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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 127023, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482075

RESUMO

Due to the recent boom in urbanisation, economy, and global population, the amount of waste generated worldwide has increased tremendously. The World Bank estimates that global waste generation is expected to increase 70% by 2050. Disposal of waste is already a major concern as it poses risks to the environment, human health, and economy. To tackle this issue and maximise potential environmental, economic, and social benefits, waste valorisation - a value-adding process for waste materials - has emerged as a sustainable and efficient strategy. The major objective of waste valorisation is to transit to a circular economy and maximally alleviate hazardous impacts of waste. This review conducts bibliometric analysis to construct a co-occurrence network of research themes related to management of five major waste streams (i.e., food, agricultural, textile, plastics, and electronics). Modern valorisation technologies and their efficiencies are highlighted. Moreover, insights into improvement of waste valorisation technologies are presented in terms of sustainable environmental, social, and economic performances. This review summarises highlighting factors that impede widespread adoption of waste valorisation, such as technology lock-in, optimisation for local conditions, unfavourable regulations, and low investments, with the aim of devising solutions that explore practical, feasible, and sustainable means of waste valorisation.

2.
Chemistry ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850460

RESUMO

A label-free and fast approach for positive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) imaging of single cells by bipolar nanoelectrode array is proposed. The reduction of oxygen at a platinized gold nanoelectrode array in a closed bipolar electrochemical system is coupled with an oxidative ECL process at the anodic side. For elevating the ECL imaging contrast of single cells, a driving  voltage of -2.0 V is applied to in situ generate oxygen confined beneath cells that is subsequently used for ECL imaging at 1.1 V. High oxygen concentration in the confined space resulting from steric hindrance generates prominent oxygen reduction current at the cathodic side and higher ECL intensity at the anodic side, allowing positive ECL imaging of the cells adhesion region with excellent contrast. Cell morphology and adhesion strength can be successfully imaged with high image acquisition rate. This approach opens a new avenue for label-free imaging of single cells.

3.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 724525, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858170

RESUMO

Asthma is one of the most common chronic pulmonary disorders, affecting more than 330 million people worldwide. Unfortunately, there are still no specific treatments for asthma so far. Therefore, it is very important to develop effective therapeutics and medicines to deal with this intractable disease. Berberine (Ber) has fabulous anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects, while its low water solubility and bioavailability greatly limit its curative efficiency. To improve the nasal mucosa absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs, such as Ber, we developed a platelet membrane- (PM-) coated nanoparticle (NP) system (PM@Ber-NPs) for targeted delivery of berberine to the inflammatory lungs. In vivo, PM@Ber-NPs exhibited enhanced targeting retention in the inflammatory lungs compared with free Ber. In a mouse model of house dust mite- (HDM-) induced asthma, PM@Ber-NPs markedly inhibited lung inflammation, as evident by reduced inflammatory cells and inflammatory cytokines in the lung compared with free Ber. Collectively, our study demonstrated the inhibitory actions of nasally delivered nanomedicines on HDM-induced asthma, primarily through regulating Th1/Th2 balance by enhancing IL-12 expression which could potentially reduce lung inflammation and allergic asthma.

4.
Front Oncol ; 11: 779612, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858859

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to explore the value of elasticity score (ES) and strain ratio (SR) combined with conventional ultrasound in distinguishing benign and malignant breast masses and reducing biopsy of BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) 4a lesions. Methods: This prospective, multicenter study included 910 patients from nine different hospitals. The acquisition and analysis of conventional ultrasound and strain elastography (SE) were obtained by radiologists with more than 5 years of experience in breast ultrasound imaging. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and area under curve (AUC) of conventional ultrasound alone and combined tests with ES and/or SR were calculated and compared. Results: The optimal cutoff value of SR for differentiating benign from malignant masses was 2.27, with a sensitivity of 60.2% and a specificity of 84.8%. When combined with ES and SR, the AUC of the new BI-RADS classification increased from 0.733 to 0.824 (p < 0.001); the specificity increased from 48.1% to 68.5% (p < 0.001) without a decrease in the sensitivity (98.5% vs. 96.4%, p = 0.065); and the PPV increased from 52.2% to 63.7% (p < 0.001) without a loss in the NPV (98.2% vs. 97.1%, p = 0.327). All three combinations of conventional ultrasound, ES, and SR could reduce the biopsy rate of category 4a lesions without reducing the malignant rate of biopsy (from 100% to 68.3%, 34.9%, and 50.4%, respectively, all p < 0.001). Conclusions: SE can be used as a useful and non-invasive additional method to improve the diagnostic performance of conventional ultrasound by increasing AUC and specificity and reducing the unnecessary biopsy of BI-RADS 4a lesions.

