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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036995

RESUMO

A novel and green strategy for the synthesis of acylated quinazolinone derivatives via photo-induced decarboxylative cascade radical acylation/cyclization of quinazolinone bearing unactivated alkenes has been developed. The protocol provides a novel route to access acyl radicals from α-keto acids through a self-catalyzed energy transfer process. Most importantly, the reaction proceeded smoothly without any external photocatalyst, additive or oxidant, and could be easily scaled-up in flow conditions with sunlight irradiation.

2.
Nanotechnology ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691293

RESUMO

In the present study, a novel silver nanoparticles-decorated three-dimensional graphene-like porous carbon (Ag/3D GPC) nanocomposite has been synthesized via the method of carbonization and reduction of silver ions at the same time. This Ag/3D GPC nanocomposite possess an interconnected network of well crystalized and submicron-sized macropores with thin graphene walls of several nanometers, where silver nanoparticles distributing uniformly. The water based and ethylene glycol based Ag/3D GPC hybrid nanofluids have been prepared without any surfactant. The hybrid nanofluids with low concentration (<0.8 wt%) can be steadily dispersed for more than six months. The thermal conductivity enhancement for the nanofluids with 0.1 wt% can reach 10.3% and 8.8% at 25℃ compared with pure water and ethylene glycol, respectively. The viscosity of nanofluids is investigated, the temperature dependence of the dynamic viscosity obeys an Arrhenius-like behavior. The prepared Ag/3D GPC hybrid nanofluids with good stability and thermal conductivity are promisingly considered to be used in heat transfer field.

3.
Mar Environ Res ; 167: 105295, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714106

RESUMO

Marine biota, especially commercially important species, serves as a basis for human nutrition. However, millions of tons of plastic litter are produced and enter the marine environment every year, with potential adverse impacts on marine organisms. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence and characteristics of microplastic (MP) pollution in the digestive tracts of 13 species of wild nektons from 20 stations sampled in the South China Sea (SCS) and the Indian Ocean (IO), and assessed the human health risks of MPs. The detection rate of MPs ranged from 0.00% to 50.00% from the SCS, which was dramatically lower than that from the IO (10.00-80.00%). The average abundance of MP was 0.18 ± 0.06 items g wet weight-1 (ww-1) in the SCS, which was significantly lower than that in the IO with a concentration of 0.70 ± 0.16 items g ww-1. Most MPs were fibers in type, black in color, and polyester (PES) in polymer composition in both the SCS and IO. Interestingly, distinct profiles of MP pollution were found between the benthic and pelagic nektons: 1) The predominant MP composition was PES in the benthic nektons, whereas polyamide (PA) accounted for a larger part of the total MP count in the pelagic nektons within the SCS; 2) The abundance of MP in the benthic nektons (0.52 ± 0.24 items individual-1) was higher than that in the pelagic nektons (0.30 ± 0.11 items individual-1). Accordingly, the mean hazard score of MPs detected in the benthic nektons (220.66 ± 210.75) was higher than that in the pelagic nektons (49.53 ± 22.87); 3) The mean size of the MP in the pelagic nektons (0.84 ± 0.17 mm) was larger than that in the benthic nektons (0.49 ± 0.09 mm). Our findings highlight the need to further investigate the ecological impacts of MPs on wild nekton, especially commercially important species, and its potential implications for human health.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Oceano Índico , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Org Lett ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607866

RESUMO

A visible-light-induced radical tandem cyclization/arylation between 2-amino-1, 4-naphthoquinone and N-allyl-2-bromo-2,2-difluoroacetamides has been developed without an external photocatalyst. The transformation could be carried out at room temperature and gave a variety of C-3-functionalized 2-amino-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives in moderate to excellent yields. Moreover, mechanistic studies revealed that the reaction is driven by the formation of an electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complex.

5.
Org Lett ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464096

RESUMO

A novel visible-light-induced radical tandem trifluoromethylation/cyclization of unactivated alkenes with sodium perfluoroalkanesulfinates (Rf = CF3, C3F7, C4F9, C6F13, C8F17) under air atmosphere has been developed. A range of quinazolinones containing unactivated alkene moiety and sodium perfluoroalkanesulfinates were compatible with this transformation, leading to a variety of perfluoroalkyl-substituted quinazoline alkaloids. Remarkably, the experiment can be carried out without any metal catalyst, strong oxidant, or external photosensitizer.

