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1.
Am J Infect Control ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the percentage of positivity of close contacts of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients to depict the importance of asymptomatic infections in the patient-to-patient transmission of COVID-19. METHODS: One hundred subjects were included. Nineteen index COVID-19 cases and eighty-one traced close contacts were screened for coronavirus 2 of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) against SARS-CoV-2 were evaluated by rapid test. RESULTS: Thirty-four (42%) contacts in the study were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Twenty-three (67.6%) manifested less than two respiratory symptoms, and five (14.7%) remained asymptomatic. The average of positive contacts by index COVID-19 case (R0) was 4.3 and the mean of time of positive COVID-19 test at sampling time was 18.9 days. Positive antibody test against SARS-CoV-2 was observed in 16% of the participants. CONCLUSION: The proportion of close contacts of COVID-19 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (42%) and with less than two or with no respiratory symptoms (82.4%) was high in the study population. A low proportion of COVID-19 patients had a positive test for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. The screening for SARS-CoV-2 in close contacts of COVID-19 positive patients should be encouraged to avoid spreading the infection and the expansion of the disease.

2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668083

RESUMO

Recent anthropic activity related to the construction of the Bosquesur Green Park in a large urban setting in Madrid (Spain) has resulted in the largest reported community outbreak of human leishmaniosis in Europe. Previous phylogenetic and molecular-typing studies of parasite isolates have implicated the Leishmania infantum ITS-Lombardi genotype in this outbreak. In an unusual scenario, visceral leishmaniosis (VL) is affecting a significant number of individuals, suggesting that an increase in parasite virulence has occurred. In this work, using an in vivo BALB/c model of VL, we aimed to investigate the properties of emergent virulence of the L. infantum POL2FL7 and BOS1FL1 isolates obtained from Phlebotomus perniciosus collected in the outbreak area and compare them with those of the well-characterized strain BCN150 MON-1 isolated from a dog. The P. perniciosus specimens were collected during an entomological survey conducted in the transmission season of 2012. We observed a range of virulence phenotypes from moderately to highly aggressive after 5 weeks of infection. IV challenge of mice with outbreak isolates from sand flies induced higher splenic and liver parasite burdens, higher serological titres of specific anti-Leishmania antibodies and impaired capacities to control infection, as revealed by the arginine metabolism and low ratios of Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles analysed, compared with the corresponding measures evaluated in mice infected with the BCN150 strain. The BOS1FL1 isolate showed the highest degree of virulence among the isolates, superior to that of POL2FL7, as evidenced by the analysed biomarkers and the histopathological severity of liver lesions. These results provide insight into how L. infantum isolates from sand flies collected in the outbreak area have been able to affect not only immunosuppressed patients but also middle-aged people with normal immunocompetence in the largest human VL outbreak in Europe.

