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1.
JAMA ; 322(7): 632-641, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429897

RESUMO

Importance: Maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are risk factors for preterm birth. Milder thyroid function test abnormalities and thyroid autoimmunity are more prevalent, but it remains controversial if these are associated with preterm birth. Objective: To study if maternal thyroid function test abnormalities and thyroid autoimmunity are risk factors for preterm birth. Data Sources and Study Selection: Studies were identified through a search of the Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar databases from inception to March 18, 2018, and by publishing open invitations in relevant journals. Data sets from published and unpublished prospective cohort studies with data on thyroid function tests (thyrotropin [often referred to as thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH] and free thyroxine [FT4] concentrations) or thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody measurements and gestational age at birth were screened for eligibility by 2 independent reviewers. Studies in which participants received treatment based on abnormal thyroid function tests were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The primary authors provided individual participant data that were analyzed using mixed-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestational age). Results: From 2526 published reports, 35 cohorts were invited to participate. After the addition of 5 unpublished data sets, a total of 19 cohorts were included. The study population included 47 045 pregnant women (mean age, 29 years; median gestational age at blood sampling, 12.9 weeks), of whom 1234 (3.1%) had subclinical hypothyroidism (increased thyrotropin concentration with normal FT4 concentration), 904 (2.2%) had isolated hypothyroxinemia (decreased FT4 concentration with normal thyrotropin concentration), and 3043 (7.5%) were TPO antibody positive; 2357 (5.0%) had a preterm birth. The risk of preterm birth was higher for women with subclinical hypothyroidism than euthyroid women (6.1% vs 5.0%, respectively; absolute risk difference, 1.4% [95% CI, 0%-3.2%]; odds ratio [OR], 1.29 [95% CI, 1.01-1.64]). Among women with isolated hypothyroxinemia, the risk of preterm birth was 7.1% vs 5.0% in euthyroid women (absolute risk difference, 2.3% [95% CI, 0.6%-4.5%]; OR, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.12-1.90]). In continuous analyses, each 1-SD higher maternal thyrotropin concentration was associated with a higher risk of preterm birth (absolute risk difference, 0.2% [95% CI, 0%-0.4%] per 1 SD; OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.00-1.09] per 1 SD). Thyroid peroxidase antibody-positive women had a higher risk of preterm birth vs TPO antibody-negative women (6.6% vs 4.9%, respectively; absolute risk difference, 1.6% [95% CI, 0.7%-2.8%]; OR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.15-1.56]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among pregnant women without overt thyroid disease, subclinical hypothyroidism, isolated hypothyroxinemia, and TPO antibody positivity were significantly associated with higher risk of preterm birth. These results provide insights toward optimizing clinical decision-making strategies that should consider the potential harms and benefits of screening programs and levothyroxine treatment during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue
2.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(7): 1270-1280, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995291

RESUMO

Results from studies evaluating potential effects of prenatal exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields from cell phones on birth outcomes have been inconsistent. Using data on 55,507 pregnant women and their children from Denmark (1996-2002), the Netherlands (2003-2004), Spain (2003-2008), and South Korea (2006-2011), we explored whether maternal cell-phone use was associated with pregnancy duration and fetal growth. On the basis of self-reported number of cell-phone calls per day, exposure was grouped as none, low (referent), intermediate, or high. We examined pregnancy duration (gestational age at birth, preterm/postterm birth), fetal growth (birth weight ratio, small/large size for gestational age), and birth weight variables (birth weight, low/high birth weight) and meta-analyzed cohort-specific estimates. The intermediate exposure group had a higher risk of giving birth at a lower gestational age (hazard ratio = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.07), and exposure-response relationships were found for shorter pregnancy duration (P < 0.001) and preterm birth (P = 0.003). We observed no association with fetal growth or birth weight. Maternal cell-phone use during pregnancy may be associated with shorter pregnancy duration and increased risk of preterm birth, but these results should be interpreted with caution, since they may reflect stress during pregnancy or other residual confounding rather than a direct effect of cell-phone exposure.

