by screening (33.1% vs. 9.8% by clinical diagnosis), among patients in the ICU (27.9% vs. 7.1% in the ward), in prospective studies (25.5% vs. 12.4% in retrospective studies), and with the inclusion of catheter-associated thrombosis/isolated distal DVTs and isolated subsegmental PEs. The highest pooled incidence estimate of bleeding was reported for patients receiving intermediate- or full-dose anticoagulation (21.4%) and the lowest in the only prospective study that assessed bleeding events (2.7%). INTERPRETATION: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the overall estimated pooled incidence of VTE was 17.0%, with higher rates with routine screening, inclusion of distal DVT and subsegmental PE, in critically ill patients, and in prospective studies. Bleeding events were observed in 7.8% of patients and were sensitive to use of escalated doses of anticoagulants, and nature of data collection. Additional studies are required to ascertain the significance of various thrombotic events and to identify strategies to improve patient outcomes.

2.
Thromb Res ; 197: 48-55, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with acute low-risk pulmonary embolism (PE), determined by a validated clinical prognostic score, the additive prognostic significance of computed tomography (CT)-assessed right ventricular (RV) enlargement is uncertain. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that enrolled patients with acute low-risk PE to assess the prognostic value of concomitant CT-assessed RV enlargement for 30-day all-cause mortality and PE-related death. We conducted unrestricted searches of PubMed and Embase through December 2019. We used a random-effects model to pool study results; Begg rank correlation method to evaluate for publication bias; and I2 testing to assess for heterogeneity. RESULTS: Of the 7 cohorts with 2197 participants who had low-risk PE and provided results on the primary outcome, 743 (34%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32-36%) patients had concomitant RV enlargement. Six of 743 (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.3-1.8%) patients with concomitant RV enlargement died 30-days after the diagnosis of PE compared with 3 of 1454 (0.2%, 95% CI, 0-0.6%) without RV enlargement. CT-assessed RV enlargement did not have a significant association with 30-day all-cause mortality (odds ratio [OR], 2.6; 95% CI, 0.7-9.4; I2 = 0%; P = 0.15) or PE-related mortality (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 0.7-12.1; I2 = 0%; P = 0.16). CONCLUSIONS: CT-assessed RV enlargement occurs in a third of PE patients identified as low-risk by clinical scores. Mortality rate in these patients is low, and CT-assessed RV enlargement was not associated with a significantly increased risk of death within 30 days of PE diagnosis.

5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(12): e459-e462, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105340

RESUMO

Multicenter study conducted in 15 hospitals including 101 COVID-19 pediatric inpatients aiming to describe associated gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations. GI symptoms were present in 57% and were the first manifestation in 14%. Adjusted by confounding factors, those with GI symptoms had higher risk of pediatric intensive care unit admission. GI symptoms are predictive of severity in COVID-19 children admitted to hospitals.

6.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119949

RESUMO

AIMS: Little is known about the prognosis of patients with massive pulmonary embolism (PE) and its risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared with non-massive PE, which may inform clinical decisions. Our aim was to compare the risk of recurrent VTE, bleeding and mortality after massive and non-massive PE during anticoagulation and after its discontinuation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included all participants in the RIETE registry who suffered a symptomatic, objectively confirmed segmental or more central PE. Massive PE was defined by a systolic hypotension at clinical presentation (<90 mmHg). We compared the risks of recurrent VTE, major bleeding and mortality using time-to-event multivariable competing risk modeling. There were 3.5% of massive PE among 38,996 patients with PE. During the anticoagulation period, massive PE was associated with a greater risk of major bleeding (sHR 1.69, 95%CI 1.25-2.27), but not of recurrent VTE (sHR 1.16, 95%CI 0.76-1.76) than non-massive PE. An increased risk of mortality was only observed in the first month after PE. After discontinuation of anticoagulation, among 11,579 patients, massive PE and non-massive PE had similar risks of mortality, bleeding and recurrent VTE (sHR 0.86, 95%CI 0.52-1.42), but with different case-fatality of recurrent PE (11.1% vs. 2.4%, P=0.03) and possibly different risk of recurrent fatal PE (sHR 3.74, 95%CI 0.85-16.56). CONCLUSION: In this large prospective registry, the baseline hemodynamic status of the incident PE did not influence the risk of recurrent VTE, during and after the anticoagulation periods, but was possibly associated with recurrent PE of greater severity.