3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008253, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Mediterranean basin, Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a zoonosis in which the dog is the primary domestic reservoir, although wildlife may have a leading role in the sylvatic cycle of the disease in some areas. Infections without disease are very frequent. There is limited information regarding the role that VL patients and asymptomatic infected individuals could be playing in the transmission of L. infantum. Xenodiagnosis of leishmaniasis has been used in this descriptive study to explore the role of symptomatic and asymptomatic infected individuals as reservoirs in a recent focus of leishmaniasis in southwestern Madrid, Spain. METHODOLOGY AND MAIN FINDINGS: Asymptomatic blood donors (n = 24), immunocompetent patients who were untreated (n = 12) or treated (n = 11) for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and immunocompromised patients with VL (n = 3) were enrolled in the study. Their infectivity to Phlebotomus perniciosus was studied by indirect xenodiagnosis on peripheral blood samples. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction of blood samples from immunocompetent patients untreated for VL and immunocompromised untreated, treated and under secondary prophylaxis for VL was performed. Antibodies against Leishmania were studied by indirect fluorescent antibody and rK39-immunochromatographic tests. A lymphoproliferative assay with a soluble Leishmania antigen was used to screen for leishmaniasis infection in the healthy population. Sixty-two xenodiagnostic tests were carried out and 5,080 sand flies were dissected. Positive xenodiagnosis was recorded in four patients, with different sand fly infection rates: 1 immunosuppressed HIV / L. infantum coinfected asymptomatic patient, 1 immunosuppressed patient with multiple myeloma and symptomatic active VL, and 2 immunocompetent patients with untreated active VL. All blood donors were negative for both xenodiagnosis and conventional PCR. CONCLUSIONS / SIGNIFICANCE: There is no consensus amongst authors on the definition of an 'asymptomatic case' nor on the tools for screening; we, therefore, have adopted one for the sake of clarity. Immunocompetent subjects, both infected asymptomatics and those treated for VL, are limited in number and appear to have no epidemiological relevance. The impact is limited for immunocompetent patients with untreated active VL, whilst immunosuppressed individuals undergoing immunosuppressive therapy and immunosuppressed individuals HIV / L. infantum coinfected were the most infectious towards sand flies. It is noteworthy that the HIV / L. infantum coinfected patient with asymptomatic leishmaniasis was easily infectious to sand flies for a long time, despite being under continuous prophylaxis for leishmaniasis. Accordingly, screening for latent Leishmania infection in HIV-infected patients is recommended in scenarios where transmission occurs. In addition, screening for VL in HIV-infected patients who have spent time in VL-endemic areas should also be implemented in non-endemic areas. More research is needed to better understand if some asymptomatic coinfected individuals contribute to transmission as 'super-spreaders'.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008077, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus (Larroussius) perniciosus and Canis familiaris are respectively the only confirmed vector and reservoir for the transmission of Leishmania (L.) infantum MON-1 in Tunisia. However, the vector and reservoir hosts of the two other zymodemes, MON-24 and MON-80, are still unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the L. infantum life cycle in a Tunisian leishmaniasis focus. For this purpose, we have focused on: i) the detection, quantification and identification of Leishmania among this sand fly population, and ii) the analysis of the blood meal preferences of Larroussius (Lar.) subgenus sand flies to identify the potential reservoirs. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 3,831 sand flies were collected in seven locations from the center of Tunisia affected by human visceral leishmaniasis. The collected sand flies belonged to two genus Phlebotomus (Ph.) (five species) and Sergentomyia (four species). From the collected 1,029 Lar. subgenus female sand flies, 8.26% was positive to Leishmania by ITS1 nested PCR. Three Leishmania spp. were identified: L. infantum 28% (24/85), L. killicki 13% (11/85), and L. major 22% (19/85). To identify the blood meal sources in Ph. Lar. subgenus sand flies, engorged females were analyzed by PCR-sequencing targeting the vertebrate cytochrome b gene. Among the 177 analyzed blood-fed females, 169 samples were positive. Sequencing results showed seven blood sources: cattle, human, sheep, chicken, goat, donkey, and turkey. In addition, mixed blood meals were detected in twelve cases. Leishmania DNA was found in 21 engorged females, with a wide range of blood meal sources: cattle, chicken, goat, chicken/cattle, chicken/sheep, chicken/turkey and human/cattle. The parasite load was quantified in fed and unfed infected sand flies using a real time PCR targeting kinetoplast DNA. The average parasite load was 1,174 parasites/reaction and 90 parasites/reaction in unfed and fed flies, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results support the role of Ph. longicuspis, Ph. perfiliewi, and Ph. perniciosus in L. infantum transmission. Furthermore, these species could be involved in L. major and L. killicki life cycles. The combination of the parasite detection and the blood meal analysis in this study highlights the incrimination of the identified vertebrate in Leishmania transmission. In addition, we quantify for the first time the parasite load in naturally infected sand flies caught in Tunisia. These findings are relevant for a better understanding of L. infantum transmission cycle in the country. Further investigations and control measures are needed to manage L. infantum transmission and its spreading.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Animais , DNA/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania infantum/genética , Masculino , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tunísia
5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(3): 1393-1400, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885197

