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1.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 56, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autophagy plays a crucial role in the pathological process of cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the pathological mechanism underlying autophagy regulation in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). METHODS: We explored whether up-regulating autophagy could improve cardiac function in mice with experimental DCM through the mTOR-4EBP1 pathway. Animal model of DCM was established in BALB/c mice by immunization with porcine cardiac myosin. Both up- or down-regulation of autophagy were studied by administration of rapamycin or 3-MA in parallel. Morphology, Western blotting, and echocardiography were applied to confirm the pathological mechanisms. RESULTS: Autophagy was activated and autophagosomes were significantly increased in the rapamycin group. The collagen volume fraction (CVF) was decreased in the rapamycin group compared with the DCM group (9.21 ± 0.82% vs 14.38 ± 1.24%, P < 0.01). The expression of p-mTOR and p-4EBP1 were significantly decreased in rapamycin-induced autophagy activation, while the levels were increased by down-regulating autophagy with 3-MA. In the rapamycin group, the LVEF and FS were significantly increased compared with the DCM group (54.12 ± 6.48% vs 45.29 ± 6.68%, P < 0.01; 26.89 ± 4.04% vs 22.17 ± 2.82%, P < 0.05). As the inhibitor of autophagy, 3-MA aggravated the progress of maladaptive cardiac remodeling and declined cardiac function in DCM mice. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicated a possible mechanism for improving cardiac function in mice with experimental DCM by up-regulating autophagy via the mTOR-4EBP1 pathway, which could be a promising therapeutic strategy for DCM.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 112663, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045682

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg (Sanyeqing) is traditionally used as a folk medicine for the treatments of inflammation, high fever, hepatitis and cancer, and can improve the immune function of the patient. It belongs to the family of Vitaceae, and is mainly distributed in southeast China (Yunnan province) and can be found in India (Andaman Islands), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia and Indonesia in the valleys with 1100-1300 m above the sea level. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to characterize the chemical properties of a purified polysaccharide extracted from the aerial part of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum (SYQP) and investigate its antipyretic and antitumor effects in mice models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Water-soluble crude polysaccharides from the aerial parts of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum were extracted and fractionated by DEAE and gel permeation chromatography. Homogeneity, molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, and FTIR analysis were performed to characterize the SYQP. Antipyretic effect of SYQP was examined using Brewer's yeast induced hyperthermia test. Antitumor effect was investigated using H22 tumor bearing mice. The serum cytokines were determined to evaluated the biological activities of SYQP. RESULTS: SYQP was composed of galacturonic acid (GalA), glucose (Glc), mannose (Man), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal), and rhamnose (Rha) with a molar ratio of 11.3:7.1:2.5:1.0:0.9:0.5 and it had an average molecular weight of 66.2 kDa. The oral administration of SYQP at 200 and 400 mg/kg could markedly suppress the hyperthermia of mice induced by Brewer's yeast and decrease the production of cytokines especially prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the serum of mice. SYQP inhibited the growth of H22 tumor in mice with inhibitory rate of 39.9% at the administration dose of 200 mg/kg and increased the production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and interferon γ (IFN-γ). Experimental results showed that the preventive administration of SYQP before lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduced the high cytokine levels such as IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ, indicating that SYQP might act as a competitor with LPS to interact with toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), which further regulated the secretion of cytokines. CONCLUSION: The anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities of SYQP might be related to its regulation of host immune function by controlling the secretion of cytokines.

3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 221: 105441, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045789