5.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 6606830, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853793

RESUMO

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases in adults, causing high morbidity and mortality worldwide. In recent years, the prevalence of T2DM has been increasing significantly, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that KCNQ1 significantly increases the risk of T2DM. Objective: To find large-scale evidence on whether the KCNQ1rs2237892C⟶T gene polymorphism is associated with T2DM susceptibility. Methods: A comprehensive review of the Chinese and English literature on the association of T2DM with KCNQ1rs2237892 is published by PubMed and Baidu Academic. The included literature was part or all of the studied loci which were evaluated for association with T2DM. Forest plots were made of the included literature to analyze the association of KCNQ1 with polymorphisms of the studied loci, and funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate the publication bias of the selected included literature. Results: Ten case-control studies including a total of 7027 cases and 8208 controls met our inclusion criteria. Allele (C allele frequency distribution) (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 0.87,1.62; P < 0.00001), recessive (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.45,1.18; P < 0.00001) genetic model under the full population was observed between KCNQ1rs2237892C⟶T gene polymorphism and T2DM without a significant relationship. In a stratified analysis by race, a meaningful association was found in non-Asian populations under the allelic genetic model, but no association was found in Asian populations. Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed no significant association between the rs2237892 polymorphism of the KCNQ1 gene and the risk of T2DM.

6.
Brain Res Bull ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808323

RESUMO

Folic acid (FA) supplementation in early pregnancy is recommended to protect against birth defects. But excess FA has exhibited neurodevelopmental toxicity. We previously reported that the mice treated with 2.5-fold the dietary requirement of FA one week before mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation displayed abnormal behaviors in the offspring. Here we found the levels of non-phosphorylated ß-catenin (active) were increased in the brains of weaning and adult FA-exposed offspring. Meanwhile, demethylation of protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac), which suppresses its enzyme activity in regulatory subunit dependent manner, was significantly inhibited. Among the upstream regulators of ß-catenin, PI3K/Akt/GSK-3ß but not Wnt signaling was stimulated in FA-exposed brains only at weaning. In mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells, knockdown of PP2Ac or leucine carboxyl methyltransferase-1 (LCMT-1), or overexpression of PP2Ac methylation-deficient mutant decreased ß-catenin dephosphorylation. These results suggest that excess FA may activate ß-catenin via suppressing PP2Ac demethylation, providing a novel mechanism for the influence of FA on neurodevelopment.

7.
Child Neuropsychol ; : 1-14, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846268

RESUMO

To investigate the association between infancy weight gain and neurodevelopment among term-born infants. Singleton term-born infants (n = 5837) were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Absolute weight gain was obtained by calculating the weight difference from birth to exactly 12 months. The primary outcome was neurodevelopment at age one year, which included five developmental domains. Global developmental delay was defined as delays in ≥3 domains. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between infancy weight gain and neurodevelopment. Compared with infants gaining 6001-7000 g (reference group), infants gaining ≤5000 g had higher odds of delay in adaptive, gross motor, fine motor, social, and global developmental delay, infants gaining 5001-6000 g had higher odds of gross motor delay and social delay. A sex-stratified analysis showed that compared with the reference group, gaining ≤5000 g was associated with higher odds of fine motor delay in male infants, while gaining >7000 g was associated with higher odds of fine motor delay in females. Inadequate infancy weight gain is associated with higher odds of poor neurodevelopment at age one year among term-born infants.