3.
Environ Res ; 169: 501-509, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530090

RESUMO

Given that regardless of actual exposure levels, high-risk perceptions of electromagnetic fields of non-ionizing radiation (EMF-NIR) may cause health effects, it is important to understand the mechanisms behind perceptions in the general population. The aims of this study were to assess perceptions of both exposure and health-risk among mothers of the INMA (Environment and childhood)-Gipuzkoa child cohort; to explore possible determinants that explain such perceptions; and to evaluate whether providing information on exposure levels has any effect on perceptions. Overall, 387 mothers completed a questionnaire composed of four questions on perceived exposure and perceived health-risk of exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) fields answered on a Likert-type scale from 0 to 10. Later, measurements of ELF and RF fields were conducted in the houses of a subsample of 104 participants. All measured levels were far below the levels established by the European Council recommendation. This was explained in the individual reports sent to the families. After reading the results, mothers completed the aforementioned questionnaire a second time, plus two additional questions regarding the role of public health bodies in risk communication. The association between perceived and measured levels as categorical variables was assessed with a chi-square test. Multiple linear regressions were conducted for each of the questions related to perceived exposure and health-risk perceptions. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was conducted to assess the effect of receiving information. Both exposure and health risk were perceived to be very high for both ELF and RF fields, with mean and medians of 7 on a 10-point scale. Reporting higher perception levels was not associated with higher levels of exposure measured at home. Variables that were repeatedly associated with higher perceptions included: manual social class, not having the feeling of living in a good neighborhood, difficulty getting by financially, not having a television antenna within 600 m, being younger and having fewer devices at home. Providing information on EMF-NIR exposure levels at home did not alter health-risk perceptions, but mean perceived RF exposure decreased significantly (by 0.7 points). Most of the participants claimed to have received no or insufficient information regarding exposure and health-risks of EMF-NIR from public bodies and considered it very important that they should.

4.
J Pediatr ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations between maternal adherence to the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy and their offspring's longitudinal body mass index (BMI) trajectories and cardiometabolic risk in early childhood. STUDY DESIGN: We included mother-child pairs from the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) longitudinal cohort study in Spain. We measured dietary intake during pregnancy using a validated food frequency questionnaire and calculated the relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED). We estimated offspring's BMI z score trajectories from birth to age 4 years using latent class growth analyses (n = 2195 mother-child pairs). We measured blood pressure, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic biomarkers to construct a cardiometabolic risk score at 4 years (n = 697 mother-child pairs). We used multivariable adjusted linear and multinomial regression models. RESULTS: A higher maternal rMED in pregnancy was associated with a lower risk in offspring of larger birth size, followed by accelerated BMI gain (reference trajectory group: children with average birth size and subsequent slower BMI gain) (relative risk of high vs low rMED score, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.99). rMED score during pregnancy was not associated with the cardiometabolic risk score, its components, or related biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet in pregnancy was associated with lower risk of having offspring with an accelerated growth pattern. This dietary pattern was not associated with the offspring's cardiometabolic risk at 4 years.

5.
Eur J Public Health ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462218

RESUMO

Background: The health of pregnant women and their fetuses are especially sensitive to socioeconomic conditions. This study analyzes the impact of maternal socioeconomic status (SES), evaluated by occupation and maternal education level, in preterm births (PTBs) and in small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, considering the effect of the potential mediating factors on the SES and birth outcomes. Methods: A total of 2497 mother/newborn dyads from the INMA-Spain project were studied. We examined maternal occupation and education in relation to PTB and SGA along with covariate data, using logistic regression analysis. Adjusted models for each of the outcome variables in relation to SES indicators were estimated, considering potential mediating factors. Results: About 4.7% of babies were PTB and 9.7% SGA. Full adjusted logistic regression models showed similar odds ratio (OR) for SGA in both SES indicators. Manual working women or without university studies had higher risk of SGA than their counterpart groups (OR = 1.39% CI = 1.03-1.88 and OR = 1.39% CI = 1.00-2.00, respectively). Likewise, mothers with a manual occupation were at more risk of PTB than those with a non-manual occupation (OR = 1.74 95% CI = 1.13-2.74), but there was no association between education and PTB. Smoking, pre-pregnancy BMI and underweight gain during pregnancy were significantly associated to SGA births. The mother's age, presence of complications and overweight gain during pregnancy were related to PTB. Conclusion: The mother's socioeconomic disadvantage was consistently associated with birth outcomes giving rise to intergenerational transmission of health inequalities. Reducing inequalities requires eliminating the upstream causes of poverty itself.