RESUMO

Phlebotomine sand flies are the only known vectors of Leishmania spp. protozoan which causes leishmaniasis in 98 countries. In Spain, 11 sand fly species are described, but only Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus ariasi are proven vectors of the disease. On the other hand, Sergentomyia minuta is one of the most abundant and ubiquitous sand flies in this territory, although scarce information is available about this species. Sand flies from this genus are known for their preference to feed on cold-blooded animals and are traditionally involved in the transmission of reptile Leishmania. However, studies have suggested that Sergentomyia spp. could be implicated in the transmission of human pathogenic Leishmania. This study analyses blood meal preferences and Leishmania sp. infection of S. minuta sand flies from the largest human leishmaniasis outbreak in Europe. Sand flies were collected during entomological surveillance carries out from 2012 to 2017 in the active season of these dipterans, from May to October. Molecular detection of Leishmania spp. showed 68 positive specimens of S. minuta out of 377 (18%). The analysis of blood meal preferences by amplification of 359 bp fragment of cytochrome b gene revealed that blood preference of S. minuta is not only limited to reptiles, but they also feed on mammals, including humans. Results suggest the presence of a Leishmania sp., related to Leishmania tarentolae, cycle in S. minuta from the studied area. Although there is no evidence about its incrimination in the L. infantum transmission more investigation is needed to elucidate the intravectorial cycle of Leishmania spp. in S. minuta sand flies, their feeding behaviour and their potential contribution in Leishmania spp. epidemiology in the country.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estações do Ano , Espanha/epidemiologia
6.
FASEB J ; 33(12): 13367-13385, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553893

RESUMO

Heme is an essential molecule synthetized through a broadly conserved 8-step route that has been lost in trypanosomatid parasites. Interestingly, Leishmania reacquired by horizontal gene transfer from γ-proteobacteria the genes coding for the last 3 enzymes of the pathway. Here we show that intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania major can scavenge heme precursors from the host cell to fulfill their heme requirements, demonstrating the functionality of this partial pathway. To dissect its role throughout the L. major life cycle, the significance of L. major ferrochelatase (LmFeCH), the terminal enzyme of the route, was evaluated. LmFeCH expression in a heterologous system demonstrated its activity. Knockout promastigotes lacking lmfech were not able to use the ferrochelatase substrate protoporphyrin IX as a source of heme. In vivo infection of Phlebotomus perniciosus with knockout promastigotes shows that LmFeCH is not required for their development in the sandfly. In contrast, the replication of intracellular amastigotes was hampered in vitro by the deletion of lmfech. However, LmFeCH-/- parasites produced disease in a cutaneous leishmaniasis murine model in a similar way as control parasites. Therefore, although L. major can synthesize de novo heme from macrophage precursors, this activity is dispensable being an unsuited target for leishmaniasis treatment.-Orrego, L. M., Cabello-Donayre, M., Vargas, P., Martínez-García, M., Sánchez, C., Pineda-Molina, E., Jiménez, M., Molina, R., Pérez-Victoria, J. M. Heme synthesis through the life cycle of the heme auxotrophic parasite Leishmania major.


Assuntos
Ferroquelatase/metabolismo , Heme/biossíntese , Leishmania major/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leishmaniose Cutânea/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Psychodidae/metabolismo , Virulência , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Coproporfirinogênio Oxidase/metabolismo , Feminino , Ferroquelatase/química , Ferroquelatase/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Conformação Proteica , Protoporfirinogênio Oxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Homologia de Sequência
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007288, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmania development in the sand fly gut leads to highly infective forms called metacyclic promastigotes. This process can be routinely mimicked in culture. Gene expression-profiling studies by transcriptome analysis have been performed with the aim of studying promastigote forms in the sand fly gut, as well as differences between sand fly-and culture-derived promastigotes. FINDINGS: Transcriptome analysis has revealed the crucial role of the microenvironment in parasite development within the sand fly gut because substantial differences and moderate correlation between the transcriptomes of cultured and sand fly-derived promastigotes have been found. Sand fly-derived metacyclics are more infective than metacyclics in culture. Therefore, some caution should be exercised when using cultured promastigotes, depending on the experimental design. The most remarkable examples are the hydrophilic acidic surface protein/small endoplasmic reticulum protein (HASP/SHERP) cluster, the glycoprotein 63 (gp63), and autophagy genes, which are up-regulated in sand fly-derived promastigotes compared with cultured promastigotes. Because HASP/SHERP genes are up-regulated in nectomonad and metacyclic promastigotes in the sand fly, the encoded proteins are not metacyclic specific. Metacyclic promastigotes are distinguished by morphology and high infectivity. Isolating them from the sand fly gut is not exempt from technical difficulty, because other promastigote forms remain in the gut even 15 days after infection. Leishmania major procyclic promastigotes within the sand fly gut up-regulate genes involved in cell cycle regulation and glucose catabolism, whereas metacyclics increase transcript levels of fatty acid biosynthesis and ATP-coupled proton transport genes. Most parasite's signal transduction pathways remain uncharacterized. Future elucidation may improve understanding of parasite development, particularly signaling molecule-encoding genes in sand fly versus culture and between promastigote forms in the sand fly gut. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptome analysis has been demonstrated to be technically efficacious to study differential gene expression in sand fly gut promastigote forms. Transcript and protein levels are not well correlated in these organisms (approximately 25% quantitative coincidences), especially under stress situations and at differentiation processes. However, transcript and protein levels behave similarly in approximately 60% of cases from a qualitative point of view (increase, decrease, or no variation). Changes in translational efficiency observed in other trypanosomatids strongly suggest that the differences are due to translational regulation and regulation of the steady-state protein levels. The lack of low-input sample strategies does not allow translatome and proteome analysis of sand fly-derived promastigotes so far.


