Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 91
Filtrar
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 880, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787307

RESUMO

Asthma is a complex disease with striking disparities across racial and ethnic groups. Despite its relatively high burden, representation of individuals of African ancestry in asthma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been inadequate, and true associations in these underrepresented minority groups have been inconclusive. We report the results of a genome-wide meta-analysis from the Consortium on Asthma among African Ancestry Populations (CAAPA; 7009 asthma cases, 7645 controls). We find strong evidence for association at four previously reported asthma loci whose discovery was driven largely by non-African populations, including the chromosome 17q12-q21 locus and the chr12q13 region, a novel (and not previously replicated) asthma locus recently identified by the Trans-National Asthma Genetic Consortium (TAGC). An additional seven loci reported by TAGC show marginal evidence for association in CAAPA. We also identify two novel loci (8p23 and 8q24) that may be specific to asthma risk in African ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Asma/epidemiologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 666: 12-21, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784818

RESUMO

Different Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) such as photocatalysis, Fenton-based processes and ozonation were studied to include one of these technologies within an integrated solution for produced water (PW) polishing. Synthetic PW was prepared adding toluene, xylene, naphthalene, phenol, acetic and malonic acids to a seawater matrix. Despite that in all AOPs studied in this work BTEX and naphthalene were removed, the efficiency (in terms of TOC removal) of each treatment varied largely. Among these techniques, photocatalysis was found to be the less effective for the treatment of PW, as TOC removals lower than 20% were obtained for the best scenario after 4 h treatment. In the contrary, best results were obtained by ozonation combined with H2O2, where all the organic components were removed, including a high percentage of acetic acid, which was not abated by the rest of the AOPs studied. The optimum conditions for ozonation were 4 g h-1 O3 and 1500 mg L-1 H2O2 at pH 10, where after 2 h a 74% of TOC removal was achieved and the acetic acid elimination was 78%. This condition enabled that ozonation process accounted for the lowest electric energy consumption per order of target compound destruction regarding total organic carbon (TOC).

5.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 17(11): 2146-2163, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093419

RESUMO

A data-independent acquisition (DIA) assay library for quantitative analyses of proteome dynamics has been developed for gills of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). A raw spectral library was generated by data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and annotation of tryptic peptides to MSMS spectra and protein database identifiers. The assay library was constructed from the raw spectral library by removal of low-quality, ambiguous, and low-signal peptides. Only unique proteins represented by at least two peptides are included in the assay library, which consists of 1506 proteins, 5074 peptides, 5104 precursors, and 25,322 transitions. This assay library was used with DIA data to identify biochemical differences in gill proteomes of four populations representing different eco- and morpho-types of threespine sticklebacks. The assay library revealed unique and reproducible proteome signatures. Warm-adapted, low-plated, brackish-water fish from Laguna de la Bocana del Rosario (Mexico) show elevated HSP47, extracellular matrix, and innate immunity proteins whereas several immunoglobulins, interferon-induced proteins, ubiquitins, proteolytic enzymes, and nucleic acid remodeling proteins are reduced. Fully-plated, brackish-water fish from Westchester Lagoon (Alaska) display elevated ion regulation, GTPase signaling, and contractile cytoskeleton proteins, altered abundances of many ribosomal, calcium signaling and immunity proteins, and depleted transcriptional regulators and metabolic enzymes. Low-plated freshwater fish from Lake Solano (California) have elevated inflammasomes and proteolytic proteins whereas several iron containing and ion regulatory proteins are reduced. Gills of fully-plated, marine fish from Bodega Harbor (California) have elevated oxidative metabolism enzymes and reduced transglutaminase 2, collagens, and clathrin heavy chains. These distinct proteome signatures represent targets for testing ecological and evolutionary influences on molecular mechanisms of gill function in threespine sticklebacks. Furthermore, the gill assay library represents a model for other tissues and paves the way for accurate and reproducible network analyses of environmental context-dependent proteome dynamics in complex organisms.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041062

