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1.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(5): 431-437, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390367

RESUMO

Although some information on the epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and a few selected cases has been reported, data on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized therewith in South Korea are lacking. We conducted a retrospective single-center study of 98 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at Yeungnam University Medical Center in Daegu, South Korea. Sixty patients were women (61.2%), and the mean age was 55.4±17.1 years. Thirteen patients (13.3%) were treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). The mean interval from symptom onset to hospitalization was 7.7±4.5 days. Patients who received ICU care were significantly older and were more likely to have diabetes mellitus. The National Early Warning Score on the day of admission was significantly higher in patients requiring ICU care. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (13/13 patients; 100%), septic shock (9/13; 69.2%), acute cardiac injury (9/13; 69.2%), and acute kidney injury (8/13; 61.5%) were more common in patients who received ICU care. All patients received antibiotic therapy, and most (97/98 patients; 99.0%) received antiviral therapy (lopinavir/ritonavir). Hydroxychloroquine was used in 79 patients (80.6%), and glucocorticoid therapy was used in 18 patients (18.4%). In complete blood counts, lymphopenia was the most common finding (40/98 patients; 40.8%). Levels of all proinflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in ICU patients. As of March 29, 2020, the mortality rate was 5.1%. Here, we report the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of SARS-CoV-2 patients in South Korea up to March 29, 2020.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Citocinas/sangue , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Linfopenia/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem
3.
Liver Transpl ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic living donor left lateral sectionectomy (LLLS) has increased in popularity over the past decade. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and feasibility of the left hepatic vein preferential approach (LHVPA) based on left hepatic vein anatomy for LLLS. METHODS: Data from 50 donors who underwent LLLS in Huashan Hospital from October 2016 to November 2019 were analysed retrospectively. Based on the classification of the left hepatic vein anatomy, the vein was defined as the direct import type, upper branch type or indirect import type. Subgroup analysis was performed to compare the outcomes between the LHVPA and non-LHVPA groups. RESULTS: All 50 patients underwent pure LLLS. The mean operative duration was 157.5±29.7 min. The intraoperative blood loss was 160.4±97.5 mL. No complications more severe than grade III occurred. LHVPA was applied in 13 cases while non-LHVPA was applied in 10 cases in direct import type and upper branch type. The operative duration was shorter in the LHVPA group than the non-LHVPA group (142.7±22.0 min vs 173.0±22.8 min, P=0.01). The intraoperative blood loss was reduced in the LHVPA group compared with the non-LHVPA group (116.2±45.6 mL vs 170.0±63.3 mL, P=0.02). The length of the left hepatic vein reserved extrahepaticly in the LHVPA group was longer than the non-LHVPA group (4.3±0.2 mm vs 3.3±0.3 mm, P=0.01). The reconstruction rate of the left hepatic vein of the graft in direct import type was less in the LHVPA group than the non-LHVPA group (0/8 vs 4/6). CONCLUSIONS: LHVPA based on the left hepatic vein anatomy is recommended inLLLS, as it can further increase the safety and the efficiency of surgery for suitable donors.

5.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 6327614, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32411802

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most important modification of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in higher eukaryotes. Modulation of m6A modifications relies on methyltransferases and demethylases. The discovery of binding proteins confirms that the m6A modification has a wide range of biological effects and significance at the molecular, cellular, and physiological levels. In recent years, techniques for investigating m6A modifications of RNA have developed rapidly. This article reviews the biological significance of RNA m6A modifications in the innate immune response, adaptive immune response, and viral infection.

6.
Dig Endosc ; 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374896

RESUMO

Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided hepaticogastrostomy is a rescue technique for internal drainage when percutaneous antegrade biliary stenting (PABS) fails after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). However, this may be difficult under bile duct decompression despite contrast injection through the PTBD catheter because the sonographic ring-down artifact caused by micro-air bubbles in the contrast may hinder the EUS delineation of the intrahepatic bile duct.