Assuntos
Leishmania/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leishmania/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Genômica , Leishmania/classificação , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
8.
Parasitol Res ; 117(8): 2499-2506, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804194

RESUMO

Experimental infections of Phlebotomus (L.) perniciosus from a colony established in Madrid (Spain) carried out with the Leishmania (L.) infantum zymodemes MON-1, MON-24, and MON-80 isolated in Tunisia are reported here. Laboratory-reared female sand flies were experimentally fed via membrane feeding device on a suspension of L. infantum promastigotes in defibrinated rabbit blood (107/ml). Engorged females were dissected at progressive time points postfeeding to observe the intravectorial cycle of different L. infantum zymodemes. Development in the sand fly midgut of L. infantum parasites to the infective metacyclic promastigotes and monitoring the forward progression of parasites to finally reach the stomodeal valve (SV) of the sand fly were assessed. All tested L. infantum zymodemes developed properly in P. perniciosus. Experimental feeding with suspensions of promastigotes of all zymodemes led to very heavy late-stage infections. MON-24 and MON-80 zymodemes colonized the (SV) of P. perniciosus earlier than zymodeme MON-1, 2 and 4 days, respectively. Metacyclic promastigotes were observed in all experimental infections. The study shows for the first time that colonized P. perniciosus is able to acquire, retain, and develop in its midgut the zymodemes MON-24 and MON-80 isolated in Tunisia and highlights the putative role of this sand fly species in the transmission of such zymodemes to mammalian hosts in this country. The ability of experimentally infected sand fly species to transmit by bite such zymodemes needs to be assessed.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Coelhos , Espanha , Tunísia
9.
Parasitol Int ; 67(4): 476-480, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609036

RESUMO

Leishmania infantum is responsible for human and canine leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean basin, where the major vector is Phlebotomus perniciosus. Because isolation of sufficient parasites from the sand fly gut is technically challenging, axenic cultivation of promastigotes is routinely used to obtain material for biochemical and genetic analyses. Here, we report the use of Spliced Leader RNA-seq (SL-seq) to compare transcript abundance in cultured promastigotes and those obtained from the whole midgut of the sand fly 5 days after infection. SL-seq allows for amplification of RNA from the parasite avoiding contamination with RNA from the gut of the insect. The study has been performed by means of a single technical replicate comparing pools of samples obtained from sand fly-derived (sfPro) and axenic culture promastigotes (acPro). Although there was a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.83) in gene expression, 793 genes showed significantly different (≥2-fold, p <0.05) mRNA levels in sand fly-derived promastigotes and in culture, of which 31 were up-regulated ≥8-fold (p < 10-8 in most cases). These included several genes that are typically up-regulated during metacyclogenesis, suggesting that sand fly-derived promastigotes contain a substantial number of metacyclics, and/or that their differentiation status as metacyclics is more advanced in these populations. Infection experiments and studies evaluating the proportion of metacyclic promastigotes in culture and within the sand fly gut, previously reported by us, support the last hypothesis.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Animais , Cultura Axênica/métodos , Vetores de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Intestinos/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Leishmaniose/etnologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Phlebotomus/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 368, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An unusual increase of human leishmaniasis cases due to Leishmania infantum is occurring in an urban area of southwestern Madrid, Spain, since 2010. Entomological surveys have shown that Phlebotomus perniciosus is the only potential vector. Direct xenodiagnosis in hares (Lepus granatensis) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) collected in the focus area proved that they can transmit parasites to colonized P. perniciosus. Isolates were characterized as L. infantum. The aim of the present work was to conduct a comprehensive study of sand flies in the outbreak area, with special emphasis on P. perniciosus. METHODS: Entomological surveys were done from June to October 2012-2014 in 4 stations located close to the affected area. Twenty sticky traps (ST) and two CDC light traps (LT) were monthly placed during two consecutive days in every station. LT were replaced every morning. Sand fly infection rates were determined by dissecting females collected with LT. Molecular procedures applied to study blood meal preferences and to detect L. infantum were performed for a better understanding of the epidemiology of the outbreak. RESULTS: A total of 45,127 specimens belonging to 4 sand fly species were collected: P. perniciosus (75.34%), Sergentomyia minuta (24.65%), Phlebotomus sergenti (0.005%) and Phlebotomus papatasi (0.005%). No Phlebotomus ariasi were captured. From 3203 P. perniciosus female dissected, 117 were infected with flagellates (3.7%). Furthermore, 13.31% and 7.78% of blood-fed and unfed female sand flies, respectively, were found infected with L. infantum by PCR. The highest rates of infected P. perniciosus were detected at the end of the transmission periods. Regarding to blood meal preferences, hares and rabbits were preferred, although human, cat and dog blood were also found. CONCLUSIONS: This entomological study highlights the exceptional nature of the Leishmania outbreak occurring in southwestern Madrid, Spain. It is confirmed that P. perniciosus is the only vector in the affected area, with high densities and infection rates. Rabbits and hares were the main blood meal sources of this species. These results reinforce the need for an extensive and permanent surveillance in this region, and others of similar characteristics, in order to control the vector and regulate the populations of wild reservoirs.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Animais , Sangue , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Lebres/parasitologia , Humanos , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Coelhos/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Xenodiagnóstico
11.
Acta Trop ; 171: 68-73, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28356232