RESUMO

Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional factor that induces genes involved in glucose metabolism. HIF-1 is formed by a regulatory α-subunit (HIF-1α) and a constitutive ß-subunit (HIF-1ß). The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) induces a shift in glucose metabolism and oxidative stress. HIF-1α is associated with the induction of metabolic changes in tissues of WSSV-infected shrimp. However, the contributions of HIF-1 to viral load and antioxidant responses in WSSV-infected shrimp have been not examined. In this study, the effect of HIF-1 silencing on viral load and the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, glutathione S-transferase-GST, and catalase) along with oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl) in tissues of white shrimp infected with the WSSV were studied. The viral load increased in hepatopancreas and muscle after WSSV infection, and the accumulative mortality was of 100% at 72 h post-infection. The expression and activity of SOD, catalase, and GST decreased in each tissue evaluated after WSSV infection. Protein carbonyl concentrations increased in each tissue after WSSV infection, while lipid peroxidation increased in hepatopancreas, but not in muscle. Silencing of HIF-1α decreased the WSSV viral load in hepatopancreas and muscle of infected shrimp along with shrimp mortality. Silencing of HIF-1α ameliorated the antioxidant response in a tissue-specific manner, which translated to a decrease in oxidative damage. These results suggest that HIF-1 is essential for restoring the antioxidant response, which counters the oxidative injury associated with WSSV infection.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/antagonistas & inibidores , Penaeidae/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/patogenicidade , Animais , Aquicultura , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Inativação Gênica , Hepatopâncreas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/virologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Injeções Intramusculares , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , México , Músculos/metabolismo , Músculos/virologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Carbonilação Proteica , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/administração & dosagem , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Carga Viral , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/fisiologia
7.
Toxicol Lett ; 287: 122-130, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410274

RESUMO

Road construction workers are simultaneously exposed to two carcinogens; solar ultraviolet (UV-S) radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bitumen emissions. The combined exposure may lead to photogenotoxicity and enhanced PAH skin permeation rates. Skin permeation rates (J) for selected PAHs in a mixture (PAH-mix) or in bitumen fume condensate (BFC) with and without UV-S co-exposures were measured with in vitro flow-through diffusion cells mounted with human viable skin and results compared. Possible biomarkers were explored. Js were greater with UV-S for naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene in BFC (0.08-0.1 ng/cm2/h) compared to without (0.02-0.26 ng/cm2/h). This was true for anthracene, pyrene, and chrysene in the PAH-mix. Naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the PAH-mix had greater Js without (0.97-13.01 ng/cm2/h) compared to with UV-S (0.40-6.35 ng/cm2/h). Time until permeation (Tlags) in the PAH-mix were generally shorter compared to the BFC, and they ranged from 1 to 13 h. The vehicle matrix could potentially be the reason for this discrepancy as BFC contains additional not identified substances. Qualitative interpretation of p53 suggested a dose-response with UV-S, and somewhat with the co-exposures. MMP1, p65 and cKIT were not exploitable. Although not statistically different, PAHs permeate human viable skin faster with simultaneous exposures to UV.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos da radiação , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Benzo(a)pireno/metabolismo , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Difusão , Cultura em Câmaras de Difusão , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Naftalenos/metabolismo , Naftalenos/toxicidade , Permeabilidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
8.
Vaccine ; 36(32 Pt A): 4774-4782, 2018 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29366703

RESUMO

The Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT), a phase III randomized clinical trial, provided the initial data that one dose of the HPV vaccine could provide durable protection against HPV infection. Although the study design was to administer all participants three doses of HPV or control vaccine, 20% of women did not receive the three-dose regimens, mostly due to involuntary reasons unrelated to vaccination. In 2011, we reported that a single dose of the bivalent HPV vaccine could be as efficacious as three doses of the vaccine using the endpoint of persistent HPV infection accumulated over the first four years of the trial; findings independently confirmed in the GSK-sponsored PATRICIA trial. Antibody levels after one dose, although lower than levels elicited by three doses, were 9-times higher than levels elicited by natural infection. Importantly, levels remained essentially constant over at least seven years, suggesting that the observed protection provided by a single dose might be durable. Much work has been done to assure these non-randomized findings are valid. Yet, the group of recipients who received one dose of the bivalent HPV vaccine in the CVT and PATRICIA trials was small and not randomly selected nor blinded to the number of doses received. The next phase of research is to conduct a formal randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the protection afforded by a single dose of HPV vaccine. Complementary studies are in progress to bridge our findings to other populations, and to further document the long-term durability of antibody response following a single dose.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Vacinação em Massa , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/terapia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Soro/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia
9.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 17(3): 232-240, set. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-897291