7.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086403

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, limited data exist on patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes. To describe the clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and short-term outcomes of patients diagnosed with VTE during hospitalization for COVID-19. This is a prospective multinational study of patients with incident VTE during the course of hospitalization for COVID-19. Data were obtained from the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) registry. All-cause mortality, VTE recurrences, and major bleeding during the first 10 days were separately investigated for patients in hospital wards versus those in intensive care units (ICUs). As of May 03, 2020, a total number of 455 patients were diagnosed with VTE (83% pulmonary embolism, 17% isolated deep vein thrombosis) during their hospital stay; 71% were male, the median age was 65 (interquartile range, 55-74) years. Most patients (68%) were hospitalized in medical wards, and 145 in ICUs. Three hundred and seventeen (88%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 84-91%) patients were receiving thromboprophylaxis at the time of VTE diagnosis. Most patients (88%) received therapeutic low-molecular-weight heparin, and 15 (3.6%) received reperfusion therapies. Among 420 patients with complete 10-day follow-up, 51 (12%; 95% CI: 9.3-15%) died, no patient recurred, and 12 (2.9%; 95% CI: 1.6-4.8%) experienced major bleeding. The 10-day mortality rate was 9.1% (95% CI: 6.1-13%) among patients in hospital wards and 19% (95% CI: 13-26%) among those in ICUs. This study provides characteristics and early outcomes of patients diagnosed with acute VTE during hospitalization for COVID-19. Additional studies are needed to identify the optimal strategies to prevent VTE and to mitigate adverse outcomes associated.

8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE)-related mortality is decreasing in Europe. However, time trends in the USA and Canada remain uncertain because the most recent analyses of PE-related mortality were published in the early 2000s. METHODS: For this retrospective epidemiological study, we accessed medically certified vital registration data from the WHO Mortality Database (USA and Canada, 2000-17) and the Multiple Cause of Death database produced by the Division of Vital Statistics of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; US, 2000-18). We investigated contemporary time trends in PE-related mortality in the USA and Canada and the prevalence of conditions contributing to PE-related mortality reported on the death certificates. We also estimated PE-related mortality by age group and sex. A subgroup analysis by race was performed for the USA. FINDINGS: In the USA, the age-standardised annual mortality rate (PE as the underlying cause) decreased from 6·0 deaths per 100 000 population (95% CI 5·9-6·1) in 2000 to 4·4 deaths per 100 000 population (4·3-4·5) in 2006. Thereafter, it continued to decrease to 4·1 deaths per 100 000 population (4·0-4·2) in women in 2017 and plateaued at 4·5 deaths per 100 000 population (4·4-4·7) in men in 2017. Among adults aged 25-64 years, it increased after 2006. The median age at death from PE decreased from 73 years to 68 years (2000-18). The prevalence of cancer, respiratory diseases, and infections as a contributing cause of PE-related death increased in all age categories from 2000 to 2018. The annual age-standardised PE-related mortality was consistently higher by up to 50% in Black individuals than in White individuals; these rates were approximately 50% higher in White individuals than in those of other races. In Canada, the annual age-standardised mortality rate from PE as the underlying cause of death decreased from 4·7 deaths per 100 000 population (4·4-5·0) in 2000 to 2·6 deaths per 100 000 population (2·4-2·8) in 2017; this decline slowed after 2006 across age groups and sexes. INTERPRETATION: After 2006, the initially decreasing PE-related mortality rates in North America progressively reached a plateau in Canada, while a rebound increase was observed among young and middle-aged adults in the USA. These findings parallel recent upward trends in mortality from other cardiovascular diseases and might reflect increasing inequalities in the exposure to risk factors and access to health care. FUNDING: None.

9.
J Clin Med ; 9(10)2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036474

RESUMO

(1) Background: The aims of this study were to examine trends in the incidence, clinical characteristics, and in-hospital outcomes of patients hospitalized with pulmonary embolism in Spain and to identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM). (2) Methods: We included all patients who were hospitalized for pulmonary embolism between 2001 and 2018. Data were collected from the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database. (3) Results: We identified 241,821 hospitalizations for pulmonary embolism during the study period. The incidence of pulmonary embolism increased from 20.49 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in the period 2001-2002 to 35.9 cases in the period 2017-2018 (p < 0.001). After controlling for possible confounders, there was a significant increase in the incidence over the study period (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval I 1.51-1.56). The median length of hospital stay was 11 days in the period 2001-2002, decreasing to seven days in the period 2017-2018 (p < 0.001). For the total time period, the crude IHM rate was 9.51%. After multivariable adjustment, IHM decreased significantly over time. The IHM was significantly higher in women, in patients suffering from more comorbidities, and in those with a massive pulmonary embolism. (4) Conclusions: Our results revealed an increase in the incidence of pulmonary embolism hospitalizations from 2001 to 2018 in Spain, with older patients being the most affected.