RESUMO

Since 2010 a human leishmaniasis outbreak has been notified in southwestern Madrid region that still remains active. Entomological surveys have been carried out in the affected area in order to obtain information about species diversity, distribution, and density of sand flies. Moreover, molecular identification of blood meal preferences of sand flies and molecular detection of Leishmania infantum has been performed. In this work, we optimized a real time PCR assay in order to determine parasite loads in unfed and blood-fed Phlebotomus perniciosus female sand flies caught in the focus area. Results showed elevated parasite loads in nearly 70% of the studied positive sand flies. Furthermore, significantly higher parasite loads were observed in females without blood in their guts. In conclusion, high L. infantum loads found in P. perniciosus sand flies from the Madrid focus support the exceptional characteristics of this outbreak.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Insetos Vetores , Leishmania infantum/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Genomics ; 17: 375, 2016 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27206922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmania infantum is the protozoan parasite responsible for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean basin. A recent outbreak in humans has been reported in this area. The life cycle of the parasite is digenetic. The promastigote stage develops within the gut of phlebotomine sand flies, whereas amastigotes survive and multiply within phagolysosomes of mammalian host phagocytes. The major vector of L. infantum in Spain is Phlebotomus perniciosus. The axenic culture model of promastigotes is generally used because it is able to mimic the conditions of the natural environment (i.e. the sand fly vector gut). However, infectivity decreases with culture passages and infection of laboratory animals is frequently required. Enrichment of the stationary phase population in highly infective metacyclic promastigotes is achieved by negative selection with peanut agglutinin (PNA), which is possible only in certain Leishmania species such as L. major and L. infantum. In this study, in vitro infectivity and differential gene expression of cultured PNA-negative promastigotes (Pro-PNA(-)) and metacyclic promastigotes isolated from the sand fly anterior thoracic midgut (Pro-Pper) have been compared. RESULTS: In vitro infectivity is about 30 % higher in terms of rate of infected cells and number of amastigotes per infected cell in Pro-Pper than in Pro-PNA(-). This finding is in agreement with up-regulation of a leishmanolysin gene (gp63) and genes involved in biosynthesis of glycosylinositolphospholipids (GIPL), lipophosphoglycan (LPG) and proteophosphoglycan (PPG) in Pro-Pper. In addition, differences between Pro-Pper and Pro-PNA(-) in genes involved in important cellular processes (e.g. signaling and regulation of gene expression) have been found. CONCLUSIONS: Pro-Pper are significantly more infective than peanut lectin non-agglutinating ones. Therefore, negative selection with PNA is an appropriate method for isolating metacyclic promastigotes in stationary phase of axenic culture but it does not allow reaching the in vitro infectivity levels of Pro-Pper. Indeed, GIPL, LPG and PPG biosynthetic genes together with a gp63 gene are up-regulated in Pro-Pper and interestingly, the correlation coefficient between both transcriptomes in terms of transcript abundance is R (2) = 0.68. This means that the correlation is sufficiently high to consider that both samples are physiologically comparable (i.e. the experiment was correctly designed and performed) and sufficiently low to conclude that important differences in transcript abundance have been found. Therefore, the implications of axenic culture should be evaluated case-by-case in each experimental design even when the stationary phase population in culture is enriched in metacyclic promastigotes by negative selection with PNA.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Protozoários , Leishmania infantum/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular , Metabolismo Energético , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania infantum/metabolismo , Metaloendopeptidases/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Aglutinina de Amendoim/farmacologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Proteólise , Transdução de Sinais
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(5): e0004693, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27163123

