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Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther ; 12(4): 194-203, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319058


OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) with early therapy failure (ETF) within 2 years of frontline therapy have poor overall survival (OS). We recently reported the results of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients from the Grupo Español de Linfomas y Trasplantes de Médula Ósea (GELTAMO) registry treated with rituximab prior to ASCT and with ETF after first-line immunochemotherapy, leading to 81% 5-year OS since ASCT. We explored whether ASCT is also an effective option in the pre-rituximab era-that is, in patients treated in induction and rescued only with chemotherapy. METHODS: ETF was defined as relapse/progression within 2 years of starting first-line therapy. We identified two groups: the ETF cohort (n = 87) and the non-ETF cohort (n = 47 patients receiving ASCT but not experiencing ETF following first-line therapy). RESULTS: There was a significant difference in 5-year progression-free survival between the ETF and non-ETF cohorts (43% vs. 57%, respectively; p = .048). Nevertheless, in patients with ETF with an interval from first relapse after primary treatment to ASCT of <1 year, no differences were observed in 5-year progression-free survival (48% vs. 66%, respectively; p = .44) or in 5-year OS (69% vs. 77%, p = .4). Patients in the ETF cohort transplanted in complete remission showed a plateau in the OS curves, at 56%, beyond 13.7 years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: ASCT may be a curative option for ETF in patients who respond to rescue chemotherapy, without the need for immunotherapy or other therapies, and should be considered as an early consolidation, especially in patients with difficult access to rituximab.

Haematologica ; 104(11): 2249-2257, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890600


It has been postulated that monitoring measurable residual disease (MRD) could be used as a surrogate marker of progression-free survival (PFS) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients after treatment with immunochemotherapy regimens. In this study, we analyzed the outcome of 84 patients at 3 years of follow-up after first-line treatment with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR) induction followed by 36 months of rituximab maintenance thearpy. MRD was assessed by a quantitative four-color flow cytometry panel with a sensitivity level of 10-4 Eighty out of 84 evaluable patients (95.2%) achieved at least a partial response or better at the end of induction. After clinical evaluation, 74 patients went into rituximab maintenance and the primary endpoint was assessed in the final analysis at 3 years of follow-up. Bone marrow (BM) MRD analysis was performed after the last planned induction course and every 6 months in cases with detectable residual disease during the 36 months of maintenance therapy. Thirty-seven patients (44%) did not have detectable residual disease in the BM prior to maintenance therapy. Interestingly, 29 patients with detectable residual disease in the BM after induction no longer had detectable disease in the BM following maintenance therapy. After a median followup of 6.30 years, the median overall survival (OS) and PFS had not been reached in patients with either undetectable or detectable residual disease in the BM, who had achieved a complete response at the time of starting maintenance therapy. Interestingly, univariate analysis showed that after rituximab maintenance OS was not affected by IGHV status (mutated vs unmutated OS: 85.7% alive at 7.2 years vs 79.6% alive at 7.3 years, respectively). As per protocol, 15 patients (17.8%), who achieved a complete response and undetectable peripheral blood and BM residual disease after four courses of induction, were allowed to stop fludarabine and cyclophosphamide and complete two additional courses of rituximab and continue with maintenance therapy for 18 cycles. Surprisingly, the outcome in this population was similar to that observed in patients who received the full six cycles of the induction regimen. These data show that, compared to historic controls, patients treated with FCR followed by rituximab maintenance have high-quality responses with fewer relapses and improved OS. The tolerability of this regime is favorable. Furthermore, attaining an early undetectable residual disease status could shorten the duration of chemoimmunotherapy, reducing toxicities and preventing long-term side effects. The analysis of BM MRD after fludarabine-based induction could be a powerful predictor of post-maintenance outcomes in patients with CLL undergoing rituximab maintenance and could be a valuable tool to identify patients at high risk of relapse, influencing further treatment strategies. This trial is registered with EudraCT n. 2007-002733-36 and Identifier: NCT00545714.