10.
Thromb Res ; 196: 382-394, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microvascular and macrovascular thrombotic events are among the hallmarks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, the exuberant immune response is considered an important driver of pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. The optimal management strategy to prevent thrombosis in critically-ill patients with COVID-19 remains unknown. METHODS: The Intermediate versus Standard-dose Prophylactic anticoagulation In cRitically-ill pATIents with COVID-19: An opeN label randomized controlled trial (INSPIRATION) and INSPIRATION-statin (INSPIRATION-S) studies test two independent hypotheses within a randomized controlled trial with 2 × 2 factorial design. Hospitalized critically-ill patients with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 will be randomized to intermediate-dose versus standard dose prophylactic anticoagulation. The 600 patients undergoing this randomization will be screened and if meeting the eligibility criteria, will undergo an additional double-blind stratified randomization to atorvastatin 20 mg daily versus matching placebo. The primary endpoint, for both hypotheses will be tested for superiority and includes a composite of adjudicated acute arterial thrombosis, venous thromboembolism (VTE), use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or all-cause death within 30 days from enrollment. Key secondary endpoints include all-cause mortality, adjudicated VTE, and ventilator-free days. Key safety endpoints include major bleeding according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium definition and severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <20,000/fL) for the anticoagulation hypothesis. In a prespecified secondary analysis for non-inferiority, the study will test for the non-inferiority of intermediate intensity versus standard dose anticoagulation for major bleeding, considering a non-inferiority margin of 1.8 based on odds ratio. Key safety endpoints for the statin hypothesis include rise in liver enzymes >3 times upper normal limit and clinically-diagnosed myopathy. The primary analyses will be performed in the modified intention-to-treat population. Results will be tested in exploratory analyses across key subgroups and in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: INSPIRATION and INSPIRATON-S studies will help address clinically-relevant questions for antithrombotic therapy and thromboinflammatory therapy in critically-ill patients with COVID-19.

11.
Thromb Res ; 196: 297-304, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950897

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Edoxaban had a positive risk-benefit ratio for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared to conventional therapy with warfarin. The objective of this analysis of the ongoing ETNA-VTE Europe study was to assess the real-world benefits and risks of edoxaban during the first 3 months of treatment, the highest risk period for further VTE events. METHODS: ETNA-VTE Europe is a prospective, non-interventional, post-authorization study, conducted in eight European countries. Participants had initial or recurrent acute VTE (deep vein thrombosis [DVT] and/or pulmonary embolism [PE]) that occurred ≤2 weeks prior to enrolment and received edoxaban therapy. RESULTS: The analysis set included 2672 patients (PE ± DVT, n = 1117; DVT only, n = 1555); mean age 62.9 ± 16.0 years, bodyweight 81.9 ± 17.4 kg, estimated glomerular filtration rate 95.4 ± 42.8 mL/min; 46.4% were female. Overall, 66.4% of patients (PE ± DVT, 68.5%; DVT-only, 64.8%) received heparin lead-in treatment for at least 5 days. Most patients (87.7%) received edoxaban at a dose of 60 mg once daily. Event rates at 3 months were: recurrent VTE 0.34% (n = 9), major bleeding 0.97% (n = 26), all-cause mortality 0.79% (n = 21). Rates were numerically higher in the PE ± DVT group compared with the DVT-only group (recurrent VTE, 0.45% (n = 5) versus 0.26% (n = 4); major bleeding, 1.34% (n = 15) versus 0.71% (n = 11); and all-cause mortality 1.16% (n = 13) versus 0.51% (n = 8)). CONCLUSIONS: The results support the safety and effectiveness of edoxaban in a general VTE population during the most critical time period, the first 3 months. The outcomes of this study extend the principal efficacy and safety data on edoxaban into the routine clinical practice setting.

12.
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 90(3): 321-327, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952170

RESUMO

La tromboembolia pulmonar aguda representa una causa frecuente de morbimortalidad cardiovascular, sólo rebasada por los síndromes coronarios agudos y la enfermedad cerebrovascular. El inicio y la intervención de un equipo multidisciplinario de respuesta rápida en la tromboembolia pulmonar son imperantes para mejorar el pronóstico y reducir al mínimo las posibles secuelas en el subgrupo de pacientes más graves. En este artículo de revisión se describe y revisa de manera general el papel actual y potencial que tienen dichos equipos de respuesta rápida, con un enfoque particular en el perioperatorio.Acute pulmonary embolism represents a frequent cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, only exceeded by acute coronary syndromes and cerebrovascular disease. The start-up and implementation of a designated pulmonary embolism response team is necessary to improve prognosis and minimize long-term sequelae in the subgroup of patients with significant pulmonary embolism. Herein, we describe and discuss an overview of the current and potential role of pulmonary embolism response teams, with a focus on the perioperative period.