RESUMO

Introducción: La Fibroscópica de Trastornos Deglutorios (FEES) es una técnica que permite estudiar la fisiología de la deglución. Puede realizarse junto a la cama del paciente, haciendo esta técnica muy atractiva para realizar en Cuidados Intensivos (UCI), evitando el traslado fuera de la unidad para dicha evaluación. Objetivo: Factibilidad de realizar FEES en la cabecera de la cama en la UCI, y evaluar la incidencia de los trastornos deglutorios en pacientes extubados. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio de cohorte prospectiva, analítico y comparativo en pacientes luego de 24 hs post extubación por un periodo de 6 meses evaluación, incluyéndose todos los pacientes en forma consecutiva, que recibieron ventilación mecánica por un periodo ≥ 48 hs comenzando el reclutamiento desde marzo de 2015. Resultados: Se incluyeron en el protocolo 31 pacientes. La incidencia de los trastornos deglutorios en pacientes extubados que requirieron VM fue del 58% IC 95% (0,407-0,735) con 18 trastornos de 31 casos evaluados. Entre los pacientes con y sin trastornos deglutorios definidos por FEES, las diferencias significativas entre los grupos fueron el tiempo post extubación hasta la realización del FEES, la capacidad de tolerar el FEES en posición de 90° vs 60º, la anormalidad en la escala de Langmore y el movimiento anormal de las cuerdas vocales. La complicación registrada en los dos grupos fue la presencia de saturación de pulso < 90%. Conclusión: Este estudio demuestra que la implementación de FEES, como método de detección de trastornos deglutorios (en la cabecera del paciente) se puede aplicar en forma segura.


Introduction: The Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES) is a technique that allows the study of the physiology of swallowing. This technique can be applied at the patient's bedside, making it a very attractive choice for the critical care unit (CCU), since it is not necessary to transfer the patient to another place in order to carry out the evaluation. Objective: Feasibility to carry out the FEES at the patient's bedside at the CCU and assess the incidence of swallowing disorders in extubated patients. Materials and Methods: Comparative, prospective, analytical cohort study conducted 24 hours after extubation for a period of 6 months, including consecutively all the patients who received mechanical ventilation for a period ≥ 48 hours. The enrollment began in March, 2015. Results: 31 patients were included in the protocol. The incidence of swallowing disorders in extubated patients who required mechanical ventilation (MV) was 58%, 95% CI [confidence interval] (0.407-0.735) with 18 patients presenting disorders out of 31 evaluated cases. The significant differences between the groups of patients with and without swallowing disorders defined by the FEES were: the post-extubation time until the FEES, the capacity to tolerate the FEES at upright sitting position (90°) vs. semi-upright sitting position (60°), the abnormality of the Langmore scale and the abnormal movement of the vocal cords. The complication registered in both groups was the presence of oxygen saturation < 90%. Conclusion: This study shows that the implementation of the FEES as a method for detecting swallowing disorders (at the patient's bedside) is safe.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Extubação
10.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 17(3): 241-249, set. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-964499

RESUMO

Introduction: The Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES) is a technique that allows the study of the physiology of swallowing. This technique can be applied at the patient's bedside, making it a very attractive choice for the critical care unit (CCU), since it is not necessary to transfer the patient to another place in order to carry out the evaluation. Objective: Feasibility to carry out the FEES at the patient's bedside at the CCU and assess the incidence of swallowing disorders in extubated patients. Materials and Methods: Comparative, prospective, analytical cohort study conducted 24 hours after extubation for a period of 6 months, including consecutively all the patients who received mechanical ventilation for a period ≥ 48 hours. The enrollment began in March, 2015. Results: 31 patients were included in the protocol. The incidence of swallowing disorders in extubated patients who required mechanical ventilation (MV) was 58%, 95% CI [confidence interval] (0.407-0.735) with 18 patients presenting disorders out of 31 evaluated cases. The significant differences between the groups of patients with and without swallowing disorders defined by the FEES were: the post-extubation time until the FEES, the capacity to tolerate the FEES at upright sitting position (90°) vs. semi-upright sitting position (60°), the abnormality of the Langmore scale and the abnormal movement of the vocal cords. The complication registered in both groups was the presence of oxygen saturation < 90%. Conclusion: This study shows that the implementation of the FEES as a method for detecting swallowing disorders (at the patient's bedside) is safe