6.
Bioorg Chem ; 108: 104645, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493931

RESUMO

One strategy for solving the phytotoxicity of herbicides is to apply herbicide safeners that can efficiently alleviate the injuries of agricultural crops caused by herbicides. When metolachlor, a chloroacetamide herbicide, is applied with paddy rice, for example, the mechanisms associated with metolachlor and its residue negatively impact on the growth and yields of rice. To identify novel high-activity herbicide safener candidates for metolachlor, a series of (E)-4-(2-substituted hydrazinyl)-6-chloro-2-phenyl pyrimidines were synthesized and their structures were confirmed using IR (infrared radiation), 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and HRMS (high resolution mass spectrometry). The herbicide safener activities were then evaluated via primary tests. Compounds 3i and 3t were found to have the best herbicide activity on plant height. These compounds were then further screened for their activities at lower concentrations and showed better or similar activities compared to the positive control fenclorim, a commercial herbicide safener. The compounds 3i and 3t significantly enhanced glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity related with the herbicide safener activity in both shoots and roots tissues. Moreover, a qPCR (Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction) analysis found that the 3i and 3t treatments enhanced the expressions of OsGSTU3, OsGsTU39, and OsGSTF5. Finally, the results of an acute toxicity assessment with zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos using treatments 3i and 3t indicated they are relatively safe to aquatic organisms.

7.
Org Lett ; 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373251

RESUMO

An efficient and novel method for regioselective hydroxydifluoroacetamidation of alkenes with bromodifluoroacetamides has been achieved via a tandem radical pathway mediated by photoredox catalysis under metal-free conditions. This transformation proceeded smoothly in the presence of Rhodamine 6G, affording a series of α,α-difluoro-γ-hydroxyacetamides in moderate to excellent yields. The significant advantages of this protocol are the low-cost photocatalyst, readily available starting materials, synthetic convenience, and wide functional group compatibility.

8.
ACS Omega ; 5(37): 23996-24004, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984721

RESUMO

Fenclorim is a commercial herbicide safener with fungicidal activity used for chloroacetanilide herbicides, which might be suitable as a lead compound for screening novel fungicides. However, little has been reported so far on the structure-activity relationship of fungicidal activities of fenclorim or its analogues. Here, a series of 4-chloro-6-substituted phenoxy-2-phenylpyrimidine derivatives was synthesized by a substructure splicing route using fenclorim as a lead compound. The structures of synthesized derivatives were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and HRMS. Their fungicidal and herbicide safening activities were then evaluated. The results revealed that compound 11 had the best fungicidal activity against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Thanatephorus cucumeris, which was better than that of the control pyrimethanil. Moreover, compounds 3, 5, and 25 exhibited excellent safening activities against fresh weight, plant height, and root length, respectively. Such activities were significantly improved when compared to fenclorim. In summary, these findings look promising for the preparation of new fungicides and herbicide safeners based on the structure of fenclorim.

9.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(9): 996-1000, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the value of cleaved lymphocytes in peripheral blood smear in assisting the early diagnosis of pertussis. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs and peripheral blood samples were collected from 107 children with pertussis-like disease. PCR-flow fluorescent hybridization was used to detect the nucleic acids of Bordetella pertussis. Based on the detection results, the children were divided into two groups: pertussis (n=52) and non-pertussis (n=55). According to age, the pertussis group was divided into two subgroups: <1 year old (n=42) and ≥1 year old (n=10). According to disease severity, the pertussis group was divided into another two subgroups: mild (n=45) and severe (n=7). An automatic blood cell analyzer was used to determine peripheral blood cell counts. Wright's staining and peroxidase staining were used to observe and count cleaved lymphocytes under a microscope. RESULTS: Cleaved lymphocytes in peripheral blood were round with small cytoplast, less cytoplasm and cleaved or lobulated nuclei. According to the negative peroxidase staining results, these cells were confirmed as lymphocytes. Compared with the non-pertussis group, the pertussis group had significantly higher leukocyte count, lymphocyte percentage, platelet count, and percentage of cleaved lymphocytes (P<0.001). For the children with pertussis, the <1 year old subgroup had significantly higher lymphocyte percentage, platelet count, and percentage of cleaved lymphocytes than the ≥1 year old subgroup (P<0.05). The severe subgroup had slightly higher leukocyte count, lymphocyte percentage, platelet count, and percentage of cleaved lymphocytes than the mild subgroup (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The detection of cleaved lymphocytes combined with peripheral blood cell counts provides a new option for the early diagnosis of pertussis in children.