6.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 32(5): 418-424, sept.-oct. 2018. tab, mapas, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-174188

RESUMO

Objetivo: Estimar la ingesta de flúor en mujeres embarazadas y sus hijos/as de la cohorte INMA-Gipuzkoa a través del consumo de agua de la red municipal y comparar estas ingestas con los valores recomendados. En Euskadi, la fluoración del agua de consumo es obligatoria en abastecimientos de más de 30.000 habitantes. Método: Se han incluido 575 mujeres embarazadas (reclutamiento en 2006-2008) y 424 niños/as de 4 años (seguimiento en 2010-2012). Las concentraciones de fluoruros en el agua se obtuvieron del sistema de información de aguas de consumo de Euskadi (EKUIS). Los hábitos de consumo de agua y las variables socioeconómicas se obtuvieron mediante cuestionario. Resultados: El 74,9% de las mujeres y el 87,7% de los/las niños/as consumían agua de red municipal. En agua fluorada, el valor medio de fluoruro fue de 0,805mg/l (desviación estándar [DE]: 0,194) durante el periodo de reclutamiento, y de 0,843mg/l (DE: 0,080) durante el seguimiento de los/las niños/as. La ingesta media de flúor y el percentil 95 en las zonas fluoradas fueron de 0,015 y 0,026mg/kg al día en las mujeres y de 0,033 y 0,059mg/kg al día en los/las niños/as. Considerando solo el flúor aportado por el agua, el 8,71% de los/las niños/as residentes en zonas con fluoración superaban la ingesta de 0,05mg/kg al día recomendada por la European Food Safety Authority. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las ingestas de flúor a través del agua de consumo pueden superar lo recomendado en población infantil, y propician futuros estudios que aporten evidencias que puedan ayudar en las políticas de fluoración de las aguas de consumo público


Objective: To estimate fluoride intake through consumption of water from the municipal network in pregnant women and their children from the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort and to compare these intakes with recommended levels. In Euskadi (Spain), fluoridation of drinking water is compulsory in water supplies for more than 30,000 inhabitants. Method: 575 pregnant women (recruitment, 2006-2008) and 424 4-year-old children (follow-up, 2010-2012) have been included. Fluoride levels in drinking water were obtained from the water consumption information system of the Basque Country (EKUIS). Water consumption habits and socioeconomic variables were obtained by questionnaire. Results: 74.9% and 87.7% of women and children consumed water from the municipal network. Average fluoride levels in fluoridated water were 0.805 (SD: 0.194) mg/L during baseline recruitment and 0.843 (SD: 0.080) mg/L during follow up, at 4 years old of the children. Average and 95th percentile of fluoride intake were 0.015 and 0.026mg/kg per day in women and 0.033 and 0.059mg/kg per day in children. Considering only fluoride provided by drinking water, 8.71% of children living in fluoridated areas exceeded intake level recommended by the European Food Safety Authority, consisting in 0.05mg/kg per day. Conclusion: The results show that ingested levels of fluoride through consumption of municipal water can exceed the recommended levels in children and encourages further studies that will help in fluoridation policies of drinking water in the future