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Extubação
11.
Med Chem ; 13(2): 149-158, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27396731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a public health problem caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Cruzain is a pharmacological target for designing a new drug against this parasite. Hydrazone and Nacylhydrazone derivatives have been traditionally associated as potential Cruzain inhibitors. Additionally, benzenesulfonyl derivatives show trypanocidal activity. Therefore, in this study, the combination of both structures has been taken into account for drug design. METHODS: Seven benzenesulfonylhydrazone (BS-H) and seven N-propionyl benzenesulfonylhydrazone (BS-NAH) derivatives were synthetized and elucidated by infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and elemental analysis. All compounds were evaluated biologically in vitro against two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi (NINOA and INC-5), which are endemic in Mexico, and compared with the reference drugs nifurtimox and benznidazole. In order to gain insight into the putative molecular origin of the trypanocidal properties of these derivatives, docking studies were carried out with Cruzain. RESULTS: Compounds 4 and 6 (BS-H) and 10, 12-14 (BS-NAH) showed the best biological activity against NINOA and INC-5 strains, respectively. Compound 13 was the most potent trypanocidal compound showing a LC50 of 0.06 µM against INC-5 strain. However, compound 4 showed the best activity against both strains (LC50 <30 µM). Theoretical binding modes obtained suggested covalent binding that could explain their biological activity. CONCLUSION: Benzenesulfonyl and N-propionyl benzenesulfonyl hydrazone derivatives are good options for developing new trypanocidal agents. Particularly, compound 4 could be considered a lead compound.


Assuntos
Benzeno/química , Hidrazonas/síntese química , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Tripanossomicidas/síntese química , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Desenho de Drogas , Hidrazonas/química , Hidrazonas/metabolismo , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/metabolismo , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo
12.
Chemosphere ; 168: 309-317, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810529

RESUMO

In this study, bench scale dissolved air flotation (DAF) and settling processes have been studied and compared to a novel flotation technology based on the use of glass microspheres of limited buoyancy and its combination with conventional DAF, (Enhanced DAF or E-DAF). They were evaluated as pretreatments for advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to polish produced water (PW) for reuse purposes. Settling and E-DAF without air injection showed adequate turbidity and oil and grease (O&G) removals, with eliminations higher than 87% and 90% respectively, employing 70 mg L-1 of FeCl3 and 83 min of settling time, and 57.9 mg L-1 of FeCl3, 300 mg L-1 of microspheres and a flocculation rate of 40 rpm in the E-DAF process. A linear correlation was observed between final O&G concentration and turbidity after E-DAF. In order to polish the O&G content of the effluent even further, to remove soluble compounds as phenol and to take advantage of residual iron after these treatments, Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions were essayed. After 6 h of the Fenton reaction at pH 3, the addition of 1660 mg L-1 of H2O2 and 133 mg L-1 of iron showed a maximum O&G elimination of 57.6% and a phenol removal up to 80%. Photo-Fenton process showed better results after 3 h, adding 600 mg L-1 of H2O2 and 300 mg L-1 of iron, at pH 3, with a higher fraction of elimination of the O&G content (73.7%) and phenol (95%) compared to the conventional Fenton process.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Água/química , Cloretos/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Floculação , Vidro , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Microesferas , Óleos/química , Oxirredução , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Reciclagem , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Nutr Hosp ; 33(5): 572, 2016 Sep 20.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27759976

RESUMO

Introducción: el índice glucémico (IG) y la carga glucémica (CG) de productos lácteos fermentados (PLF) con lactobacilos puede ser una recomendación útil para pacientes diabéticos y para la población en general.Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio fue medir el IG y la CG de PLF con lactobacilos en sujetos sedentarios y deportistas, y evaluar si existe diferencia entre ellos.Métodos: el estudio se realizó en México (DF) de acuerdo con la ISO26642:210 (Organización Internacional de Normalización). Los participantes fueron: 10 sedentarios y 10 deportistas. Los PLF analizados fueron: Soful, Yakult, Gastroprotect, BeneGastro, Bonacult, Lala Bio 4 y leche descremada con sacarosa (LDS) y la cantidad de alimento que ingirieron dependió de ajustar a 25 g los HC en la porción.Resultados: el IG de la mayoría de los PLF fue bajo para ambos grupos de sujetos; en los deportistas los PLF Yakult y Bonacult presentaron los mayores IG y solo el Yakult puede considerarse como de IG medio para este grupo; estos dos PLF presentaron la menor relación de proteína/HC. La LDS, lácteo con los HC no fermentados, presentó un IG alto para ambos grupos. La CG de los PLF se encontró entre 4 a 7,6 y solo Gastroprotect presentó estadísticamente la menor CG, lo que pudo deberse a su bajo IG, aun cuando su tamaño de ración no fue la menor, entre los PLF.Conclusión: en general los valores de IG y CG de los PLF fueron bajos para ambos grupos. Por tanto, su consumo puede recomendarse en forma moderada. El IG y CG entre productos lácteos con azúcares fermentados y con azúcares no fermentados fueron diferentes.