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that BDE-47, one of the most abundant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congeners, has a weak estrogenic activity, but it has remained unclear whether BDE-47 disrupts gonadal development and causes male-to-female sex reversal in lower vertebrates, with limited and controversial data. The present study aimed to determine the effects of BDE-47 on gonadal development in Xenopus laevis, a model amphibian species for studying adverse effects of estrogenic chemicals on reproductive development. X. laevis at stage 45/46 were exposed to BDE-47 (0.5, 5, 50 nM) in semi-static system, with 1 nM 17ß-estradiol (E2) as the positive control. When reaching stage 53, tadpoles were examined for gonadal morphology, histology and sex-dimorphic gene expression. The phenotypic sex (gonadal morphology and histology) of each BDE-47-treated tadpole matched its genetic sex, showing no sex-reversal, whereas one half of genetic males treated with E2 displayed ovarian-like features. However, some genetic males (26%) in the 50 nM BDE-47 treatment group were found to contain more germ cells clumping together in the medulla, along with an increasing tendency of the gonad length/kidney length ratio in males, resembling feminizing outcomes of E2. These observations seem to suggest that BDE-47 exerted weak feminizing effects. However, BDE-47 induced increases in expression of both female-biased genes and male-biased genes in two sexes, which disagrees with feminizing outcomes, suggesting complicated effects of BDE-47 on gonadal development. Taken together, all results demonstrate that nanomolar BDE-47 disrupted gonadal development and exerted weak feminizing effects, but not resulted in male-to-female sex reversal in X. laevis.

4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018227

RESUMO

BPH is a disease prevalent among elderly men that is characterized by abnormal proliferation of prostatic epithelial and stromal tissues. No effective treatment exists for BPH owing to lack of a clear understanding of its molecular etiology. Although several studies have reported therapeutic effects of baicalin against numerous diseases, including prostate cancer, its beneficial effects on BPH have not yet been explored. The present study investigated the therapeutic effects of baicalin on the development of BPH and its mechanism of action. We established a testosterone-treated BPH animal model and DHT-stimulated prostate cell lines, including RWPE-1 and WPMY-1. Administration of baicalin ameliorated the pathological prostate enlargement, suppressed the production of DHT, and inhibited the activity of 5α- reductase Type II in the animal model. BC exerted these effects via its anti-proliferative effects by restoring the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activating caspase-3 and caspase-8, and inducing the phosphorylation of AMPK. In vitro studies using DHT-stimulated prostate cells demonstrated an up-regulation of BPH-related and proliferation markers, whereas baicalin clearly reduced the overexpression of AR, PSA, PCNA, and Bcl-2. These results suggested that baicalin could suppress androgen-dependent development of BPH both in vivo and in vitro by inducing apoptosis.

5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 99: 176-183, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018034

RESUMO

Large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea, LYC) aquaculture is being threatened by intensive infectious diseases. Relevant studies have focused on LYC immune responses to infection. By contrast, little is known how and to what extent the gut microbiota responds to infection. Here, we explored the interactions between LYC immune responses and gut bacterial communities during Pseudomonas plecoglossicida infection. P. plecoglossicida successfully colonized into LYC gut microbiota, resulting in an increasing mortality rate. Relative gene expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α1, TNF-α2 and IL-1ß) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) were consistently and significantly induced by P. plecoglossicida infection, whereas non-specific immune enzymes activities were only enhanced at the early infection stages. P. plecoglossicida infection caused an irreversible disruption in the gut microbiota, of which infection and hours post infection constrained 16.2% and 5.6% variations, respectively. In addition, top 18 discriminatory taxa that were responsible for the difference between treatments were identified, whose abundances were significantly associated with the immune activities of LYC. Using a structural equation modeling (SEM), we found that gut bacterial communities were primarily governed by the conjointly direct (-0.33) and indirect (0) effects of infection, which subsequently affect host immune responses. Our results suggest that an irreversible dysbiosis in gut microbiota could be the causality of increasing mortality. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an integrated overview among pathogen infection, immune response and gut microbiota of LYC.

6.
Environ Technol ; : 1-14, 2020 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958258

RESUMO

The effects of the composite flocculant, polyaluminium chloride and poly dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PACl-PDMDAAC) in comparison with PACl on coagulation efficiencies and membrane fouling in coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) process were analysed, which was conducted in the conditions of different basicity (B) values and the presence of Mg2+. Results showed that PACl-PDMDAAC enhanced the ability of charge neutralization and absorption bridging, and improved the coagulation efficiency. When B value was 1.5, the flocculant hydrolyzed to form more Alb morphology and effectively removed HA molecules. The presence of Mg2+ could improve the coagulation performance through bridging ability. The results of the ultrafiltration test showed that the flux reduction for PACl was 70%, while the flux reduction for PACl-PDMDAAC was 60% in C-UF process. PACl-PDMDAAC could effectively reduce membrane fouling mainly by reducing strongly attached cake/gel layer. When B value was 1.5, the Alb content of the flocculant was higher and the ability of adsorption charge neutralization was strong, resulting in forming a stable cake layer. Therefore, the membrane fouling was the lightest. In addition, the presence of Mg2+ in raw water reduced the membrane fouling.