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Pré-Escolar , Ingestão de Líquidos , Água Potável/análise , Flúor/administração & dosagem , Fluoretação/normas , Purificação da Água , Exposição Materna/normas , Troca Materno-Fetal , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos
7.
Environ Int ; 117: 204-214, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has rapidly increased and little is known about exposure levels in children. This study describes personal RF-EMF environmental exposure levels from handheld devices and fixed site transmitters in European children, the determinants of this, and the day-to-day and year-to-year repeatability of these exposure levels. METHODS: Personal environmental RF-EMF exposure (µW/m2, power flux density) was measured in 529 children (ages 8-18 years) in Denmark, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Switzerland, and Spain using personal portable exposure meters for a period of up to three days between 2014 and 2016, and repeated in a subsample of 28 children one year later. The meters captured 16 frequency bands every 4 s and incorporated a GPS. Activity diaries and questionnaires were used to collect children's location, use of handheld devices, and presence of indoor RF-EMF sources. Six general frequency bands were defined: total, digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT), television and radio antennas (broadcast), mobile phones (uplink), mobile phone base stations (downlink), and Wireless Fidelity (WiFi). We used adjusted mixed effects models with region random effects to estimate associations of handheld device use habits and indoor RF-EMF sources with personal RF-EMF exposure. Day-to-day and year-to-year repeatability of personal RF-EMF exposure were calculated through intraclass correlations (ICC). RESULTS: Median total personal RF-EMF exposure was 75.5 µW/m2. Downlink was the largest contributor to total exposure (median: 27.2 µW/m2) followed by broadcast (9.9 µW/m2). Exposure from uplink (4.7 µW/m2) was lower. WiFi and DECT contributed very little to exposure levels. Exposure was higher during day (94.2 µW/m2) than night (23.0 µW/m2), and slightly higher during weekends than weekdays, although varying across regions. Median exposures were highest while children were outside (157.0 µW/m2) or traveling (171.3 µW/m2), and much lower at home (33.0 µW/m2) or in school (35.1 µW/m2). Children living in urban environments had higher exposure than children in rural environments. Older children and users of mobile phones had higher uplink exposure but not total exposure, compared to younger children and those that did not use mobile phones. Day-to-day repeatability was moderate to high for most of the general frequency bands (ICCs between 0.43 and 0.85), as well as for total, broadcast, and downlink for the year-to-year repeatability (ICCs between 0.49 and 0.80) in a small subsample. CONCLUSION: The largest contributors to total personal environmental RF-EMF exposure were downlink and broadcast, and these exposures showed high repeatability. Urbanicity was the most important determinant of total exposure and mobile phone use was the most important determinant of uplink exposure. It is important to continue evaluating RF-EMF exposure in children as device use habits, exposure levels, and main contributing sources may change.

8.
Environ Int ; 118: 60-69, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803802

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Radiofrequency (RF) fields are widely used and, while it is still unknown whether children are more vulnerable to this type of exposure, it is essential to explore their level of exposure in order to conduct adequate epidemiological studies. Personal measurements provide individualized information, but they are costly in terms of time and resources, especially in large epidemiological studies. Other approaches, such as estimation of time-weighted averages (TWAs) based on spot measurements could simplify the work. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess RF exposure in the Spanish INMA birth cohort by spot measurements and by personal measurements in the settings where children tend to spend most of their time, i.e., homes, schools and parks; to identify the settings and sources that contribute most to that exposure; and to explore if exposure assessment based on spot measurements is a valid proxy for personal exposure. METHODS: When children were 8 years old, spot measurements were conducted in the principal settings of 104 participants: homes (104), schools and their playgrounds (26) and parks (79). At the same time, personal measurements were taken for a subsample of 50 children during 3 days. Exposure assessment based on personal and on spot measurements were compared both in terms of mean exposures and in exposure-dependent categories by means of Bland-Altman plots, Cohen's kappa and McNemar test. RESULTS: Median exposure levels ranged from 29.73 (in children's bedrooms) to 200.10 µW/m2 (in school playgrounds) for spot measurements and were higher outdoors than indoors. Median personal exposure was 52.13 µW/m2 and median levels of assessments based on spot measurements ranged from 25.46 to 123.21 µW/m2. Based on spot measurements, the sources that contributed most to the exposure were FM radio, mobile phone downlink and Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial, while indoor and personal sources contributed very little (altogether <20%). Similar distribution was observed with personal measurements. There was a bias proportional to power density between personal measurements and estimates based on spot measurements, with the latter providing higher exposure estimates. Nevertheless, there were no systematic differences between those methodologies when classifying subjects into exposure categories. Personal measurements of total RF exposure showed low to moderate agreement with home and bedroom spot measurements and agreed better, though moderately, with TWA based on spot measurements in the main settings where children spend time (homes, schools and parks; Kappa = 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure assessment based on spot measurements could be a feasible proxy to rank personal RF exposure in children population, providing that all relevant locations are being measured.