Assuntos
Coqueluche , Bordetella pertussis , Humanos , Lactente , Contagem de Leucócitos , Linfócitos , Contagem de Plaquetas
10.
Carbohydr Res ; 496: 108093, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738718

RESUMO

Sulfated polysaccharides play important roles in angiogenesis. However, the impact of structural alteration of sulfated polysaccharide on the bioactivity is still vague. In this study, binding between different sulfated polysaccharides and bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) was measured to understand the sense of this motif transformation. The results showed that binding between sulfated α-1,4-glucan and BMP2 was the most intensive. The branch of α-1,4-glucan was important for the binding. The affinity of sulfated polysaccharides to BMP2 increased as the molecular weight (MW) and degree of substitution (DS) increased. DS that exceeded 1.05 impaired binding and played more important role in polysaccharide BMP2 interaction than MW. The reservation of partial 6-OH would benefit its binding ability to BMP2. Further, we showed that sulfated polysaccharides with strong binding to BMP2 blocked phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8 and expression of Id1 to a greater extent than those not strongly bind to BMP2. The binding strength of polysaccharides to BMP2 increased, so did the potency of the anti-angiogenesis effects.

11.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(18): 2212-2218, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858588

RESUMO

This review attempts to unveil the possible mechanisms underlying how gut lymph affects lung and further gives rise to acute respiratory distress syndrome, as well as potential interventional targets under the condition of ischemia-reperfusion injury. We searched electronic databases including PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Embase to identify relevant literatures published up to December 2019. We enrolled the literatures including the Mesh Terms of "gut lymph or intestinal lymph and acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome." Gut is considered to be the origin of systemic inflammation and the engine of multiple organ distress syndrome in the field of critical care medicine, whereas gut lymph plays a pivotal role in initiation of ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. In fact, in the having been established pathologic model of sepsis leading to multiple organ dysfunction named by Gut Lymph theory, a variety of literatures showed the position and role of changes in gut lymph components in the initiation of systemic inflammatory response, which allows us to screen out potential intervention targets to pave the way for future clinic and basic research.

12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111349, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573451

RESUMO

Microplastic (MP) pollution is an emerging contaminant in aquatic environments worldwide. Nonetheless, the developmental toxicity of MPs in the early life stages of fish and the mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood. The present study investigated the effects of different concentrations of polystyrene (PS) MPs on the early development of the marine model fish the medaka Oryzias melastigma. Our results showed that waterborne exposure to PS MPs significantly delayed the hatching time, altered the heartbeat and decreased the hatching rate of embryos. Furthermore, the genes involved in cardiac development, encoding for embryo-hatching enzymes, as well as inflammatory responses were significantly upregulated. The transcriptome results showed that mainly the pathways involved in metabolism, immune response, genetic information processing and diseases were significantly enriched. These results demonstrate that PS MPs negatively impact embryogenesis and the immune response of O. melastigma.


Assuntos
Oryzias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Microplásticos , Plásticos
13.
Food Chem ; 324: 126863, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353657

RESUMO

In this study, 95 accessions of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) were characterized for starch physicochemical properties, including apparent amylose content (AAC), gel textural properties, Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) pasting viscosity properties, thermal and retrogradation properties. Based on genotypic data, the genetic diversity and inter-relationship of these starch traits were analyzed. Diverse starch quality was found, for example, AAC ranged from 0 to 32.3%, gelatinization temperature (GT) varied from 71.5 to 79.0 ℃, and RVA profile showed distinct patterns among proso millet of different AAC types. Interestingly, high AAC proso millet usually had GT lower than that of low AAC proso millet, which is different from the findings in rice starch. Many starch traits were significantly correlated and most of the 18 tested traits could be classified as either AAC-related traits or GT-related traits. In summary, the information presented here will be useful for further development of proso millet products.