RESUMO

Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin, where domestic dogs and wild canids are the main reservoirs. The promastigote stage replicates and develops within the gut of blood-sucking phlebotomine sand flies. Mature promastigotes are injected in the dermis of the mammalian host and differentiate into the amastigote stage within parasitophorous vacuoles of phagocytic cells. The major vector of L. infantum in Spain is Phlebotomus perniciosus. Promastigotes are routinely axenized and cultured to mimic in vitro the conditions inside the insect gut, which allows for most molecular, cellular, immunological and therapeutical studies otherwise inviable. Culture passages are known to decrease infectivity, which is restored by passage through laboratory animals. The most appropriate source of promastigotes is the gut of the vector host but isolation of the parasite is technically challenging. In fact, this option is not viable unless small samples are sufficient for downstream applications like promastigote cultures and nucleic acid amplification. In this study, in vitro infectivity and differential gene expression have been studied in cultured promastigotes at the stationary phase and in promastigotes isolated from the stomodeal valve of the sand fly P. perniciosus. About 20 ng RNA per sample could be isolated. Each sample contained L. infantum promastigotes from 20 sand flies. RNA was successfully amplified and processed for shotgun genome microarray hybridization analysis. Most differentially regulated genes are involved in regulation of gene expression, intracellular signaling, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of surface molecules. Interestingly, meta-analysis by hierarchical clustering supports that up-regulation of 22.4% of the differentially regulated genes is specifically enhanced by the microenvironment (i.e. sand fly gut or culture). The correlation between cultured and naturally developed promastigotes is strong but not very high (Pearson coefficient R2 = 0.727). Therefore, the influence of promastigote culturing should be evaluated case-by-case in experimentation.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Reparo do DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase , Humanos , Leishmania infantum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leishmania infantum/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 9: 205, 2016 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27075742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus-borne (PhB-) viruses are distributed in large areas of the Old World and are widespread throughout the Mediterranean basin, where recent investigations have indicated that virus diversity is higher than initially suspected. Some of these viruses are causes of meningitis, encephalitis and febrile illnesses. In order to monitor the viral presence and the infection rate of PhB-viruses in a recently identified and well characterized human zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in southwestern Madrid, Spain, a sand fly collection was carried out. METHODS: Sand fly insects were collected in four stations using CDC light traps during 2012-2013 summer seasons. Screening for Phlebovirus presence both via isolation on Vero cells and via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using degenerated primers targeting a portion of the L segment, was performed. The serological identity and phylogenetic relationships on the three genomic segments of the viral isolates were carried out. RESULTS: Six viral isolates belonging to different serological complexes of the genus Phlebovirus were obtained from fifty pools on a total of 963 P. perniciosus (202 females). Phylogenetic analysis and serological assays allowed the identification of two isolates of Toscana virus (TOSV) B genotype, three isolates strongly related to Italian Arbia virus (ARBV), and one isolate of a novel putative Phlebovirus related to the recently characterized Arrabida virus in South Portugal, tentatively named Arrabida-like virus. Positive male sand fly pools suggested that transovarial or venereal transmission could occur under natural conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlighted the presence of different Phlebovirus species in the South-West area of the Madrid Autonomous Community where an outbreak of cutaneous and visceral human leishmaniasis has been recently described. The evidence of viral species never identified before in Spain, as ARBV and Arrabida-like virus, and TOSV B genotype focus stability was demonstrated. Environmental aspects such as climate change, growing urbanization, socio-economic development could have contributed to the genesis of this wide ecological niche of PhB-viruses and Leishmania spp. The potential role of vertebrates as reservoir for the phleboviruses identified and the possibility of Phleboviruses-Leishmania co-infection in the same sand fly should be assessed. Furthermore the PhB-viruses impact on human health should be implemented.