9.
Environ Int ; 112: 227-234, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29289867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water has consistently been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, but evidence on other cancers including the breast is very limited. OBJECTIVES: We assessed long-term exposure to THMs to evaluate the association with female breast cancer (BC) risk. METHODS: A multi case-control study was conducted in Spain from 2008 to 2013. We included 1003 incident BC cases (women 20-85years old) recruited from 14 hospitals and 1458 population controls. Subjects were interviewed to ascertain residential histories and major recognized risk factors for BC. Mean residential levels of chloroform, brominated THMs (Br-THMs) and the sum of both as total THM (TTHMs) during the adult-lifetime were calculated. RESULTS: Mean adult-lifetime residential levels ranged from 0.8 to 145.7µg/L for TTHM (median=30.8), from 0.2 to 62.4µg/L for chloroform (median=19.7) and from 0.3 to 126.0µg/L for Br-THMs (median=9.7). Adult-lifetime residential chloroform was associated with BC (adjusted OR=1.47; 95%CI=1.05, 2.06 for the highest (>24µg/L) vs. lowest (<8µg/L) quartile; p-trend=0.024). No association was detected for residential Br-THMs (OR=0.91; 95%CI=0.68, 1.23 for >31µg/L vs. <6µg/L) or TTHMs (OR=1.14; 95%CI=0.83, 1.57 for >48µg/L vs. <22µg/L). CONCLUSIONS: At common levels in Europe, long-term residential total THMs were not related to female breast cancer. A moderate association with chloroform was suggested at the highest exposure category. This large epidemiological study with extensive exposure assessment overcomes several limitations of previous studies but further studies are needed to confirm these results.

10.
Gac Sanit ; 32(5): 418-424, 2018 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28545738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate fluoride intake through consumption of water from the municipal network in pregnant women and their children from the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort and to compare these intakes with recommended levels. In Euskadi (Spain), fluoridation of drinking water is compulsory in water supplies for more than 30,000 inhabitants. METHOD: 575 pregnant women (recruitment, 2006-2008) and 424 4-year-old children (follow-up, 2010-2012) have been included. Fluoride levels in drinking water were obtained from the water consumption information system of the Basque Country (EKUIS). Water consumption habits and socioeconomic variables were obtained by questionnaire. RESULTS: 74.9% and 87.7% of women and children consumed water from the municipal network. Average fluoride levels in fluoridated water were 0.805 (SD: 0.194) mg/L during baseline recruitment and 0.843 (SD: 0.080) mg/L during follow up, at 4 years old of the children. Average and 95th percentile of fluoride intake were 0.015 and 0.026mg/kg per day in women and 0.033 and 0.059mg/kg per day in children. Considering only fluoride provided by drinking water, 8.71% of children living in fluoridated areas exceeded intake level recommended by the European Food Safety Authority, consisting in 0.05mg/kg per day. CONCLUSION: The results show that ingested levels of fluoride through consumption of municipal water can exceed the recommended levels in children and encourages further studies that will help in fluoridation policies of drinking water in the future.