7.
Angiogenesis ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372335

RESUMO

Blood vessels and nerve tissues are critical to the development and functionality of many vital organs. However, little is currently known about their interdependency during development and after injury. In this study, dual fluorescence transgenic reporter mice were utilized to observe blood vessels and nervous tissues in organs postnatally. Thy1-YFP and Flt1-DsRed (TYFD) mice were interbred to achieve dual fluorescence in the offspring, with Thy1-YFP yellow fluorescence expressed primarily in nerves, and Flt1-DsRed fluorescence expressed selectively in blood vessels. Using this dual fluorescent mouse strain, we were able to visualize the networks of nervous and vascular tissue simultaneously in various organ systems both in the physiological state and after injury. Using ex vivo high-resolution imaging in this dual fluorescent strain, we characterized the organizational patterns of both nervous and vascular systems in a diverse set of organs and tissues. In the cornea, we also observed the dynamic patterns of nerve and blood vessel networks following epithelial debridement injury. These findings highlight the versatility of this dual fluorescent strain for characterizing the relationship between nerve and blood vessel growth and organization.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380938

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the prognostic performance of the proportion of cerebrospinal fluid volume (pCSV) using brain apparent diffusion coefficient-magnetic resonance imaging (ADC-MRI) in cardiac arrest (CA) survivors. This retrospective single-cohort study comprised adult comatose CA survivors who underwent brain MRI and targeted temperature management (TTM) from March 2018 to October 2019. We calculated pCSV (pCSV0 and pCSV72 within 6 and 72 hours after return of spontaneous circulation, respectively) using an automated quantitative analysis program. The difference between pCSV0 and pCSV72 was defined as the pCSVd. Neurologic outcome 3 months after CA was assessed with the Cerebral Performance Category scale and dichotomized as good (1 or 2) or poor (3-5). Of the 73 patients included, 44 (60.3%) had a poor neurological outcome. Patients with poor outcome had significantly lower pCSV at baseline and at 72 hours, and a negative change in pCSV over time. The prognostic performance of pCSV72 and pCSVd was significantly higher compared with pCSV0 (all p < 0.001). The pCSVd showed excellent area under the curve values (0.96; 95% confidence interval 0.85-0.99) and highest sensitivity (95%) at 100% specificity. pCSV on brain ADC-MRI was associated with 3-month neurologic outcome in CA survivors. The pCSVd is a highly predictive and sensitive marker of 3-month poor neurological outcome in CA survivors treated with TTM. Multicenter prospective studies are required to determine the generalizability of these results.

9.
Plant Physiol ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439719

RESUMO

Light is a key environmental cue regulating photomorphogenesis and photosynthesis in plants. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between light signaling pathways and photosystem function are unknown. Here, we show that various monochromatic wavelengths of light cooperate to regulate photosystem II (PSII) function in Arabidopsis thaliana. The photoreceptors cryptochromes and phytochromes modulate the expression of HIGH CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE173 (HCF173), which is required for PSII biogenesis by regulating PSII core protein D1 synthesis mediated by the transcription factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5). HY5 directly binds to the ACGT-containing element ACE motif and G-box cis-element present in the HCF173 promoter and regulates its activity. PSII activity was decreased significantly in hy5 mutants under various monochromatic wavelengths of light. Interestingly, we demonstrate that HY5 also directly regulates the expression of the genes associated with PSII assembly and repair, including ALBINO3, HCF136, HYPERSENSITIVE TO HIGH LIGHT1, etc., which is required for the functional maintenance of PSII under photodamaging conditions. Moreover, deficiency of HY5 broadly decreases the accumulation of other photosystem proteins besides PSII proteins. Thus, our study reveals an important role of light signaling in both biogenesis and functional regulation of the photosystem and provides insight into the link between light signaling and photosynthesis in land plants.

11.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) have poor prognosis with upfront surgery. METHODS: This was a single-arm Phase 2 trial for clinical and biomarker analysis. The primary endpoint is 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate. Patients received 8 cycles of neoadjuvant modified (m) FOLFIRINOX. Up to 6 cycles of gemcitabine were given for patients who underwent surgery. Plasma immune cell subsets were measured for analysing correlations with overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Between May 2016 and March 2018, 44 chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-naïve patients with BRPC were included. With neoadjuvant mFOLFIRINOX, the objective response rate was 34.1%, and curative-intent surgery was done in 27 (61.4%) patients. With a median follow-up duration of 20.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.7-21.6 months), the median PFS and OS were 12.2 months (95% CI, 8.9-15.5 months) and 24.7 months (95% CI, 12.6-36.9), respectively. The 1-year PFS rate was 52.3% (95% CI, 37.6-67.0%). Higher CD14+ monocyte (quartile 4 vs 1-3) and lower CD69+ γδ T cell (γδ TCR+/CD69+) levels (quartiles 1-3 vs 4) were significantly associated with poor OS (p = 0.045 and p = 0.043, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant mFOLFIRINOX followed by postoperative gemcitabine were feasible and effective in BRPC patients. Monocyte and γδ T cells may have prognostic implications for patients with pancreatic cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02749136.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369052