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/virologia , Phlebotomus/virologia , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Phlebovirus/classificação , Phlebovirus/genética , Phlebovirus/fisiologia , Filogenia , Espanha/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(2): e0004458, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26900688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recent geographical expansion of phlebotomine vectors of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean subregion has been attributed to ongoing climate changes. At these latitudes, the activity of sand flies is typically seasonal; because seasonal phenomena are also sensitive to general variations in climate, current phenological data sets can provide a baseline for continuing investigations on sand fly population dynamics that may impact on future scenarios of leishmaniasis transmission. With this aim, in 2011-2013 a consortium of partners from eight Mediterranean countries carried out entomological investigations in sites where L. infantum transmission was recently reported. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A common protocol for sand fly collection included monthly captures by CDC light traps, complemented by sticky traps in most of the sites. Collections were replicated for more than one season in order to reduce the effects of local weather events. In each site, the trapping effort was left unchanged throughout the survey to legitimate inter-seasonal comparisons. Data from 99,000 collected specimens were analyzed, resulting in the description of seasonal dynamics of 56,000 sand flies belonging to L. infantum vector species throughout a wide geographical area, namely P. perniciosus (Portugal, Spain and Italy), P. ariasi (France), P. neglectus (Greece), P. tobbi (Cyprus and Turkey), P. balcanicus and P. kandelakii (Georgia). Time of sand fly appearance/disappearance in collections differed between sites, and seasonal densities showed variations in each site. Significant correlations were found between latitude/mean annual temperature of sites and i) the first month of sand fly appearance, that ranged from early April to the first half of June; ii) the type of density trend, varying from a single peak in July/August to multiple peaks increasing in magnitude from May through September. A 3-modal trend, recorded for P. tobbi in Cyprus, represents a novel finding for a L. infantum vector. Adults ended the activity starting from mid September through November, without significant correlation with latitude/mean annual temperature of sites. The period of potential exposure to L.infantum in the Mediterranean subregion, as inferred by adult densities calculated from 3 years, 37 sites and 6 competent vector species, was associated to a regular bell-shaped density curve having a wide peak center encompassing the July-September period, and falling between early May to late October for more than 99% of values. Apparently no risk for leishmaniasis transmission took place from December through March in the years considered. We found a common pattern of nocturnal females activity, whose density peaked between 11 pm and 2 am. CONCLUSIONS: Despite annual variations, multiple collections performed over consecutive years provided homogeneous patterns of the potential behavior of leishmaniasis vectors in selected sites, which we propose may represent sentinel areas for future monitoring. In the investigated years, higher potential risk for L. infantum transmission in the Mediterranean was identified in the June-October period (97% relative vector density), however such risk was not equally distributed throughout the region, since density waves of adults occurred earlier and were more frequent in southern territories.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Clima , Feminino , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Masculino , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Estações do Ano
17.
Vet Res ; 46: 138, 2015 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26645907