Assuntos
Atletas , Laticínios/análise , Índice Glicêmico , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutr. hosp ; 33(5): 1095-1101, sept.-oct. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-157277

RESUMO

Introducción: el índice glucémico (IG) y la carga glucémica (CG) de productos lácteos fermentados (PLF) con lactobacilos puede ser una recomendación útil para pacientes diabéticos y para la población en general. Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio fue medir el IG y la CG de PLF con lactobacilos en sujetos sedentarios y deportistas, y evaluar si existe diferencia entre ellos. Métodos: el estudio se realizó en México (DF) de acuerdo con la ISO26642:210 (Organización Internacional de Normalización). Los participantes fueron: 10 sedentarios y 10 deportistas. Los PLF analizados fueron: Soful, Yakult, Gastroprotect, BeneGastro, Bonacult, Lala Bio 4 y leche descremada con sacarosa (LDS) y la cantidad de alimento que ingirieron dependió de ajustar a 25 g los HC en la porción. Resultados: el IG de la mayoría de los PLF fue bajo para ambos grupos de sujetos; en los deportistas los PLF Yakult y Bonacult presentaron los mayores IG y solo el Yakult puede considerarse como de IG medio para este grupo; estos dos PLF presentaron la menor relación de proteína/HC. La LDS, lácteo con los HC no fermentados, presentó un IG alto para ambos grupos. La CG de los PLF se encontró entre 4 a 7,6 y solo Gastroprotect presentó estadísticamente la menor CG, lo que pudo deberse a su bajo IG, aun cuando su tamaño de ración no fue la menor, entre los PLF. Conclusión: en general los valores de IG y CG de los PLF fueron bajos para ambos grupos. Por tanto, su consumo puede recomendarse en forma moderada. El IG y CG entre productos lácteos con azúcares fermentados y con azúcares no fermentados fueron diferentes (AU)


Introduction: Glycemic Index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of natural dairy products fermented with lactobacilli may be useful for diabetic patients and the general population. Objective: To measure the GI and GL in natural dairy products fermented with lactobacilli in sedentary individuals and athletes, and seeing if there is any difference between them. Methods: The study was conducted in Mexico City (DF) according to the ISO26642:210, with a group of 10 sedentary individuals and 10 athletes. The GI was determined in the following diary drinkable products, all adjusted to contain 25 g of carbohydrates: Soful, Yakult, Gastroprotect, BeneGastro, Bonacult, Lala Bio 4 and Skimmed milk with sucrose (SMS). Results: The GI of most dairy fermented products were low for sedentary and athletes, but in athletes Yakult and Bonacult showed the highest GI and Yakult’s GI can be considered as medium for these group; these two dairy products had the lowest protein/carbohydrates ratio. SMS, which contain unfermented carbohydrates, had the highest GI in both groups. The GL of dairy fermented products was 4 to 7.6 and only Gastroprotect had statistically the lowest GL, it may be due to its low GI, even its serving size was not the least among dairy fermented products. Conclusion: The GI and GL levels were relatively low for all the dairy products considered on each of the groups studied, therefore the moderate consumption of these can be recommended (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Produtos Fermentados do Leite/química , Carga Glicêmica/fisiologia , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Glicemia/análise , Comportamento Sedentário , Exercício/fisiologia , Composição de Alimentos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27589961