13.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950309

RESUMO

The new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has created an unprecedented global health problem, resulting in more than 250,000 confirmed deaths. The disease produced by this virus, called Covid-19, presents with variable clinical manifestations, from practically asymptomatic patients with catarrhal processes to severe pneumonias that rapidly evolve to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiorgan failure. In recent weeks, papers have been published describing coagulation disorders and arterial and venous thrombotic complications in these patients, mainly among those admitted to intensive care units. The infection triggers an immune response, which causes different inflammatory mediators to be released into the blood. These include cytokines, which interact with platelets and different coagulation proteins, and promote thrombogenesis. One of the most widely studied coagulation markers in Covid-19 is D-dimer (DD), raised levels of which have prognostic implications, although the best cut-off point for the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in this population has not been clarified, nor has its usefulness in determining the intensity of thromboprophylaxis required in these patients. Until sufficiently robust information (preferably from well-designed clinical trials) is available, the recommendations of clinical practice guidelines for the prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of VTE should be followed in Covid-19 patients.

14.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620931200, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936691

RESUMO

In the current era of patient empowerment and precision medicine, access to timely information is critical to decision-making. Unfortunately, we currently lack patient-specific, real-time data about clinical presentation, risk of thrombotic or hemorrhagic events, key risk factors, and adverse outcomes in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Accordingly, the Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) investigators developed a tool to provide an open-source, real-time graphic representation of VTE-related data derived from over 90 000 patients with confirmed VTE. This information is intended to facilitate discussion in the informed decision-making process. The current article describes the aims, rationale, methods, and ongoing and future efforts of the real-time VTE infographics developed by the RIETE registry collaborators.

15.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early discharge of patients with acute low-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) requires validation by prospective trials with clinical and quality of life outcomes. METHODS: The multinational Home Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism (HoT-PE) single-arm management trial investigated early discharge followed by ambulatory treatment with rivaroxaban. The study was stopped for efficacy after the positive results of the predefined interim analysis at 50% of the planned population. The present analysis includes the entire trial population (576 patients). In addition to three-month recurrence (primary outcome) and one-year overall mortality, we analysed self-reported disease-specific (Pulmonary Embolism Quality of Life [PEmb-QoL] questionnaire) and generic (five-level five-dimension EuroQoL [EQ-5D-5L] scale) quality of life as well as treatment satisfaction (Anti-Clot Treatment Scale [ACTS]) after PE. RESULTS: The primary efficacy outcome occurred in three (0.5%; upper 95.0% CI 1.3%) patients. One-year mortality was 2.4%. The mean PEmb-QoL decreased from 28.9±20.6% at 3 weeks to 19.9±15.4% at 3 months, a mean change (improvement) of -9.1% (p<0.0001). Improvement was consistent across all PEmb-QoL dimensions. EQ-5D-5L was 0.89±0.12 3 weeks after enrolment and improved to 0.91±0.12 at 3 months (p<0.0001). Female sex and cardiopulmonary disease were associated with poorer disease-specific and generic quality of life; older age, with faster worsening of generic quality of life. The ACTS burden score improved from 40.5±6.6 points at 3 weeks to 42.5±5.9 at 3 months (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results further support early discharge and ambulatory oral anticoagulation for selected patients with low-risk PE. Targeted strategies may be necessary to further improve quality of life in specific patient subgroups.

16.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826158

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Edoxaban has proven its efficacy and safety in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 and HOKUSAI-VTE clinical trials. Clinical practice patients, however, may differ from those enolled in clinical trials. We aimed to compare patients from the HOKUSAI-VTE clinical trial with those treated in clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ETNA-VTE-Europe is a prospective, non-interventional post-authorisation safety study conducted in eight European countries. RESULTS: A total of 2,879 patients presenting with acute symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) were enrolled at 339 sites. Of the 2,680 patients with complete data, 23.6% reported prior VTE and 2.8% had a history of bleeding. Patients in ETNA-VTE were older (65vs.57 years), more likely to be female (46.5vs.39.8%) and had a higher prevalence of chronic venous insufficiency (11.1vs.1.6%) than those in the European cohort of the HOKUSAI-VTE trial (n=1,512). Bodyweight and creatinine clearance were substantially lower in clinical practice. Edoxaban dosing was adherent to label in 90% of patients, with higher (60 mg) and lower than recommended doses (30 mg) used in 6.6% and 3.3% of the patients, respectively. Heparin lead-in was used in 84.7% of the patients overall, and was more frequently used in patients with PE than patients with DVT only (91.3% vs. 80.1%; p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These data reinforce the largely appropriate use of edoxaban in routine clinical practice, where the study population differs from those in prior randomised controlled trials. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02943993.