8.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e049742, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782340

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Follow-up care is important for gastric cancer survivors, but follow-up strategies for gastric cancer survivors remain inconsistent, and compliance of gastric cancer survivors with follow-up care is very low. Understanding the needs and preferences of gastric cancer survivors is conducive to developing appropriate and acceptable follow-up strategies, thereby improving patient compliance. Discrete choice experiments can quantify individual needs and preferences. However, to date, there is no discrete choice experiment on the preferences of gastric cancer survivors, and no studies have examined how gastric cancer survivors make choices based on different characteristics of follow-up. This paper outlines an ongoing discrete choice experiment that aims to (1) explore follow-up service-related characteristics that may affect gastric cancer survivors' choices about their follow-up, (2) elicit how gastric cancer survivors consider the trade-offs among different follow-up service options using discrete choice experiment, (3) determine whether gastric cancer survivors' needs and preferences for follow-up vary due to the economy, politics, technology and culture in different regions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Six attributes were developed through a literature review, semistructured interviews and experts and focus group discussions. A fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the interaction between attributes. A multiple logit model will be used to understand the trade-off between the follow-up characteristics of gastric cancer survivors. A mixed logit model will be used to explore the willingness to pay and uptake rate of gastric cancer survivors for follow-up attributes and further explore the preferences of different groups. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the ethics committee of the School of Nursing, Jilin University. The results of this study will be shared through online blogs, policy briefs, seminars and peer-reviewed journal articles and will be used to modify the current strategy of gastric cancer survivors' follow-up services according to economic development and regional culture.

9.
Environ Res ; : 112393, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798119

RESUMO

Exposures to multiple air pollutants during pregnancy have been associated with the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, their combined effects are unclear. We aimed to evaluate the combined associations of five air pollutants from pre-pregnancy to the 2nd trimester with GDM. This study included 20,113 participants from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study (BIGCS). The inverse distance-weighted models were used to estimate individual air pollutant exposure, namely ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter less than 10 µm in diameter (PM10), and less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5). We estimated stage-specific associations of air pollutants with GDM using generalized estimating equation, and departures from additive joint effects were assessed using the relative excess risk (RERI) and the joint relative risk (JRR). Of the 20,113 participants, 3440 women (17.1%) were diagnosed with GDM. In the adjusted model, increased concentrations of O3 and SO2 3-6 months before pregnancy were associated with GDM occurrence, as well as O3 and PM10 in the 1st trimester, the adjusted relative risk (95% confident intervals) [RRs (95%CI)] ranged from 1.05 (1.00, 1.09) to 1.21 (1.04, 1.40). The largest JRR for GDM was the combination of SO2, NO2, and PM10 in the 1st trimester (JRR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.59). The JRR for O3 and SO2 was less than their additive joint effects [RERI = -0.25 (-0.47, -0.04), P for interaction = 0.048]. Associations of air pollutants with GDM differed somewhat by pre-pregnancy BMI and season. This study added new evidence to the current understanding of the combined effects of multiple air pollutants on GDM. Public health strategies were needed to reduce the adverse effects of air pollution exposure on pregnant women.

10.
Hepatol Int ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) infusion was reported to improve liver function in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis (DLC); however, whether the medication can improve outcome of these patients is poorly understood. METHODS: This prospective, open-labeled, randomized controlled study enrolled 219 patients with HBV-related DLC who were divided into control group (n = 111) and umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC)-treated group (n = 108), then all of them received a follow-up check from October 2010 to October 2017. The treated patients received three times of UC-MSC infusions at 4-week intervals plus conventional treatment that was only used for control group. The overall survival rate and HCC-free survival rate were calculated as primary endpoints and the liver function and adverse events associated with the medication were also evaluated. RESULTS: During the follow-up check period from 13 to 75th months, there was a significantly higher overall survival rate in the treated group than the control group, while the difference of the hepatocellular carcinoma event-free survival rate between the treated and control groups was not observed during the 75-month follow-up. UC-MSC treatment markedly improved liver function, as indicated by the levels of serum albumin, prothrombin activity, cholinesterase, and total bilirubin during 48 weeks of follow-up. No significant side effects or treatment-related complications were observed in the UC-MSC group. CONCLUSIONS: Therapy of UC-MSC is not only well tolerated, but also significantly improves long-term survival rate, as well as the liver function in patients with HBV-related DLC. UC-MSC medication, therefore, might present a novel therapeutic approach for the disease.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151949, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838554