7.
Environ Pollut ; 260: 113980, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991354

RESUMO

Developmental exposures to estrogenic chemicals possibly cause structural and functional abnormalities of reproductive organs in vertebrates. Bisphenol AF (BPAF), a bisphenol A (BPA) analogue, has been shown to have higher estrogenic activity than BPA, but little is known about the effects of BPAF on gonadal development, particularly gonadal differentiation. We aimed to determine whether low concentrations of BPAF could disrupt gonadal differentiation and subsequent development using Xenopus laevis, a model species for studying feminizing effects of estrogenic chemicals. X. laevis tadpoles were exposed to BPAF (1, 10, 100 nM) or 17ß-estradiol (E2, positive control) from stages 45/46 to 53 and 66 in a semi-static exposure system, with a prolonged treatment with the highest concentration to the eighth week post-metamorphosis (WPM8). Gonadal morphology and histology as well as sexually dimorphic gene expression were examined to evaluate the effects of BPAF. All concentrations of BPAF caused changes in testicular morphology at different developmental stages compared with controls. Specifically, at stage 53, BPAF like E2 resulted in decreases in both the size and the number of gonadal metameres (gonomeres) in testes, looking like ovaries. Some of BPAF-treated testes remained segmented and even became discontinuous and fragmented at subsequent stages. Histological abnormalities were also observed in BPAF-treated testes, such as ovarian cavity at stages 53 and 66 and poorly developed seminiferous tubules on WPM8. At the molecular level, BPAF inhibited expression of male highly expressed genes in testes at stage 53. Correspondingly, BPAF, like E2, inhibited cell proliferation in testes at stage 50. All results show that low concentrations of BPAF inhibited testicular differentiation and subsequent development in X. laevis, along with feminizing effects to some degree. Our finding implies a risk of BPAF to the male reproductive system of vertebrates including humans.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 709: 136002, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905586

RESUMO

Modified anion exchange resin (EDE-D301) was synthesized by mixing monomers: epichlorohydrin (ECH), dimethylamine (DMA), ethylenediamine (EDA) with the weakly alkaline anion exchange resin D301 through in-situ polymerization method. Adsorption performance of EDE-D301 for removing Cr(VI) contaminants was investigated in batch and column systems. Physicochemical properties of the anion exchange resins were characterized to determine the adsorption mechanism and regeneration ability. Characteristic results revealed that EDE-D301 showed enhanced surface area, positive charge and contents of N and Cl elements, indicating that the modifying reagents of monomers were successfully polymerized in the resin. The experimental adsorption data fitted well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model. The fixed-bed experiments showed that the exhaustion time increased with increasing the bed depth, and decreased with increasing the flowrate and influent concentration. Adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) onto EDE-D301 was determined at a maximum level of 298 mg·g-1, and remained at 93% after four consecutive cycles. FTIR and XPS analysis indicated that the ion exchange and complexation were responsible for the Cr(VI) adsorption.

9.
Int J Legal Med ; 134(1): 149-157, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773316

RESUMO

Postmortem interval (PMI) determination is an important part of criminal investigations, but it is still subject to uncertainty. Degradation of mRNA in PMI determination has been studied in decays; however, some studies have reported no correlation between PMI and RNA degradation. Thus, we aimed to determine whether RNA quantity was correlated with PMI. Heart and brain tissues were separated from a mouse model of a 0-48 h PMI with 29 time points. We then coextracted the DNA and RNA in one tube with Bioteke coextraction kits and selected some mRNA markers associated with cell oxygen deprivation and apoptosis as target genes, such as hypoxia-associated factor (HAF), apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha (HIF2a), and factor inhibiting HIF (FIH). We measured the quantity of these markers using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and Caspase-3 DNA and 18S were each used for normalization. The results showed that in the heart tissue, the degradation of HIF2a, AIF, and FIH was correlated with PMI, as was the degradation of HIF2a, FIH, and AIF in brain tissue when normalized with Caspase-3 DNA. However, when normalized with 18S, only the degradation of HIF2a in brain tissue was correlated with PMI. Interestingly, the quantity of HAF in brain tissue was found to increase after death with either 18S or Caspase-3 DNA normalization, and it was significantly correlated with 0-48 h PMI. These results indicated that mRNA quantity can be used to determine PMI and that Caspase-3 DNA is feasible for PMI estimation. In summary, we established mathematical models for PMI determination using multiple mRNA markers and multiple tissues and further studies are needed to validate and investigate these markers and mathematical models in human tissues.Duo Peng and Meili Lv contributed equally to this work.