11.
Environ Res ; 157: 190-197, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575784

RESUMO

Detailed assessment of exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) and intermediate frequency (IF) fields is essential in order to conduct informative epidemiological studies of the health effects from exposure to these fields. There is limited information available regarding ELF electric fields and on both magnetic and electric field exposures of children in the IF range. The aim of this study was to characterize ELF and IF exposure of children in the Spanish INMA cohort. A combination of spot and fixed measurements was carried out in 104 homes, 26 schools and their playgrounds and 105 parks. Low levels of ELF magnetic fields (ELF-MF) were observed (with the highest 24-h time-weighted average (TWA) exposure being 0.15µT in one home). The interquartile range (IQR) of ELF electric fields (ELF-EF) ranged from 1 to 15V/m indoors and from 0.3 to 1.1V/m outdoors and a maximum value observed was 55.5V/m in one school playground. IQR ranges for IF magnetic and electric fields were between 0.02 and 0.23µT and 0.2 and 0.5V/m respectively and maximum values were 0.03µT and 1.51V/m in homes. Correlations between magnetic and electric fields were weak for ELF (Spearman 0.04-0.36 in different settings) and moderate for IF (between 0.28 and 0.75). Children of INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort were exposed to very low levels of ELF-MF in all settings and to similar levels of ELF-EF compared to the range of previously reported levels, although somewhat higher exposures occurred at home. Children enrolled to our study were similarly exposed to IF in all settings.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Campos Magnéticos , Criança , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Habitação , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha
12.
BMC Public Health ; 16: 167, 2016 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26892951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol describes the methodologies used for characterising exposure of children to EMF-NIR in the INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente- Environment and Childhood) Project, a prospective cohort study. METHODS/DESIGN: Indirect (proximity to emission sources, questionnaires on sources use and geospatial propagation models) and direct methods (spot and fixed longer-term measurements and personal measurements) were conducted in order to assess exposure levels of study participants aged between 7 and 18 years old. The methodology used varies depending on the frequency of the EMF-NIR and the environment (homes, schools and parks). Questionnaires assessed the use of sources contributing both to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Radiofrequency (RF) exposure levels. Geospatial propagation models (NISMap) are implemented and validated for environmental outdoor sources of RFs using spot measurements. Spot and fixed longer-term ELF and RF measurements were done in the environments where children spend most of the time. Moreover, personal measurements were taken in order to assess individual exposure to RF. The exposure data are used to explore their relationships with proximity and/or use of EMF-NIR sources. DISCUSSION: Characterisation of the EMF-NIR exposure by this combination of methods is intended to overcome problems encountered in other research. The assessment of exposure of INMA cohort children and adolescents living in different regions of Spain to the full frequency range of EMF-NIR extends the characterisation of environmental exposures in this cohort. Together with other data obtained in the project, on socioeconomic and family characteristics and development of the children and adolescents, this will enable to evaluate the complex interaction between health outcomes in children and adolescents and the various environmental factors that surround them.


Assuntos
Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Nível de Saúde , Adolescente , Criança , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Espanha/epidemiologia
13.
Environ Res ; 142: 579-85, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26298601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to hard water has been suggested as a risk factor for eczema in childhood, based on limited evidence from two ecologic and two cross-sectional studies. OBJECTIVES: We evaluate this hypothesis for the first time in early infancy using prospective data from a mother-child cohort study. METHODS: We used data from the INMA cohorts in Gipuzkoa, Sabadell and Valencia, Spain (N=1638). Current and ever eczema, bathing frequency and duration and covariables were collected by questionnaires at 14 months (14 m) and 4 years (4 y). Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) level in municipal water was assigned to home addresses at birth, 14 m and 4 y. We calculated Odds Ratio (OR) of eczema related to CaCO3 at home, bath exposure and a combination of both. RESULTS: Prevalence of eczema ever was 18.4% at 14 m and 33.4% at 4 y. Mean CaCO3 ranged from 51.6 to 272.8 mg/L among areas. No association was detected between water hardness at home and current or ever eczema. Adjusted OR was 0.79 (95%CI=0.45, 1.39) at 14 m and 0.93 (0.56, 1.52) at 4 y among children in the highest vs. lowest tertiles of CaCO3. Bath exposure alone or in combination with water hardness did not increase the OR of eczema at 14 m or 4 y either. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find an association between eczema and water hardness at home or bathing exposure during the first four years of life. This first cohort study in a critical age period with improved exposure assessment does not confirm the association suggested among children by previous studies.