17.
s.l; American College of Chest Physician; July 24, 2020. 22 p.
Não convencional em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1117198

RESUMO

Emerging evidence shows that severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be complicated by a significant coagulopathy, that likely manifests in the form of both microthrombosis and VTE. This recognition has led to the urgent need for practical guidance regarding prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE. A group of approved panelists developed key clinical questions by using the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome) format that addressed urgent clinical questions regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE in patients with COVID-19. MEDLINE (via PubMed or Ovid), Embase, and Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials were systematically searched for relevant literature, and references were screened for inclusion. Validated evaluation tools were used to grade the level of evidence to support each recommendation. When evidence did not exist, guidance was developed based on consensus using the modified Delphi process. The systematic review and critical analysis of the literature based on 13 Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome questions resulted in 22 statements. Very little evidence exists in the COVID-19 population. The panel thus used expert consensus and existing evidence-based guidelines to craft the guidance statements. The evidence on the optimal strategies to prevent, diagnose, and treat VTE in patients with COVID-19 is sparse but rapidly evolving.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved prediction of the risk of major bleeding in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) receiving systemic thrombolysis is crucial to guide the choice of therapy. METHODS: The study included consecutive patients with acute PE who received systemic thrombolysis in the RIETE registry. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to create a risk score to predict 30-day major bleeding episodes. We externally validated the risk score in patients from the COMMAND VTE registry. We also compared the newly created risk score against the Kuijer and RIETE scores. RESULTS: Multivariable logistic regression identified four predictors for major bleeding: recent major Bleeding (3 points), Age >75 years (1 point), active Cancer (1 point), and Syncope (1 point) (BACS). Among 1172 patients receiving thrombolytic therapy in RIETE, 446 (38%) were classified as having low-risk (none of the variables present, 0 points) of major bleeding according to the BACS score, and the overall 30-day major bleeding rate of this group was 2.9% (95% CI, 1.6-4.9%), compared with 44% (95% CI, 14-79%) in the high-risk group (>3 points). In the validation cohort, 51% (149/290) of patients were classified as having low-risk, and the overall 30-day major bleeding rate of this group was 1.3%. In RIETE, the 30-day major bleeding event rates in the Kuijer and RIETE low-risk stratum were 5.3% and 4.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The BACS score is an easily applicable aid for prediction of the risk of major bleeding in the population of PE patients who receive systemic thrombolysis.

19.
J Exp Psychol Anim Learn Cogn ; 46(3): 341-353, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730086

RESUMO

This article reports the context specificity of habituation in earthworms (Lumbricidae family). Using earthworms as subjects-which are typically sensitive to odors-the present study sought to evaluate the context specificity of habituation by giving subjects repeated exposures to a bright light in one odorous context, after which they were presented again with the same stimulus in a different context. The recovery of responding in this second context was higher in the group where the odor of this context was different, in comparison with a control group for which the context was the same. To provide further support for these findings, a second experiment was run using a within-subject design where all subjects were trained in both of the conditions. In this case, in addition to the light, vibration was used as a second stimulus. The subjects again displayed a higher increase in responding in the condition where the context was different (in odor) in comparison with the case in which the context was the same, thus replicating the results obtained in the first experiment. We discuss the implications of these results in the light of current data and learning theories. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

20.
Chest ; 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence shows that severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be complicated by a significant coagulopathy, that likely manifests in the form of both microthrombosis and VTE. This recognition has led to the urgent need for practical guidance regarding prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE. METHODS: A group of approved panelists developed key clinical questions by using the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome) format that addressed urgent clinical questions regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE in patients with COVID-19. MEDLINE (via PubMed or Ovid), Embase, and Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials were systematically searched for relevant literature, and references were screened for inclusion. Validated evaluation tools were used to grade the level of evidence to support each recommendation. When evidence did not exist, guidance was developed based on consensus using the modified Delphi process. RESULTS: The systematic review and critical analysis of the literature based on 13 Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome questions resulted in 22 statements. Very little evidence exists in the COVID-19 population. The panel thus used expert consensus and existing evidence-based guidelines to craft the guidance statements. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence on the optimal strategies to prevent, diagnose, and treat VTE in patients with COVID-19 is sparse but rapidly evolving.

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