RESUMO

A human leishmaniasis outbreak is occurring in the Madrid region, Spain, with the parasite and vector involved being Leishmania infantum and Phlebotomus perniciosus respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the virulence of L. infantum isolates from the focus using a natural transmission model. Hamsters were infected by intraperitoneal inoculation (IP) or by bites of sand flies experimentally infected with L. infantum isolates obtained from P. perniciosus collected in the outbreak area (IPER/ES/2012/BOS1FL1 and IPER/ES/2012/POL2FL6) and a well characterized L. infantum strain JPCM5 (MCAN/ES/98/LLM-877). Hamster infections were monitored by clinical examination, serology, culture, parasite burden, Giemsa-stained imprints, PCR, histopathology and xenodiagnostic studies. Establishment of infection of L. infantum was achieved with the JPCM5 strain and outbreak isolates by both P. perniciosus infective bites or IP route. However, high virulence of BOS1FL1 and POL2FL6 isolates was highlighted by the clinical outcome of disease, high parasite detection in spleen and liver, high parasitic loads and positivity of Leishmania serology. Transmission by bite of POL2FL6 infected flies generated a slower progression of clinical disease than IP infection, but both groups were infective to P. perniciosus by xenodiagnosis at 2 months post-infection. Conversely, hamsters inoculated with JPCM5 were not infective to sand flies. Histopathology studies confirmed the wide spread of POL2FL6 parasites to several organs. A visceral leishmaniasis model that mimics the natural transmission in nature allowed us to highlight the high virulence of isolates that are circulating in the focus. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the outbreak epidemiology.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Leishmania infantum/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Espanha , Virulência
18.
PLoS One ; 10(11): e0140722, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26569103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sand flies are hematophagous arthropods that act as vectors of Leishmania parasites. When hosts are bitten they develop cellular and humoral responses against sand fly saliva. A positive correlation has been observed between the number of bites and antibody levels indicating that anti-saliva antibody response can be used as marker of exposure to sand flies. Little is known about kinetics of antibodies against Phlebotomus perniciosus salivary gland homogenate (SGH) or recombinant salivary proteins (rSP). This work focused on the study of anti-P. perniciosus saliva antibodies in sera of mice and rabbits that were experimentally exposed to the bites of uninfected sand flies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anti-saliva antibodies were evaluated by ELISA and Western blot. In addition, antibody levels against two P. perniciosus rSP, apyrase rSP01B and D7 related protein rSP04 were determined in mice sera. Anti-saliva antibody levels increased along the immunizations and correlated with the number of sand fly bites. Anti-SGH antibody levels were detected in sera of mice five weeks after exposure, and persisted for at least three months. Anti-apyrase rSP01B antibodies followed similar kinetic responses than anti-SGH antibodies while rSP04 showed a delayed response and exhibited a greater variability among sera of immunized mice. In rabbits, anti-saliva antibodies appeared after the second week of exposure and IgG antibodies persisted at high levels, even 7 months post-exposure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results contributed to increase the knowledge on the type of immune response P. perniciosus saliva and individual proteins elicited highlighting the use of rSP01B as an epidemiological marker of exposure. Anti-saliva kinetics in sera of experimentally bitten rabbits were studied for the first time. Results with rabbit model provided useful information for a better understanding of the anti-saliva antibody levels found in wild leporids in the human leishmaniasis focus in the Madrid region, Spain.


Assuntos
Leishmania/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose/imunologia , Phlebotomus/metabolismo , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Saliva/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Western Blotting , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Coelhos , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Glândulas Salivares/imunologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/imunologia , Espanha
19.
Acta Trop ; 152: 96-102, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26342793

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. Information about blood meal preferences in sand flies is essential to understand the epidemiology of the disease to adopt control measures. In previous studies, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 359bp fragment of the conserved gene cytochrome b (cyt b) and further sequencing were applied in the study of blood meal sources in sand flies collected in the area of a leishmaniasis outbreak in southwest Madrid, Spain, providing significant information about blood meal preferences in the focus. In this work, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) targeting a fragment of 359bp of vertebrate cyt b gene was developed. Restriction endonucleases HaeIII and HinfI generated specific patterns consistent with the blood meal sources found in sand flies. The protocol has been validated with twenty six engorged females collected in the field with CDC traps. Blood meals from nine vertebrates were identified based on PCR-cyt b and sequencing-human, dog, cat, horse, hare, rabbit, sheep, goat and chicken - and mixed blood meals (sheep/human; sheep/goat) - and successfully distinguished by PCR-RFLP. Therefore, this approach is an efficient and reliable alternative method to be applied in entomological surveys.


Assuntos
Citocromos b/genética , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Psychodidae/genética
20.
J Microencapsul ; 32(3): 247-54, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26006741

RESUMO

Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) juice possesses compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be protected by different biopolymers used in the microencapsulation. Therefore, the effects of cell wall material including maltodextrin (MD), Arabic gum (GA) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were evaluated on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of encapsulated blackberries using a spray-drying technique. Anthocyanin concentration, polymeric colour, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazil radical, reducing power and the stability at different storage conditions were evaluated. GA and MD conferred a similar protection to the antioxidant compounds when the microcapsules were stored at low water activities (aw < 0.515) in contrast to at a high moisture content (aw > 0.902), whereas WPC presented a high protection. Therefore, the selection of the best wall material for blackberry juice encapsulation depends of the conditions of storage of the powder.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Bebidas , Goma Arábica/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Rubus , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bebidas/análise , Cápsulas/química , Dessecação , Composição de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Rubus/química
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