Assuntos
Eczema/etiologia , Água/química , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
14.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 85(2): 175-88, 2011 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21826380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Directive 98/8/EC harmonizes and regulates in the European market authorization and registration of biocides and establishes a period of 14 years for review of active substances. This study analyzes the most significant changes produced in the registry of biocides used as disinfectants registered since the publication of the Directive. METHOD: Information was obtained from the registry of biocides published in the website of the Ministry of Health, Social Policy and Equality in May 2010. We used an Excel data base for the dump and data processing. RESULTS: There are 1575 biocides with intended use as environmental and food area disinfectants registered in Spain (1137 formulas and 438 active ingredients). Formulas are composed of 56 active sustances which are being assessed for their inclusion in the Community list of authorized substances. 54% of the formulas are registered as both bactericide and fungicide, 79% are contact disinfectants, 42% of the formulas correspond to those composed of quaternary ammonium compounds and 67.9% are made with a single active substance. Regarding hazardous properties 45.3% are corrosive, 25.7% irritant, 9.8% harmful, 1.1% toxic , and 33.1% are dangerous to the environment. CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish registry of biocides has complied with the provisions of the Directive cancelling the registrations of the formulas containing substances not included in the list. Of all the substances which are under review in Europe, 58% of environmental disinfectants and 76.4% of food area disinfectants are authorized in Spain.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Legislação de Medicamentos , Sistema de Registros , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Meio Ambiente , União Europeia , Indústria Alimentícia , Órgãos Governamentais , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Espanha
15.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 85(2): 175-188, mar.-abr. 2011. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-90632

RESUMO

Fundamentos: La Directiva 98/8/CE armoniza y regula en el mercado europeo la autorización y registro de biocidas y establece un periodo de 14 años para la revisión de sustancias activas. Este trabajo analiza los cambios más relevantes producidos en el registro de biocidas desinfectantes registrados desde la publicación de la Directiva. Métodos: La información se ha obtenido del registro de Biocidas publicado en la web del Ministerio de Sanidad, Política Social e Igualdad a mayo de 2010. Se ha utilizado una hoja de cálculo Excel para el volcado y tratamiento de los datos. Resultados: Existen 1.575 biocidas desinfectantes (1137 formulados y 438 ingredientes activos técnicos) registrados en España destinados a uso ambiental y en industria alimentaria. Los formulados están compuestos por 56 sustancias activas que están siendo estudiadas para su inclusión en la lista comunitaria de sustancias autorizadas. El 54% de los formula-dos están registrados como bactericida-fungicida, el 79% se aplican por contacto, el 42% son compuestos de amonio cuaternario y el 67.9% están elaborados con una sola sustancia activa. Respecto a su peligrosidad el 45.3% son corrosivos, el 25.7% irritantes, el 9.8% nocivos, el 1.1 % tóxicos y el 33.1% son peligrosos para el medio ambiente. Conclusiones: El registro de biocidas español se adecua a lo establecido en la Directiva cancelando los registros que contienen sustancias no incluidas en la lista. El 58% de las sustancias activas de uso ambiental y el 76,4% de uso en industria alimentaria en revisión en Europa se encuentran autorizadas en España(AU)


Background: Directive 98/8/EC harmonizes and regulates in the European market authorization and registration of biocides and establishes a period of 14 years for review of active substances. This study analyzes the most significant changes produced in the registry of biocides used as disinfectants registered since the publication of the Directive. Method: Information was obtained from the registry of biocides published in the website of the Ministry of Health, Social Policy and Equality in May 2010. We used an Excel data base for the dump and data processing. Results: There are 1575 biocides with intended use as environmental and food area disinfectants registered in Spain (1137 formulas and 438 active ingredients). Formulas are composed of 56 active sustances which are being assessed for their inclusion in the Community list of authorized substances. 54% of the formulas are registered as both bactericide and fungicide, 79% are contact disinfectants, 42% of the formulas correspond to those composed of quaternary ammonium compounds and 67.9% are made with a single active substance. Regarding hazardous properties 45.3% are corrosive, 25.7% irritant, 9.8% harmful, 1.1% toxic , and 33.1% are dangerous to the environment. Conclusions: The Spanish registry of biocides has complied with the provisions of the Directive cancelling the registrations of the formulas containing substances not included in the list. Of all the substances which are under review in Europe, 58% of environmental disinfectants and 76.4% of food area disinfectants are authorized in Spain(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Desinfetantes/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Ambiental/métodos , Saúde Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Ambiental/tendências , Indústria Alimentícia/métodos , Indústria Alimentícia/tendências , Saúde Ambiental/organização & administração , Saúde Ambiental/normas
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