RESUMO

The failure of a natural dam is an extreme geological event. Palaeo-lake sediments were discovered in the broad Xigazê valley and Dazhuka-Yueju gorge in the middle reach of the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet. However, the sedimentary processes, dam failure, and peak flood of the Xigazê dammed palaeo-lake are poorly understood. Hence, we conducted a field survey of eight lacustrine sedimentary terraces in the area. We divided the sedimentary processes of the palaeo-lake into five stages and deposit types: pre-palaeo-lake sediments (fluvial or aeolian deposits); early stage sediments of the palaeo-lake (coarse sand); main stage palaeo-lake sediments (clayey silt and sand), sediments following the discharge of the palaeo-lake (sand and gravel-cobbles); and cover deposits (aeolian sediments and colluvium). Additionally, the water level along the palaeo-lake was almost constant (3811 m a.s.l.). The dam was likely located at the eastern end of the Dazhuka-Yueju gorge. Based on the water level, dam location and 30-m ASTER GDEM2 data, the capacity of the palaeo-lake was estimated as 22.55 km3. To separate the water volume and sediment volume, the sediment surface elevation along the palaeo-lake was simulated based on the elevations of the six lacustrine sedimentary terraces. The volume of the sediment was ~11.56 km3, which was calculated from the dam location, sediment surface elevation, and the ASTER GDEM2 data. Finally, subtraction of the sediment volume from the capacity of the palaeo-lake gave a backwater volume of 10.99 km3. The peak flood possibly exceeded 3.4 × 105 m3/s as a moraine dam joined the discharge during the dam failure. However, the dammed event probably had a limited effect on the landforms at downstream because of the presence of another dammed palaeo-lake in the broad Zetang valley; moreover, the bedrock upstream of the dam was protected from erosion.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are limited data regarding the safety and efficacy of cold snare polypectomy (CSP) for large colorectal polyps. We evaluated factors affecting the clinical outcomes of CSP for polyps between 5 and 15 mm in size. METHODS: This was a prospective single-center observational study involving 1000 patients undergoing colonoscopy. Polyps (5-15 mm) were removed using CSP, and biopsies were taken from the resection margin. The primary outcome was the incomplete resection rate (IRR), and was determined by the presence of residual neoplasia on biopsy. Correlations between IRR and polyp size, morphology, histology, resection time were assessed by generalized estimating equation (GEE) model. RESULTS: A total of 440 neoplastic polyps were removed from 261 patients. The overall IRR was 2.27%, 1.98% for small (5-9 mm) vs 3.45% for large (10-15 mm) polyps, P=0.411). In univariate analysis, the IRR was more likely to be related to SSL (OR=6.93, 95% CI 1.88-25.45, P=0.004), piecemeal resection (OR=11.83, 95% CI 1.20-116.49, P=0.034) and prolonged resection time >60s (OR=7.56, 95% CI 1.75-32.69, P=0.007). In multivariable regression analysis, SSL (OR=6.45, 95% CI 1.48-28.03, P=0.013) and resection time (OR=7.39, 95% CI 1.48-36.96, P=0.015, respectively) were independent risk factors for IRR. Immediate bleeding was more frequent with resection of large polyps (6.90% vs 1.42%, P=0.003). No recurrence was seen on follow-up colonoscopy in 37 cases with large polyps. CONCLUSIONS: CSP is safe and effective for removal of colorectal polyps up to 15 mm in size, with a low IRR.