Assuntos
Panicum/química , Amido/química , Amilose/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , Géis/química , Genótipo , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Panicum/genética , Panicum/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Amido/análise , Temperatura , Viscosidade
14.
Chin J Nat Med ; 18(5): 345-355, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451092

RESUMO

Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) from Cordyceps militaris has been reported to have anti-tumor effects. However, the molecular target and mechanism underlying cordycepin impeding pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo remain vague. In this study, we reported functional target molecule of cordycepin which inhibited pancreatic cancer cells growth in vitro and in vivo. Cordycepin was confirmed to induce apoptosis by activating caspase-3, caspase-9 and cytochrome c. Further studies suggested that MAPK pathway was blocked by cordycepin via inhibiting the expression of Ras and the phosphorylation of Erk. Moreover, cordycepin caused S-phase arrest and DNA damage associated with activating Chk2 (checkpoint kinase 2) pathway and downregulating cyclin A2 and CDK2 phosphorylation. Very interestingly, we showed that cordycepin could bind to FGFR2 (KD = 7.77 × 10-9) very potently to inhibit pancreatic cancer cells growth by blocking Ras/ErK pathway. These results suggest that cordycepin could potentially be a leading compound which targeted FGFR2 to inhibit pancreatic cells growth by inducing cell apoptosis and causing cell cycle arrest via blocking FGFR/Ras/ERK signaling for anti-pancreatic cancer new drug development.

15.
Molecules ; 25(5)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121474

RESUMO

Sensitive and selective detection of harmful gas is an important task in environmental monitoring. In this work, a gas sensor based on cataluminescence (CTL) for detection of acetaldehyde was designed by using nano-NiO as the sensing material. The sensor shows sensitive response to acetaldehyde at a relatively low working temperature of 200 °C. The linear range of CTL intensity versus acetaldehyde concentration is 0.02-2.5 mg/L, with a limit of detection of 0.006 mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio of three. Mechanism study shows that electronically excited CO2 is the excited intermediate for CTL emission during the catalytic oxidation of acetaldehyde on the NiO surface. The proposed sensor has promising application in monitoring acetaldehyde in residential buildings and in the workplace.

16.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(2): 252-256, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220196

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the phenotype and genotype in two pedigrees with hereditary coagulation factor Ⅺ (FⅪ) deficiency, and investigate the molecular mechanisms of FⅪ deficiency. Methods: Two patients with hereditary coagulation FⅪ deficiency were admitted to Chaozhou Central Hospital in Nov 2014 and Jan 2018. The prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), FⅪ activity (FⅪ∶C) and FⅪ antigen (FⅪ∶Ag) were tested for phenotypic diagnosis. All the exons and exon-intron boundaries of FⅪ gene of proband were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. The family members were tested for the mutant site of proband. Then the mRNA of FⅪ in the proband was analyzed with RT-PCR. Results: The proband-1 was a 7-year-old boy, PT was 10.7 s and APTT was 97.4 s (reference range: 9-12.8 s; 24-40 s), FⅪ∶C (0.6%) and FⅪ∶Ag<1% (reference range: 65%-150%; 72.1%-122.3%). The proband-2 was a 30-year-old female, and showed the PT (11.7 s), APTT (71.3 s), FⅪ∶C (0.7%) and FⅪ∶Ag<1%. FⅧ∶C, FⅨ∶C and FⅫ∶C of two proband were within the normal range. DNA sequencing showed that the proband-1 had a combined mutation of c.326-1G>A and c.1107C>A (p.Tyr351X) in exon 10. His grandmother, mother and brother had a heterozygous splicing mutation of c.326-1G>A, his grandmother and father had a homozygous mutation of c.1107C>A. FXI mRNA was undetected in the proband-1. The proband-2 had a homozygous mutation of c.841C>T (p.Gln263X) in exon 8, and this mutation was also found in her father, mother, daughter and son. Conclusion: The c.326-1G>A, c.1107C>A(p.Tyr351X) and c.841C>T (p.Gln263X) might be the molecular pathogenesis for two probands with hereditary coagulation factor Ⅺ deficiency.