Cancer Med ; 6(12): 2766-2774, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29076254


Overall survival (OS) is the gold-standard end point for studies evaluating autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in follicular lymphoma (FL), but assessment may be elusive due to the lengthy disease course. We analyzed the validity of two earlier end points, proposed in the setting of first-line chemo-/immunotherapy, as surrogates for OS-progression-free survival (PFS) status at 24 months (PFS24) and complete response at 30 months (CR30) post-ASCT. We also have investigated the clinical features of patients with early progression after ASCT. Data were available for 626 chemosensitive FL patients who received ASCT between 1989 and 2007. Median follow-up was 12.2 years from ASCT. In the PFS24 analysis, 153 (24%) patients progressed within 24 months and 447 were alive and progression-free at 24 months post-ASCT (26 who died without disease progressions within 24 months were excluded). Early progression was associated with shorter OS (hazard ratio [HR], 6.8; P = 0.00001). In the subgroup of patients who received an ASCT in the setting or relapse after being exposed to rituximab, the HR was 11.3 (95% CI, 3.9-30.2; P < 0.00001). In the CR30 analysis, 183 of 596 (31%) response-evaluable patients progressed/died with 30 months post-ASCT. The absence of CR30 was associated with shorter OS (HR, 7.8; P < 0.00001), including in patients with prior rituximab (HR, 8.2). PFS24 and CR30 post-ASCT are associated with poor outcomes and should be primary end points. Further research is needed to identify this population to be offered alternative treatments.

Linfoma Folicular/cirurgia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Determinação de Ponto Final , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Transplante de Células-Tronco/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 71(3): 718-26, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26612870


BACKGROUND: Antifungal prophylaxis with a new oral tablet formulation of posaconazole may be beneficial to patients at high risk for invasive fungal disease. A two-part (Phase 1B/3) study evaluated posaconazole tablet pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety. METHODS: Patients with neutropenia following chemotherapy for haematological malignancy or recipients of allogeneic HSCT receiving prophylaxis or treatment for graft-versus-host disease received 300 mg posaconazole (as tablets) once daily (twice daily on day 1) for up to 28 days without regard to food intake. Weekly trough PK sampling was performed during therapy, and a subset of patients had sampling on days 1 and 8. Cmin-evaluable subjects received ≥6 days of dosing, and were compliant with specified sampling timepoints. Steady-state PK parameters, safety, clinical failure and survival to day 65 were assessed., NCT01777763; EU Clinical Trials Register, EUDRA-CT 2008-006684-36. RESULTS: Two hundred and ten patients received 300 mg posaconazole (as tablets) once daily. Among Cmin-evaluable subjects (n = 186), steady-state mean Cmin was 1720 ng/mL (range = 210-9140). Steady-state Cmin was ≥700 ng/mL in 90% of subjects with 5% (10 of 186) <500 ng/mL and 5% (10 of 186) 500-700 ng/mL. Six (3%) patients had steady-state Cmin ≥3750 ng/mL. One patient (<1%) had an invasive fungal infection. The most common treatment-related adverse events were nausea (11%) and diarrhoea (8%). There was no increase in adverse event frequency with higher posaconazole exposure. CONCLUSIONS: In patients at high risk for invasive fungal disease, 300 mg posaconazole (as tablets) once daily was well tolerated and demonstrated a safety profile similar to that reported for posaconazole oral suspension: most patients (99%) achieved steady-state pCavg exposures >500 ng/mL and only one patient (<1%) had a pCavg <500 ng/mL.

Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/farmacocinética , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Fungemia/prevenção & controle , Comprimidos/administração & dosagem , Triazóis/administração & dosagem , Triazóis/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Quimioprevenção/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasma/química , Análise de Sobrevida , Comprimidos/efeitos adversos , Triazóis/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 24(4): 263-70, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22173196


Antifungal treatment in the hematological patient has reached a high complexity with the advent of new antifungals and diagnostic tests, which have resulted in different therapeutic strategies. The use of the most appropriate treatment in each case is essential in infections with such a high mortality. The availability of recommendations as those here reported based on the best evidence and developed by a large panel of 48 specialists aimed to answer when is indicated to treat and which agents should be used, considering different aspects of the patient (risk of fungal infection, clinical manifestations, galactomanann test, chest CT scan and previous prophylaxis) may help clinicians to improve the results.

Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Hematológicas/complicações , Micoses/complicações , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Leucemia/complicações , Micoses/microbiologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/complicações , Risco