13.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(30): 9302-9309, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DYNC1H1 gene encodes a part of the dynamic protein, and the protein mutations may further affect the growth and development of neurons, resulting in degeneration of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord, and a variety of clinical phenotypes finally resulting in axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 20 (CMT20), mental retardation 13 (MRD13) and spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominant 1 (SMA-LED). The incidence of the disease is low, and it is difficult to diagnose, especially in children. Here, we report a case of DYNC1H1 gene mutation and review the related literature to improve the pediatrician's understanding of DYNC1H1 gene-related disease to make an early correct diagnosis and provide better services for children. CASE SUMMARY: A 4-mo-old Chinese female child with adducted thumbs, high arch feet, and epileptic seizure presented slow response, delayed development, and low limb muscle strength. Electroencephalogram showed abnormal waves, a large number of multifocal sharp waves, sharp slow waves, and multiple spasms with a series of attacks. High-throughput sequencing and Sanger sequencing identified a heterozygous mutation, c.5885G>A (p.R1962H), in the DYNC1H1 gene (NM_001376) of the proband, which was not identified in her parents. Combined with the clinical manifestations and pedigree of this family, this mutation is likely pathogenic based on the American Academy of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. The child was followed when she was 1 year and 2 mo old. The magnetic resonance imaging result was consistent with the findings of white matter myelinated dysplasia and congenital giant gyrus. The extensive neurogenic damage to the extremities was considered, as the results of electromyography showed that the motor conduction velocity and sensory conduction of the nerves of the extremities were not abnormal, and the degree of fit of the children with severe contraction was poor. At present, the child is 80 cm in length and 9 kg in weight, with slender limbs and low muscle strength, and still does not raise her head. She cannot sit or speak. Speech, motor, and mental development was significantly delayed. There is still no effective treatment for this disease. CONCLUSION: We herein report a de novo variant of DYNC1H1 gene, c.5885G>A (p.R1962H), leading to overlapping phenotypes (seizure, general growth retardation, and muscle weakness) of CMT20, MRD13, and SMA-LED, but there is no effective treatment for such condition. Our case enriches the DYNC1H1 gene mutation spectrum and provides an important basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment and genetic counseling.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768915

RESUMO

Ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid extracted from various plants, inhibits cell growth, metastasis, and tumorigenesis in various cancers. Chemotherapy resistance and the side effects of paclitaxel (PTX), a traditional chemotherapy reagent, have limited the curative effect of PTX in esophageal cancer. In this study, we investigate whether UA promotes the anti-tumor effect of PTX and explore the underlying mechanism of their combined effect in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Combination treatment with UA and PTX inhibited cell proliferation and cell growth more effectively than either treatment alone by inducing more significant apoptosis, as indicated by increased sub-G1 phase distribution and protein levels of cleaved-PARP and cleaved caspase-9. Similar to the cell growth suppressive effect, the combination of UA and PTX significantly inhibited cell migration by targeting uPA, MMP-9, and E-cadherin in ESCC cells. In addition, combination treatment with UA and PTX significantly activated p-GSK-3ß and suppressed the activation of Akt and FOXM1 in ESCC cells. Those effects were enhanced by the Akt inhibitor LY2940002 and inverted by the Akt agonist SC79. In an in vivo evaluation of a murine xenograft model of esophageal cancer, combination treatment with UA and PTX suppressed tumor growth significantly better than UA or PTX treatment alone. Thus, UA effectively potentiates the anti-tumor efficacy of PTX by targeting the Akt/FOXM1 cascade since combination treatment shows significantly more anti-tumor potential than PTX alone both in vitro and in vivo. Combination treatment with UA and PTX could be a new strategy for curing esophageal cancer patients.

15.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 405, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795208

RESUMO

Thalidomide induces γ-globin expression in erythroid progenitor cells, but its efficacy on patients with transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia (TDT) remains unclear. In this phase 2, multi-center, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, we aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of thalidomide in TDT patients. A hundred patients of 14 years or older were randomly assigned to receive placebo or thalidomide for 12 weeks, followed by an extension phase of at least 36 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change of hemoglobin (Hb) level in the patients. The secondary endpoints included the red blood cell (RBC) units transfused and adverse effects. In the placebo-controlled period, Hb concentrations in patients treated with thalidomide achieved a median elevation of 14.0 (range, 2.5 to 37.5) g/L, whereas Hb in patients treated with placebo did not significantly change. Within the 12 weeks, the mean RBC transfusion volume for patients treated with thalidomide and placebo was 5.4 ± 5.0 U and 10.3 ± 6.4 U, respectively (P < 0.001). Adverse events of drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, pyrexia, sore throat, and rash were more common with thalidomide than placebo. In the extension phase, treatment with thalidomide for 24 weeks resulted in a sustainable increase in Hb concentrations which reached 104.9 ± 19.0 g/L, without blood transfusion. Significant increase in Hb concentration and reduction in RBC transfusions were associated with non ß0/ß0 and HBS1L-MYB (rs9399137 C/T, C/C; rs4895441 A/G, G/G) genotypes. These results demonstrated that thalidomide is effective in patients with TDT.