10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(2): 485-492, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686248

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Early death (ED) is the main cause of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treatment failure, and the ED rate is higher for elderly patients than that for young ones. To date, no studies have been found focusing on ED in elderly patients with APL. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 409 consecutive patients with APL (139 patients ≥ 50 years old, 270 patients < 50 years old). All patients received arsenic trioxide alone as induction therapy. The baseline clinical characteristics and ED occurrence and predictors between elderly and young patients with APL were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: The clinical features of elderly patients at admission were not significantly different from those of young ones. The ED rate of elderly patients was significantly greater than that of young patients (23.74% vs 11.85%, P = 0.0018). Hemorrhage is the main cause of ED in elderly patients, followed by infection and differentiation syndrome. From the 15th to 30th days of treatment, elderly patients had a higher mortality rate than that of young patients (7.83% vs 2.06%, P = 0.009). Male, white blood cell (WBC) count > 10 × 109/L, fibrinogen < 1.0 g/L and low albumin levels were independent risk factors for ED in elderly patients, while ED was only correlated with WBC count, fibrinogen and creatinine levels in young patients. CONCLUSION: The results of this study may help design more rational treatment plans for elderly patients with APL based on early mortality risk to reduce the ED rate.

11.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(1): 120-129.e1, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dystrophin-deficient cardiomyopathy is becoming the dominant cause of death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but its developmental process remains elusive. This study aimed to assess the development of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction that mimics DMD pathologies in golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs. METHODS: Transthoracic echocardiography was sequentially performed in GRMD dogs (n = 23) and age-matched healthy littermates (n = 7) from 2 to 24 months old. Conventional, tissue Doppler imaging, and speckle-tracking echocardiography parameters were analyzed. RESULTS: At 2 months of age, GRMD dogs showed a pathologic decrease in the subendocardial-subepicardial gradient of radial systolic myocardial velocity along with altered LV twist and longitudinal strain, all being aggravated with age (analysis of variance, P < .001). Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed good ability to discriminate normal from GRMD dogs. LV ejection fraction was significantly decreased in GRMD dogs starting from 9 months and reached a pathologic level (<50%) at 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: The development of cardiomyopathy in GRMD dogs was characterized by subendocardial dysfunction, altered LV twist, and reduced longitudinal strain at a very young age to overall LV dysfunction in adults with transmural dysfunction, reduced LV ejection fraction and diastolic abnormalities, and even heart failure. This indicates the necessity to evaluate LV transmural myocardial velocity gradient, twist, and longitudinal strain in the early childhood of DMD patients.

12.
Schizophr Res ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826827

RESUMO

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been shown to be effective in schizophrenia, particularly when rapid symptom reduction is needed or in cases of resistance to drug treatment. However, there are no markers available to predict response to ECT. Here, we examine whether multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiomic features can predict response to ECT for individual patients. A total of 57 treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients, or schizophrenia patients with an acute episode or suicide attempts were randomly divided into primary (42 patients) and test (15 patients) cohorts. We collected T1-weighted structural MRI and diffusion MRI for 57 patients before receiving ECT and extracted 600 radiomic features for feature selection and prediction. To predict a continuous improvement in symptoms (ΔPANSS), the prediction process was performed with a support vector regression model based on a leave-one-out cross-validation framework in primary cohort and was tested in test cohort. The multi-parametric MRI-based radiomic model, including four structural MRI feature from left inferior frontal gyrus, right insula, left middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus respectively and six diffusion MRI features from tracts connecting frontal or temporal gyrus possessed a low root mean square error of 15.183 in primary cohort and 14.980 in test cohort. The Pearson's correlation coefficients between predicted and actual values were 0.671 and 0.777 respectively. These results demonstrate that multi-parametric MRI-based radiomic features may predict response to ECT for individual patients. Such features could serve as prognostic neuroimaging biomarkers that provide a critical step toward individualized treatment response prediction in schizophrenia.