Assuntos
Deficiência do Fator XI , Fator XI , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Adulto , Criança , Fator XI/genética , Deficiência do Fator XI/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Neuropharmacology ; 170: 108041, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213357

RESUMO

Our previous studies have shown that ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) exerts antidepressant-like effects in animal models of depression, accompanied by an improvement of astrocytic gap junction functions. However, whether connexin 43 (Cx43), the major connexin forming gap junctions between astrocytes, is the key regulator of Rg1-induced antidepressant-like effects is still unknown. In this study, we examine in vitro and in vivo the involvement of Cx43 in the antidepressant effects of Rg1. Corticosterone was used to establish an in vitro rat model of depression. Treatment with Rg1 1 h prior to corticosterone significantly improved the cell viability of astrocytes, which was significantly inhibited by carbenoxolone, a widely used gap junction inhibitor. Moreover, Rg1 treatment significantly ameliorated antidepressant-sensitive behaviours induced by infusion of carbenoxolone or Gap26, a selective inhibitor of Cx43, into the prefrontal cortex of the animals. Rg1 treatment increased the expression of Cx43 compared with Gap26 group. According to these results, the antidepressant-like effects of Rg1 were mainly mediated by Cx43-formed gap junctions.

18.
Analyst ; 145(8): 3100-3105, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150184

RESUMO

A coumarin-diaminomaleonitrile derivative (C-DAN) was designed and prepared. Upon addition of hypochlorite (OCl-), the fluorescence emission peak of C-DAN at 475 nm was gradually enhanced with a rapid response (within 5 s); meanwhile, the color of the solution changed from dark red to bright yellow which can be observed with the naked eye. Furthermore, owing to its advantages including high selectivity, sensitivity, and low toxicity, our C-DAN probe has been applied for detecting OCl- in living cells and zebrafish, indicating it is an ideal tool for biological applications.

19.
Food Chem ; 316: 126263, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045812

RESUMO

In this study, starch was isolated from 13 genotypes of 12 Lycoris species, and the morphology, granule size distribution and physicochemical properties, including apparent amylose content (AAC), Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) pasting properties, textural properties, thermal and retrogradation properties were characterized. The majority of starch granules of the 13 Lycoris genotypes were oval in shape, and granule size followed a normal distribution with a mean diameter of 20-30 µm. Contrary to previously published findings, the XRD results revealed that lycoris starches had either C-type or CA-type crystallinity. All lycoris starches showed high AAC varying from 25.6% to 32.7%, and low gelatinization temperature (GT) ranging from 58.8 to 69.7℃. Inter-relationships among 18 starch quality traits were analyzed based on correlation analysis. The present study provides information on lycoris starch characteristics which should serve as a useful guide for later studies on lycoris starch utilization in food and non-food industries.


Assuntos
Lycoris/química , Amido/química , Amilose/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Genótipo , Lycoris/genética , Amido/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 149: 717-723, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014483

RESUMO

Although immunomodulatory activities of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide has been investigated for many years, yet the potential contribution of its metabolite derived from intestinal microbes on immunoregulation effect has not been reported. In this study, polysaccharide DOW-5B with average molecular weight of 39.4 kDa was isolated from the stem of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo. The carbohydrate content was 91.97% and no protein was detected. The monosaccharide analysis showed this polysaccharide was composed of glucuronic acid and glucose at a molar ratio (M/G) of 1.2:19.4. Animal test indicated DOW-5B increased the diversity of gut microbiota on mice. Beneficial microbes such as Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium, Parabacteroides and Akkermansiamuciniphila increased while harmful bacteria in Proteobacteria decreased. Surprisingly, DOW-5B promoted gut microbes to generate more butyrate and mainly produced by Parabacteroides_sp_HGS0025. Further, we found the health of large intestine as well as immunity response of mice was improved. In addition, Parabacteroides_sp_HGS0025 positively correlated with butyrate, IgM, IL-10, and TNF-α products in intestine and mice blood, respectively. The data suggested that Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide has function on immunity may be mediated by butyrate. It adds new evidence to support the basis of how herbal polysaccharides affect immunity.

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