RESUMO

For the dehydroxylation of aldoximes with 4-nitro-1-((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)-imidazole (NTSI), slight modifications of reaction conditions resulted in significantly different reaction paths to provide either nitriles or isonitriles. The challenging conversion of aldoximes into isonitriles was achieved under mild conditions.

13.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436382

RESUMO

In order to provide feasible methods for the extraction of valuable metals from spent batteries or low-grade primary ores, the extraction behavior of some representative acidic phosphorus-containing compounds (APCC) as extractants is evaluated from the perspective of experimental and theoretical investigations in this work. Aqueous solutions containing five metal ions, Ca(II), Co(II), Mg(II), Mn(II), and Ni(II), were made to simulate leaching liquids, and the extraction of these metals were investigated. A simplified calculated model was used to evaluate the interaction between each extractant and metal ions. The calculation results agree well with the experimental tests in trend. This work not only provides potential extractants for the extraction of valuable metals from spent batteries or low-grade primary ores, but also demonstrates the practicability of the simplified calculation model.

14.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(5): 820-830, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305243

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To prospectively assess safety and efficacy of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) with bleomycin-eluting microspheres for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a canine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve adult male beagles (mean age, 1.6 y ± 0.2; range, 1.2-2.0 y) were randomly assigned to group A (n = 6; PAE with bleomycin-eluting 30-60-µm HepaSphere microspheres) and group B (n = 6; PAE with bland 30-60-µm HepaSphere microspheres) between April 2017 and November 2018. Plasma bleomycin concentration in group A was measured within 7 days. Prostate volume (PV) and ischemic volume after PAE were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Prostates and adjacent organs were harvested after the last magnetic resonance study and histopathologically examined. RESULTS: Plasma bleomycin concentration peaked at 10 minutes at 2,055.0 ng/mL ± 606.1 and lasted for 1,440 min at low levels after PAE. PV reduction percentage was greater in group A than in group B at 1 month (74.1% ± 4.3 vs 63.7% ± 3.5; P = .006) and 3 months (61.5% ± 6.7 vs 46.1% ± 3.8; P = .001) after PAE. Proportion of prostate ischemic volume was greater in group A than in group B (75.3% ± 3.0 vs 62.0% ± 7.1; P = .006) at 1 month after PAE. Proportion of prostate ischemic volume at 1 month positively correlated with PV percentage reduction at 3 months in group A (r = 0.840, P = .036) and group B (r = 0.844, P = .035). There were no complications or nontarget embolization to surrounding organs after the procedures. CONCLUSIONS: In a canine model, PAE with bleomycin-eluting microspheres was feasible and well tolerated and caused ischemic necrosis and reduction in PV.

15.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-9, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347116

RESUMO

Three novel 14-membered cyclopeptide alkaloids, justicianenes B-D (1-3), were isolated from the EtOH extract of the whole plant of Justicia procumbens L., and their structures were determined on the basis of detailed NMR spectroscopic data and the absolute stereochemistry of the ring-bonded α-amino acids in the cyclopeptide alkaloids were determined by ECD spectra. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines, including brest cancer MCF-7, cervix carcinoma HeLa, lung cancer A549 and H460, and diphyllin (14) showed moderate cytotoxicity against the HeLa, A549 and H460 cells with IC50 of 9.13, 23.12, 42.34 µM, respectively, justicianene D showed weak cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 cell with inhibition rate of 50% at the concentration of 90 µM.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2010, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332759