RESUMO

Fully automated text mining (TM) systems promote efficient literature searching, retrieval, and review but are not sufficient to produce ready-to-consume curated documents. These systems are not meant to replace biocurators, but instead to assist them in one or more literature curation steps. To do so, the user interface is an important aspect that needs to be considered for tool adoption. The BioCreative Interactive task (IAT) is a track designed for exploring user-system interactions, promoting development of useful TM tools, and providing a communication channel between the biocuration and the TM communities. In BioCreative V, the IAT track followed a format similar to previous interactive tracks, where the utility and usability of TM tools, as well as the generation of use cases, have been the focal points. The proposed curation tasks are user-centric and formally evaluated by biocurators. In BioCreative V IAT, seven TM systems and 43 biocurators participated. Two levels of user participation were offered to broaden curator involvement and obtain more feedback on usability aspects. The full level participation involved training on the system, curation of a set of documents with and without TM assistance, tracking of time-on-task, and completion of a user survey. The partial level participation was designed to focus on usability aspects of the interface and not the performance per se In this case, biocurators navigated the system by performing pre-designed tasks and then were asked whether they were able to achieve the task and the level of difficulty in completing the task. In this manuscript, we describe the development of the interactive task, from planning to execution and discuss major findings for the systems tested.Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org.


Assuntos
Curadoria de Dados/métodos , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/métodos
16.
Chemosphere ; 161: 454-462, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27459156

RESUMO

The cellular mechanisms used by the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to respond to hypoxia have been studied from the energetic metabolism and antioxidant angles. We herein investigated the participation of p53 and metallothionein (MT) in the apoptotic process in response to hypoxia in shrimp hemocytes. The Lvp53 or LvMT genes were efficiently silenced by injection of double stranded RNA for p53 or MT. The effects of silencing on apoptosis were measured as caspase-3 activity and flow cytometry in hemocytes after 24 and 48 h of hypoxia (1.5 mg DO L(-1)). Hemocytes from unsilenced animals had significantly higher apoptosis levels upon both times of hypoxia. The apoptotic levels were diminished but not suppressed in dsp53-silenced but not dsMT-silenced hemocytes after 24 h of hypoxia, indicating a contribution of Lvp53 to apoptosis. Apoptosis in normoxia was significantly higher in dsp53-and dsMT-silenced animals compared to the unsilenced controls, pointing to a possible cytoprotective role of LvMT and Lvp53 during the basal apoptotic program in normoxia. Overall, these results indicate that hypoxia augments apoptosis in shrimp hemocytes and high mRNA levels of Lvp53 and LvMT are not necessary for this response.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metalotioneína/genética , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Inativação Gênica , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Hemócitos/patologia , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Penaeidae/citologia , Penaeidae/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
17.
Cardiol Ther ; 5(2): 171-186, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27457613

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Economic evaluations are becoming increasingly important due to limitations in economic resources, the expense of many new treatments, the need to allocate health spending as effectively as possible, and the need to inform decision makers. Based on the data from the apixaban studies (ARISTOTLE and AVERROES), several economic evaluations have been performed in various countries to demonstrate the efficacy of apixaban versus warfarin and aspirin or other new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for preventing stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).The aim of this study was to perform a systematic literature review of published economic evaluations with apixaban in the indication of stroke prevention in patients with NVAF. METHODS: A search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and Index Medicus Español was conducted in June 2015. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were established. The main characteristics were recorded for all relevant articles after being reviewed. In addition, a weighted version of the Drummond's checklist was used to further assess the quality of the selected studies. RESULTS: After review, 26 cost-effectiveness analyses through Markov models were included; the identified economic evaluations represent different willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds, discount rates, medical costs, and healthcare systems. Apixaban was compared with warfarin/acenocoumarol in 7 of them (27%), with warfarin/NOACs in 14 (54%), with aspirin in 2 (8%), and with warfarin/aspirin in 3 (11%). Models were conducted from Europe (69%), USA (23%), Australia (4%), and Latin America (4%). All models reported cost/quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, 92% reported using a payer perspective, and 8% using a societal perspective; the median quality score of the selected studies was 89 (out of 119), with a range of 55-103. In models performed in Europe, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of apixaban versus warfarin ranged from €5607/QALY to €57,245/QALY, while ICERs versus aspirin ranged from being dominant to €7334/QALY. In models carried out in the USA, ICERs of apixaban versus warfarin ranged from being dominant to $93,063/QALY. CONCLUSION: Different cost-effectiveness analyses suggest that apixaban is a cost-effective therapeutic option according to the WTP thresholds used in countries where cost-effectiveness analyses, were performed. FUNDING: BMS and Pfizer.