13.
Org Lett ; 21(24): 9924-9928, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789042

RESUMO

The regioselective synthesis of fullerene bis-adducts remains challenging because it produces large amounts of regioisomers. Novel nontethered cis-1 and cis-2 bis(benzofuro)[60]fullerene derivatives were directly synthesized with high regioselectivity by using chlorofullerene C60Cl6 as a precursor. Their structures were determined via spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray analysis. A nucleophilic addition elimination mechanism was proposed to elucidate the formation of highly regioselective cis-1 and cis-2 bis-adducts. The potential application of these bis(benzofuro)[60]fullerene derivatives as stabilizers in propellants was also investigated.

14.
J Inorg Biochem ; 203: 110921, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838330

RESUMO

Radionuclide internal contamination can induce chemical and radioactive intoxication and produce harmful free radicals in vivo. At present, administration of chelating agents is the most effective treatment against nuclide contamination. However, traditional studies on chelating agents have ignored the damage caused by free radicals to the body. The present study aimed to develop a type of a bifunctional sequestering agent that can chelates nuclides and scavenges free radicals simultaneously. Therefore, a novel catechol amide-derivatized polyhydroxylated fullerene was designed and prepared. The poor water solubility of fullerene was ameliorated by chemically modifying hydrophilic catechol amide and multiple hydroxyl groups, and obtaining high water-soluble fullerene derivatives. The affinities of chelators were investigated via sulfochlorophenol competitive complexing method and antioxidant capacities were examined by electron paramagnetic resonance. The results revealed the good complexation of the designed and synthesized chelating agent with uranyl ions; and its efficiency in scavenging hydroxyl radicals. This chelating agent showed extremely low toxicity and notable protective effect against oxidative stress on A549 cells. Besides, in U(VI)-exposed A549 cells, immediate treatment with catechol amide-derivatized polyhydroxylated fullerene significantly decreased the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release by inhibiting the cellular U(VI) intake, promoting the intracellular U(VI) release and inhibiting the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results suggest that this fullerene derivative may be a valuable in vivo antioxidant and radionuclide decorporation agent.

15.
Onco Targets Ther ; 12: 10299-10309, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819514

RESUMO

Purpose: High metastasis is a leading risk factor for the survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a vital step of metastasis. The expression of novel oncogene with kinase domain (NOK) has been observed in some human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the biological function of NOK in NSCLC remains unclear. In the study, we explored the function of NOK in NSCLC, with an aim to elucidate the relevant underlying mechanisms. Patients and methods: We investigate the expression of NOK, p-Akt, p-GSK-3ß, E-cadherin and N-cadherin expression by immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarrays of 72 paired NSCLC samples of cancerous and adjacent normal tissues. The associations between NOK expression and clinicopathological factors, overall survival, other proteins were assessed. Immunofluorescence analysis of NSCLC tissues was performed to study the location of NOK, Akt and GSK-3ß. Up or down-regulated of NOK were conducted in two NSCLC cell lines to analyze its impact on AKT/GSK3ß pathway. Results: Statistical analysis revealed NOK expression increased in NSCLC tissues compared with normal tissues (P<0.05). It also showed that low NOK expression were associated with a higher possibility of non-lymphatic metastasis, an early pN stage and clinical stage (P<0.05). Moreover, NOK expression was positively correlated with the expression of oncogene p-Akt (Thr308), p-GSK-3ß (Ser9) and N-cadherin (P<0.05). Immunofluorescence analysis of NSCLC tissues revealed that NOK is co-located with Akt and GSK-3ß. Further study in NSCLC cell lines revealed that NOK overexpression can activate the AKT/GSK3ß pathway. Conversely, knockdown of NOK can suppress the AKT/GSK3ß pathway. Conclusion: Our results suggest that NOK overexpression correlated significantly with lymphatic metastasis, advanced pN and clinical stage in NSCLC. And NOK may promote EMT by activating the AKT/GSK3ß/N-cadherin pathway in NSCLC.

17.
J Anal Methods Chem ; 2019: 4059765, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687249

RESUMO

Sulfonate esters have been recognized as potential genotoxic impurities (PGIs) in pharmaceuticals. An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 15 sulfonate esters, including methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, and n-butyl esters of methanesulfonate, benzenesulfonate, and p-toluenesulfonate in drug products. The method utilized atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode for the quantitation of impurities. The method employed an ODS column as the stationary phase and water-acetonitrile as the solvents for gradient elution without derivatization steps. The method was specific, linear, accurate, precise, and robust. Recoveries of the sulfonic esters from three drug matrices were observed in the range of 91.6∼109.0% with an RSD of not greater than 17.9% at the concentration of the LOQ and in the range of 90.4%∼105.2% with an RSD of not greater than 7.1% at the concentration of 50 ng/mL for the methanesulfonates and 10 ng/mL for the benzenesulfonates and p-toluenesulfonates. The LOD was not greater than 15 ng/mL, 2 ng/mL, and 1 ng/mL for the methanesulfonate, benzenesulfonate, and p-toluenesulfonate esters, respectively. This method was sufficiently sensitive to detect the 15 PGIs in the phentolamine mesylate tablet, amlodipine besylate tablet, and tosufloxacin tosylate tablet. This analytical method is a direct, specific, rapid, and accurate quality control tool for the determination of the 15 sulfonate esters that are most likely to exist in drug products.

18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 939, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive candidiasis (IC) is the most common invasive fungal infection. The epidemiology of IC in hospitalized patients has been widely investigated in many metropolitan cities; however, little information from medium and small cities is known. METHODS: A 5-year retrospective study was carried out to analyze the prevalence, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility, risk factors and mortality of inpatients with invasive Candida infection in a regional tertiary teaching hospital in Southwest China. RESULTS: A total of 243 inpatients with invasive Candida infection during the five-year study period were identified, with a mean annual incidence of 0.41 cases per 1000 admissions and a 30-day mortality rate of 12.3%. The species distributions of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and other Candida species was 45.3, 30.0, 15.2, 4.9, 2.1 and 2.5%, respectively. The total resistance rates of fluconazole (FCA), itraconazole (ITR) and voriconazole (VRC) were 18.6, 23.1 and 18.5%, respectively. Respiratory dysfunction, pulmonary infection, cardiovascular disease, chronic/acute renal failure, mechanical ventilation, abdominal surgery, intensive care in adults, septic shock and IC due to C. albicans were associated with 30-day mortality (P < 0.05) according to the univariate analyses. Respiratory dysfunction [odds ratio (OR), 9.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.24-29.63; P < 0.001] and IC due to C. albicans (OR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.13-9.92; P = 0.029) were the independent predictors of 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This report shows that the incidence and mortality rates are lower and that the resistance rates to azoles are higher in medium and small cities than in large cities and that the species distributions and risk factors in medium and small cities are different from those in large cities in China. It is necessary to conduct epidemiological surveillance in medium and small cities to provide reference data for the surveillance of inpatients with IC infections.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase Invasiva/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida/fisiologia , Candidíase Invasiva/epidemiologia , Candidíase Invasiva/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cytotherapy ; 21(11): 1122-1136, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699595

RESUMO

Systemic chemotherapy is a conventional and important strategy for inhibition of cancer progression, but it is usually accompanied by various adverse effects. Targeting drug delivery systems, effective tools to avoid the adverse effects of chemotherapy, have been intensively studied and developed. Recently, the emerging application of exosomes and exosome-mimics (small extracellular vesicles [sEVs]) in targeted drug delivery and therapeutics has been widely appreciated. The sEVs-based delivery system comprises three basic components: vesicles, cargoes and surface decorations. In this article, we review the current status, existing challenges and future directions in this field from the following aspects: selection and production of vesicles; cargoes and methods to load them into vesicles; modifications to the surfaces of vesicles; as well as ways to prolong the half-life of sEVs in the circulation. Existing and emerging data indicate that sEVs are promising nanocarriers for clinical use, but additional efforts are needed to translate research findings into therapeutic products.

20.
J Hand Surg Eur Vol ; 44(10): 1007, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690225
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