RESUMO

The balance between major DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways is influenced by binding of the Ku complex, a XRCC5/6 heterodimer, to DSB ends, initiating non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) but preventing additional DSB end resection and homologous recombination (HR). However, the key molecular cue for Ku recruitment to DSB sites is unknown. Here, we report that FOXL2, a forkhead family transcriptional factor, directs DSB repair pathway choice by acetylation-dependent binding to Ku. Upon DSB induction, SIRT1 translocates to the nucleus and deacetylates FOXL2 at lysine 124, leading to liberation of XRCC5 and XRCC6 from FOXL2 and formation of the Ku complex. FOXL2 ablation enhances Ku recruitment to DSB sites, imbalances DSB repair kinetics by accelerating NHEJ and inhibiting HR, and thus leads to catastrophic genomic events. Our study unveils the SIRT1-(de)acetylated FOXL2-Ku axis that governs the balance of DSB repair pathways to maintain genome integrity.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(8)2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316670

RESUMO

Gram-negative bacteria have an outer membrane inhibiting the entry of antibiotics. Porins, found within the outer membrane, are involved in regulating the permeability of ß-lactam antibiotics. ß-lactamases are enzymes that are able to inactivate the antibacterial properties of ß-lactam antibiotics. Interestingly, porins and ß-lactamase are found in outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of ß-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and may be involved in the survival of susceptible strains of E. coli in the presence of antibiotics, through the hydrolysis of the ß-lactam antibiotic. In this study, OMVs isolated from ß-lactam-resistant E. coli and from mutants, lacking porin or ß-lactamase, were evaluated to establish if the porins or ß-lactamase in OMVs were involved in the degradation of ß-lactam antibiotics. OMVs isolated from E. coli deficient in ß-lactamase did not show any degradation ability against ß-lactam antibiotics, while OMVs lacking OmpC or OmpF showed significantly lower levels of hydrolyzing activity than OMVs from parent E. coli. These data reveal an important role of OMVs in bacterial defense mechanisms demonstrating that the OmpC and OmpF proteins allow permeation of ß-lactam antibiotics into the lumen of OMVs, and antibiotics that enter the OMVs can be degraded by ß-lactamase.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319064

RESUMO

Few studies reported the extent of heavy metal accumulation in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). Currently, oral bioaccessibility of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and copper (Cu) present in traditional animal medicines was investigated with physiologically based extraction test-extracted in vitro model. We are the first to develop a health risk assessment strategy by combinational analysis of bioaccessible heavy metal levels to calculate target hazard quotient (THQ), target hazard index (THI) and cancer risk (CR), which has capacity to evaluate the heavy metal associated heath risk of traditional animal medicines. To precisely acquire a realistic risk assessment, questionnaire data was adopted to measure the frequency and duration of the exposure to traditional animal medicines, and the safety factor was highlighted as well. Our data revealed that the bioaccessibility of Hg was the lowest among the five heavy metals. After the adjustment with the bioaccessibility of each heavy metal to target hazard index (THI) values, excitingly, the results manifested that the consumption of traditional animal medicines might not exert an unacceptable health risk in a broad community. In addition, the CR values of As and Pb indicated that the risk of developing cancers was quite lower than their acceptable levels in the clinic.

20.
Resuscitation ; 151: 50-58, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272234

RESUMO

AIM: We evaluated the prognostic value of serum- and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1 protein (UCHL1) measurements in post- post-out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients treated with target temperature management (TTM), to predict neurologic outcome. METHODS: This was a prospective single-centre observational cohort study, conducted from April 2018 to September 2019. Serum- and CSF-UCHL1 were obtained immediately (UCHL1initial), 24 h (UCHL124), 48 h (UCHL148), and 72 h (UCHL172) after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) and Delong method were used to identify cut-off values of serum- and CSF-UCHL1initial, UCHL124, UCHL148, UCHL172 for predicting neurologic outcomes. RESULTS: Of 38 patients enrolled, 16 comprised the poor outcome group. The AUROCs for serum- and CSF-UCHL1initial were 0.71 and 0.93 in predicting poor neurological outcomes, respectively (p = 0.01). The AUROCs for serum- and CSF-UCHL124 were 0.85 and 0.91 (p = 0.24). The AUROCs for serum- and CSF-UCHL148 were 0.90 and 0.97 (p = 0.07). The AUROCs for serum- and CSF-UCHL172 were 0.94 and 0.98 (p = 0.25). CONCLUSION: Findings of this study demonstrate that CSF-UCHL1 measured immediately, 24, 48, and 72 h after ROSC is a valuable predictor for evaluating neurologic outcomes, whereas serum-UCHL1 measured at 24, 48, and 72 h after ROSC showed a significant performance in the prognostication of poor outcomes in post-OHCA patients treated with TTM.

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