18.
Brain Sci ; 6(2)2016 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27196935

RESUMO

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that not only plays major roles in the immune system, but also serves as a coordinator between the nervous and endocrine systems. IL-6 is produced in multiple cell types in the CNS, and in turn, many cells respond to it. It is therefore important to ascertain which cell type is the key responder to IL-6 during both physiological and pathological conditions. In order to test the role of astrocytic IL-6 in neuroinflammation, we studied an extensively-used animal model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), in mice with an IL-6 deficiency in astrocytes (Ast-IL-6 KO). Results indicate that lack of astrocytic IL-6 did not cause major changes in EAE symptomatology. However, a delay in the onset of clinical signs was observed in Ast-IL-6 KO females, with fewer inflammatory infiltrates and decreased demyelination and some alterations in gliosis and vasogenesis, compared to floxed mice. These results suggest that astrocyte-secreted IL-6 has some roles in EAE pathogenesis, at least in females.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27032338

RESUMO

HIF-1 is a transcription factor that controls a widespread range of genes in metazoan organisms in response to hypoxia and is composed of α and ß subunits. In shrimp, phosphofructokinase (PFK) and fructose bisphosphatase (FBP) are up-regulated in hypoxia. We hypothesized that HIF-1 is involved in the regulation of PFK and FBP genes in shrimp hepatopancreas under hypoxia. Long double stranded RNA (dsRNA) intramuscular injection was utilized to silence simultaneously both HIF-1 subunits, and then, we measured the relative expression of PFK and FBP, as well as their corresponding enzymatic activities in hypoxic shrimp hepatopancreas. The results indicated that HIF-1 participates in the up-regulation of PFK transcripts under short-term hypoxia since the induction caused by hypoxia (~1.6 and ~4.2-fold after 3 and 48h, respectively) is significantly reduced in the dsRNA animals treated. Moreover, PFK activity was significantly ~2.8-fold augmented after 3h in hypoxia alongside to an ~1.9-fold increment in lactate. However, when animals were dsRNA treated, both were significantly reduced. On the other hand, FBP transcripts were ~5.3-fold up-regulated in long-term hypoxic conditions (48h). HIF-1 is involved in this process since FBP transcripts were not induced by hypoxia when HIF-1 was silenced. Conversely, the FBP activity was not affected by hypoxia, which suggests its possible regulation at post-translational level. Taken together, these results position HIF-1 as a prime transcription factor in coordinating glucose metabolism through the PFK and FBP genes among others, in shrimp under low oxygen environments.


Assuntos
Frutose-Bifosfatase/metabolismo , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Fosfofrutoquinases/metabolismo , Animais , Frutose-Bifosfatase/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Hipóxia , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Lactatos/metabolismo , Fosfofrutoquinases/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 11(1): e0146017, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26741374

RESUMO

The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is increasingly regarded as a "smart-gating" operator for processing visual information. Therefore, characterizing the response properties of LGN neurons will enable us to better understand how neurons encode and transfer visual signals. Efforts have been devoted to study its anatomical and functional features, and recent advances have highlighted the existence in rodents of complex features such as direction/orientation selectivity. However, unlike well-researched higher-order mammals such as primates, the full array of response characteristics vis-à-vis its morphological features have remained relatively unexplored in the mouse LGN. To address the issue, we recorded from mouse LGN neurons using multisite-electrode-arrays (MEAs) and analysed their discharge patterns in relation to their location under a series of visual stimulation paradigms. Several response properties paralleled results from earlier studies in the field and these include centre-surround organization, size of receptive field, spontaneous firing rate and linearity of spatial summation. However, our results also revealed "high-pass" and "low-pass" features in the temporal frequency tuning of some cells, and greater average contrast gain than reported by earlier studies. In addition, a small proportion of cells had direction/orientation selectivity. Both "high-pass" and "low-pass" cells, as well as direction and orientation selective cells, were found only in small numbers, supporting the notion that these properties emerge in the cortex. ON- and OFF-cells showed distinct contrast sensitivity and temporal frequency tuning properties, suggesting parallel projections from the retina. Incorporating a novel histological technique, we created a 3-D LGN volume model explicitly capturing the morphological features of mouse LGN and localising individual cells into anterior/middle/posterior LGN. Based on this categorization, we show that the ON/OFF, DS/OS and linear response properties are not regionally restricted. Our study confirms earlier findings of spatial pattern selectivity in the LGN, and builds on it to demonstrate that relatively elaborate features are computed early in the visual pathway.


Assuntos
Corpos Geniculados/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Animais , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Feminino , Corpos Geniculados/anatomia & histologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microeletrodos , Neurônios/citologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Córtex Visual/anatomia & histologia , Vias Visuais/anatomia & histologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA