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1.
Org Lett ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789042

RESUMO

The regioselective synthesis of fullerene bis-adducts remains challenging because it produces large amounts of regioisomers. Novel nontethered cis-1 and cis-2 bis(benzofuro)[60]fullerene derivatives were directly synthesized with high regioselectivity by using chlorofullerene C60Cl6 as a precursor. Their structures were determined via spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray analysis. A nucleophilic addition elimination mechanism was proposed to elucidate the formation of highly regioselective cis-1 and cis-2 bis-adducts. The potential application of these bis(benzofuro)[60]fullerene derivatives as stabilizers in propellants was also investigated.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 939, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive candidiasis (IC) is the most common invasive fungal infection. The epidemiology of IC in hospitalized patients has been widely investigated in many metropolitan cities; however, little information from medium and small cities is known. METHODS: A 5-year retrospective study was carried out to analyze the prevalence, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility, risk factors and mortality of inpatients with invasive Candida infection in a regional tertiary teaching hospital in Southwest China. RESULTS: A total of 243 inpatients with invasive Candida infection during the five-year study period were identified, with a mean annual incidence of 0.41 cases per 1000 admissions and a 30-day mortality rate of 12.3%. The species distributions of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and other Candida species was 45.3, 30.0, 15.2, 4.9, 2.1 and 2.5%, respectively. The total resistance rates of fluconazole (FCA), itraconazole (ITR) and voriconazole (VRC) were 18.6, 23.1 and 18.5%, respectively. Respiratory dysfunction, pulmonary infection, cardiovascular disease, chronic/acute renal failure, mechanical ventilation, abdominal surgery, intensive care in adults, septic shock and IC due to C. albicans were associated with 30-day mortality (P < 0.05) according to the univariate analyses. Respiratory dysfunction [odds ratio (OR), 9.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.24-29.63; P < 0.001] and IC due to C. albicans (OR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.13-9.92; P = 0.029) were the independent predictors of 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This report shows that the incidence and mortality rates are lower and that the resistance rates to azoles are higher in medium and small cities than in large cities and that the species distributions and risk factors in medium and small cities are different from those in large cities in China. It is necessary to conduct epidemiological surveillance in medium and small cities to provide reference data for the surveillance of inpatients with IC infections.

3.
J Hand Surg Eur Vol ; 44(10): 1007, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690225
4.
Cytotherapy ; 21(11): 1122-1136, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699595

RESUMO

Systemic chemotherapy is a conventional and important strategy for inhibition of cancer progression, but it is usually accompanied by various adverse effects. Targeting drug delivery systems, effective tools to avoid the adverse effects of chemotherapy, have been intensively studied and developed. Recently, the emerging application of exosomes and exosome-mimics (small extracellular vesicles [sEVs]) in targeted drug delivery and therapeutics has been widely appreciated. The sEVs-based delivery system comprises three basic components: vesicles, cargoes and surface decorations. In this article, we review the current status, existing challenges and future directions in this field from the following aspects: selection and production of vesicles; cargoes and methods to load them into vesicles; modifications to the surfaces of vesicles; as well as ways to prolong the half-life of sEVs in the circulation. Existing and emerging data indicate that sEVs are promising nanocarriers for clinical use, but additional efforts are needed to translate research findings into therapeutic products.

5.
Int J Legal Med ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773316

RESUMO

Postmortem interval (PMI) determination is an important part of criminal investigations, but it is still subject to uncertainty. Degradation of mRNA in PMI determination has been studied in decays; however, some studies have reported no correlation between PMI and RNA degradation. Thus, we aimed to determine whether RNA quantity was correlated with PMI. Heart and brain tissues were separated from a mouse model of a 0-48 h PMI with 29 time points. We then coextracted the DNA and RNA in one tube with Bioteke coextraction kits and selected some mRNA markers associated with cell oxygen deprivation and apoptosis as target genes, such as hypoxia-associated factor (HAF), apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha (HIF2a), and factor inhibiting HIF (FIH). We measured the quantity of these markers using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and Caspase-3 DNA and 18S were each used for normalization. The results showed that in the heart tissue, the degradation of HIF2a, AIF, and FIH was correlated with PMI, as was the degradation of HIF2a, FIH, and AIF in brain tissue when normalized with Caspase-3 DNA. However, when normalized with 18S, only the degradation of HIF2a in brain tissue was correlated with PMI. Interestingly, the quantity of HAF in brain tissue was found to increase after death with either 18S or Caspase-3 DNA normalization, and it was significantly correlated with 0-48 h PMI. These results indicated that mRNA quantity can be used to determine PMI and that Caspase-3 DNA is feasible for PMI estimation. In summary, we established mathematical models for PMI determination using multiple mRNA markers and multiple tissues and further studies are needed to validate and investigate these markers and mathematical models in human tissues.Duo Peng and Meili Lv contributed equally to this work.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686248

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Early death (ED) is the main cause of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treatment failure, and the ED rate is higher for elderly patients than that for young ones. To date, no studies have been found focusing on ED in elderly patients with APL. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 409 consecutive patients with APL (139 patients ≥ 50 years old, 270 patients < 50 years old). All patients received arsenic trioxide alone as induction therapy. The baseline clinical characteristics and ED occurrence and predictors between elderly and young patients with APL were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: The clinical features of elderly patients at admission were not significantly different from those of young ones. The ED rate of elderly patients was significantly greater than that of young patients (23.74% vs 11.85%, P = 0.0018). Hemorrhage is the main cause of ED in elderly patients, followed by infection and differentiation syndrome. From the 15th to 30th days of treatment, elderly patients had a higher mortality rate than that of young patients (7.83% vs 2.06%, P = 0.009). Male, white blood cell (WBC) count > 10 × 109/L, fibrinogen < 1.0 g/L and low albumin levels were independent risk factors for ED in elderly patients, while ED was only correlated with WBC count, fibrinogen and creatinine levels in young patients. CONCLUSION: The results of this study may help design more rational treatment plans for elderly patients with APL based on early mortality risk to reduce the ED rate.

8.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 326, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To develop a machine learning model for predicting acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) events through commonly available parameters, including baseline characteristics and clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS: A secondary analysis of a multi-centre prospective observational cohort study from five hospitals in Beijing, China, was conducted from January 1, 2011, to August 31, 2014. A total of 296 patients at risk for developing ARDS admitted to medical intensive care units (ICUs) were included. We applied a random forest approach to identify the best set of predictors out of 42 variables measured on day 1 of admission. RESULTS: All patients were randomly divided into training (80%) and testing (20%) sets. Additionally, these patients were followed daily and assessed according to the Berlin definition. The model obtained an average area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.82 and yielded a predictive accuracy of 83%. For the first time, four new biomarkers were included in the model: decreased minimum haematocrit, glucose, and sodium and increased minimum white blood cell (WBC) count. CONCLUSIONS: This newly established machine learning-based model shows good predictive ability in Chinese patients with ARDS. External validation studies are necessary to confirm the generalisability of our approach across populations and treatment practices.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dystrophin-deficient cardiomyopathy is becoming the dominant cause of death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but its developmental process remains elusive. This study aimed to assess the development of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction that mimics DMD pathologies in golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs. METHODS: Transthoracic echocardiography was sequentially performed in GRMD dogs (n = 23) and age-matched healthy littermates (n = 7) from 2 to 24 months old. Conventional, tissue Doppler imaging, and speckle-tracking echocardiography parameters were analyzed. RESULTS: At 2 months of age, GRMD dogs showed a pathologic decrease in the subendocardial-subepicardial gradient of radial systolic myocardial velocity along with altered LV twist and longitudinal strain, all being aggravated with age (analysis of variance, P < .001). Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed good ability to discriminate normal from GRMD dogs. LV ejection fraction was significantly decreased in GRMD dogs starting from 9 months and reached a pathologic level (<50%) at 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: The development of cardiomyopathy in GRMD dogs was characterized by subendocardial dysfunction, altered LV twist, and reduced longitudinal strain at a very young age to overall LV dysfunction in adults with transmural dysfunction, reduced LV ejection fraction and diastolic abnormalities, and even heart failure. This indicates the necessity to evaluate LV transmural myocardial velocity gradient, twist, and longitudinal strain in the early childhood of DMD patients.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle and risk factor management may improve outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aim to evaluate the prevalence of modifiable risk factors and how these factors impact clinical outcomes in patients with AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data on 17 898 AF cohort patients with AF enrolled between 2011 and 2016 was analyzed. A healthy lifestyle was defined as not smoking, not drinking, a healthy body mass index (BMI), untreated total cholesterol less than 200 mg/dL, untreated blood pressure (BP) less than 120/80 mm Hg, and untreated fasting plasma glucose (FPG) less than 100 mg/dL. The association between risk factors and risk of the composite endpoint of all-cause mortality and nonfatal ischemic stroke were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression model. Only 4.0% of patients achieved a healthy lifestyle. In multivariate analysis, current smoking, a low BMI, not well-controlled FPG were independently and significantly associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality and nonfatal ischemic stroke, with corresponding hazard ratio (HR) estimates 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.47), HR = 1.72 (95% CI, 1.34-2.20), and HR = 1.25 (95% CI, 1.06-1.46), respectively. High BP was also associated with higher risk with the outcomes (HR = 1.15, 95% CI, 1.00-1.34). Compared with patients with no risk factor, those who failed to maintained or achieved optimal risk factor control had a progressively higher risk of death and nonfatal ischemic stroke (HR for 1 risk factor = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.07-1.92; and more than 2 risk factors = 1.75; 95% CI, 0.99-3.09). CONCLUSIONS: Maintenance of well-controlled risk factors may substantially lower the risk of death and ischemic stroke in patients with AF.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 58(21): 14626-14634, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613591

RESUMO

The special linear dioxo cation structure of the uranyl cation, which relegates ligand coordination to an equatorial plane perpendicular to the O═U═O vector, poses an unusual challenge for the rational design of efficient chelating agents. Therefore, the planar hexadentate ligand rational design employed in this work incorporates two bidentate catecholamine (CAM) chelating moieties and a flexible linker with a ß-dicarbonyl chelating moiety (ß-dicarbonyl(CAM)2 ligands). The solution thermodynamics of ß-dicarbonyl(CAM)2 with a uranyl cation was investigated by potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations. The results demonstrated that the pUO22+ values are significantly higher than for the previously reported TMA(2Li-1,2-HOPO)2, and efficient chelation of the uranyl cation was realized by the planar hexadentate ß-dicarbonyl(CAM)2. The efficient chelating ability of ß-dicarbonyl(CAM)2 was attributed to the presence of the more flexible ß-dicarbonyl chelating linker and planar hexadentate structure, which favors the geometric arrangement between ligand and uranyl coordinative preference. Meanwhile, ß-dicarbonyl(CAM)2 also exhibits higher antiradical efficiency in comparison to butylated hydroxyanisole. These results indicated that ß-dicarbonyl(CAM)2 has potential application prospects as a chelating agent for efficient chelation of a uranyl cation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Catecolaminas/química , Quelantes/química , Termodinâmica , Urânio/química , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Catecolaminas/síntese química , Catecolaminas/farmacologia , Cátions/química , Quelantes/síntese química , Quelantes/farmacologia , Ligantes , Estrutura Molecular , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores
12.
J Hand Surg Eur Vol ; 44(9): 993-995, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583979
13.
Chemistry ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529545

RESUMO

The ampoule method provides a promising pathway towards the controllable synthesis of novel electrocatalysts for water electrolysis due to its straightforward manipulation of reaction conditions, accessible experimental design, and controlled environment. This Concept introduces the development of the ampoule method and anticipates its application in electrocatalyst synthesis for water electrolysis. First, the history, device configuration, and merits of the ampoule method are briefly introduced. Afterwards, typical materials synthesized by the ampoule method are discussed. Then, recent process in applying the ampoule method to synthesize electrocatalysts for water electrolysis is highlighted. Finally, opportunities and potentials of this method in facilitating electrocatalyst synthesis for water electrolysis are discussed.

14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 76: 105907, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525636

RESUMO

Sepsis disrupts innate and adaptive immune response, and immune disorders may also impact clinical course of sepsis. Notch signaling pathway plays a vital role in T cell modulation and differentiation. The aim of current study was to investigate the immunoregulatory function of Notch signaling pathway to T cells in patients with sepsis and septic shock. Twenty-seven sepsis patients, twenty-five septic shock patients, and twenty-one normal controls (NCs) were enrolled. Notch receptors mRNA levels were semi-quantified by real-time PCR. The absolute numbers of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells were measured by flow cytometry. Key transcriptional factors of CD4+ T cells, cytotoxic molecules in CD8+ T cells, and cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells were investigated. The regulatory activities of Notch signaling inhibition by γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) on purified CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from sepsis and septic shock patients were also assessed. Notch1 mRNA relative level was significantly elevated in sepsis and septic shock patients when compared with NCs. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were dysfunctional in sepsis and septic shock, which presented as decreased cell accounts, down-regulation of Th1/Th17 transcriptional factors and cytotoxic molecules (perforin, granzyme B, and FasL), and reduced cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells. Notch signaling inhibition by GSI increased Th1 and Th17 differentiation of CD4+ T cells. Moreover, GSI stimulation not only promoted perforin, granzyme B, and FasL mRNA expression in CD8+ T cells, but also elevated CD8+ T cell-induced target cell death and IFN-γ/TNF-α production in sepsis and septic shock. The current data suggest that Notch signaling pathway contributes to T cell dysfunction and limited immune response in sepsis.

15.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 6'-Sialyllactose (6SL) displays a wide range of the bioactive benefits, such as anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities. However, the therapeutic effects of 6SL on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) remain unknown. METHODS: Six-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 40) were used for in vivo experiments. All rats were castrated and experimental BPH was induced in castrated rats by intramuscular injection of testosterone, with the exception of those in the control group. Rats with BPH were administrated finasteride and 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg 6SL. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of 6SL on human epithelial BPH cell line (BPH-1) cells were determined in vitro. RESULTS: Rats with BPH exhibited outstanding BPH manifestations, including prostate enlargement, histological alterations, and increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Compared to those in the BPH group, rats in the 6SL group showed fewer pathological changes and normal androgen events, followed by restoration of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and cell cycle-related proteins. In BPH-1 cells, treatment with 6SL significantly suppressed the effects on the androgen receptor (AR), PSA, and E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1)-dependent cell cycle protein expression. CONCLUSIONS: 6SL demonstrated anti-proliferative effects in a testosterone-induced BPH rat model and on BPH-1 cells by regulating the pRB/E2F1-AR pathway. According to our results, we suggest that 6SL may be considered a potential agent for the treatment of BPH.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11650-11656, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554401

RESUMO

Occurring in hops (Humulus lupulus) and beer as a racemic mixture, (2R,2S)-8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is a potent phytoestrogen in hop dietary supplements used by women as alternatives to conventional hormone therapy. With a half-life exceeding 20 h, 8-PN is excreted primarily as 8-PN-7-O-glucuronide or 8-PN-4'-O-glucuronide. Human liver microsomes and 11 recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) were used to catalyze the formation of the two oxygen-linked glucuronides of purified (2R)-8-PN and (2S)-8-PN, which were subsequently identified using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Formation of (2R)- and (2S)-8-PN-7-O-glucuronides predominated over the 8-PN-4'-O-glucuronides except for intestinal UGT1A10, which formed more (2S)-8-PN-4'-O-glucuronide. (2R)-8-PN was a better substrate for all 11 UGTs except for UGT1A1, which formed more of both (2S)-8-PN glucuronides than (2R)-8-PN glucuronides. Although several UGTs conjugated both enantiomers of 8-PN, some conjugated just one enantiomer, suggesting that human phenotypic variation might affect the routes of metabolism of this chiral estrogenic constituent of hops.


Assuntos
Flavanonas/química , Glucuronídeos/química , Glucuronosiltransferase/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Biocatálise , Flavanonas/metabolismo , Glucuronídeos/metabolismo , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Humulus/química , Humulus/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Microssomos Hepáticos/química , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo
17.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 519(2): 246-252, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most common urological malignancies. While Inositol-3-phosphate synthase 1 (ISYNA1) expression and function were largely unknown in BCa. We aimed to study the expression and role of ISYNA1 in bladder cancer and investigate its potential mechanisms via ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). METHODS: ISYNA1 expression was quantified by qRT-PCR in bladder cancer cell lines as well as normal urothelial cell line. Knocking down ISYNA1 gene in BCa T24 cells was achieved by shRNA lentivirus transfection. MTT and Celigo assay were used to assess cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was applied to test cell cycle and apoptosis. In addition, IPA was performed using PrimeView™ Human Gene Expression Array. Imunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed in BCa patient tissue microarray to verify the association between ISYNA1 expression and patients' clinicopathological features. RESULTS: ISYNA1 was significantly upregulated in BCa samples vs. para-tumor tissues. Higher expression were significantly associated with tumor T stage and lymph node metastasis of bladder cancer patients. Similarly, it was elevated in BCa cell lines (5637 and T24) compared with SVHUC cells. Knocking down ISYNA1 significantly decreased proliferation, induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in T24 cells. Furthermore, IPA indicated that ISYNA1 was an important regulatory factors and related networks were involved in multiple functional processes. CONCLUSION: Taken together, current study suggest ISYNA1 promotes proliferation and inhibit apoptosis in bladder cancer cells, and its expression correlated with BCa patients' clinicopathological features. Thus, ISYNA1 may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for BCa patients.

18.
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 13-24, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468382

RESUMO

Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid which has strong activities in enhancing immunity. Gut microbiota is closely interrelated with intestinal mucosal immunity, but the effects and mechanisms of taurine on intestinal microbiota and mucosal immune cells under an immunosuppressive condition remain unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of taurine on gut microbiota and immune cells in Peyer's patches (PPs) of dexamethasone (Dex)-induced immunosuppressive mice. Mice (4-week-old, Male) were randomly divided into three groups: the Control group (n = 12), the Dex-induced immunosuppressive model group (n = 12) and the taurine intervention group (n = 12). The model was established by Dex injection for 7 days and the taurine intervention group was gavaged 100 mg/kg soluble taurine for 30 days. The changes of intestinal microbiota and immune cells in PPs were tested by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and flow cytometry, respectively. Results showed that the microbiota in immunosuppressive mice was obvious different compared with control group, in which, the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae groups were significantly reduced, and their reduction were reversed after taurine intervention. Compared to the control group, the total cell number in PPs, as well as the subsets of CD3+ cells (T cells), CD19+ cells (B cells) in model groups were significantly lower, and they were dramatically improved after taurine treatment. Our results suggested that taurine has a positive effect on i ntestinal homeostasis of the immunosuppressive mice.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância Imunológica , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Homeostase , Masculino , Camundongos , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 381-390, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468416

RESUMO

Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) has positive effects on the formation of immune systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of taurine on the development of T lymphocyte subpopulations in thymus of immunosuppresive mice. The immunosuppressed mice model was established by intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone (Dex) for 7 days. Mice (male, Kunming strain) were randomly divided into three groups, the normal control group (Cont.), the Dex-induced immunosuppressive model group (Dex + PBS), and the taurine intervention group (Dex + TAU). Taurine was administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg for 30 days or until euthanasia. Total cell numbers in the thymi of mice were evaluated by cell count, and the flow cytometry was used to determine the proportion of different cell subsets. Our results showed that the size and weight of thymi of Dex + PBS group were significantly smaller than those of Cont. group, and taurine administration efficiently increased the thymus index. Taurine also significantly increased the number of CD4- CD8- double negative (DN), CD4+ CD8+ double positive (DP), CD4+ single positive (CD4+) and CD8+ SP (CD8+) cells compared with the Dex + PBS group, but did not affect the CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in thymus of Dex-induced immunoseppressive mice. Our results suggested that taurine has a positive effect on thymus differentiation in Dex-induced immunosuppressive mice.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Imunossupressão , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação CD4-CD8 , Dexametasona , Citometria de Fluxo , Masculino , Camundongos , Distribuição Aleatória , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia
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