16.
Nature ; 600(7887): 54-58, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666338

RESUMO

The Moon has a magmatic and thermal history that is distinct from that of the terrestrial planets1. Radioisotope dating of lunar samples suggests that most lunar basaltic magmatism ceased by around 2.9-2.8 billion years ago (Ga)2,3, although younger basalts between 3 Ga and 1 Ga have been suggested by crater-counting chronology, which has large uncertainties owing to the lack of returned samples for calibration4,5. Here we report a precise lead-lead age of 2,030 ± 4 million years ago for basalt clasts returned by the Chang'e-5 mission, and a 238U/204Pb ratio (µ value)6 of about 680 for a source that evolved through two stages of differentiation. This is the youngest crystallization age reported so far for lunar basalts by radiometric dating, extending the duration of lunar volcanism by approximately 800-900 million years. The µ value of the Chang'e-5 basalt mantle source is within the range of low-titanium and high-titanium basalts from Apollo sites (µ value of about 300-1,000), but notably lower than those of potassium, rare-earth elements and phosphorus (KREEP) and high-aluminium basalts7 (µ value of about 2,600-3,700), indicating that the Chang'e-5 basalts were produced by melting of a KREEP-poor source. This age provides a pivotal calibration point for crater-counting chronology in the inner Solar System and provides insight on the volcanic and thermal history of the Moon.

17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 736036, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659225

RESUMO

Background: Previous study revealed proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have an effect on gut microbiota. Alteration of the microbiome causes changes of the host immune system and then induces the development of autoimmune diseases (ADs). This study aimed to explore the possible association between PPIs use and ADs. Methods: This study was conducted using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database in the period between 2002 and 2015. We performed multivariate and stratified analysis through the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the association between proton pump inhibitor use and the risk of autoimmune diseases. Results: Of the 297,099 patients treated with PPI identified, the overall mean (SD) age was 49.17 (15.63) years and 56.28% of the subjects was male. As compared with the non-PPI group, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) were higher for incident organ specific ADs such as Graves disease (aHR=3.28), Hashmoto thyroiditis (aHR=3.61), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (aHR=8.88), immune thrombocytopenic purpura (aHR=5.05) Henoch-Schonlein pupura (aHR=4.83) and Myasthenia gravis (aHR=8.73). Furthermore, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) were also higher for incident systemic ADs such as ankylosing spondylitis (aHR=3.67), rheumatoid arthritis (aHR=3.96), primary Sjogren syndrome (aHR=7.81), systemic lupus erythemtoasus (aHR=7.03). systemic vasculitis (aHR=5.10), psoriasis (aHR=2.57), systemic scleroderma (aHR=15.85) and inflammatory myopathy (aHR=37.40). Furthermore, we observed no dose-dependent effect between PPI use and the risk of ADs. Conclusions: Our retrospective population-based cohort study showed that the prescription of proton pump inhibitors is associated with a higher risk of ADs.

18.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(5): E882-E886, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate and analyze the learning curve of totally thoracoscopic mitral valve replacement and provide a quantitative reference for cardiac surgeons to carry out the operation step by step. METHODS: The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed of 100 consecutive patients with totally thoracoscopic mitral valve replacement successively performed by the same surgeon in a single center from May 2019 to June 2020. The learning curve was divided into 2 stages by using cumulative sum analysis, and relevant surgical parameters and perioperative indicators were analyzed. RESULTS: The first stage of the learning curve is the skill acquisition stage, which includes 1 to 40 surgical procedures. The second stage is the proficiency stage, involving 41 to 100 operations. Among the surgical parameters of the patients in the 2 stages, detectable improvements were observed in operative time, cardiopulmonary bypass time, cross-clamp time, and intraoperative injury. After surgery, the amount of drainage, length of hospital stay, blood creatinine levels, and oxygenation index 24 h after surgery were also significantly different between the 2 groups (all P < .05). The age and sex distributions of the patients were balanced, and there was no statistically significant difference in terms of conversion to median sternotomy between the 2 stages (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative sum analysis was used to accurately analyze the learning curve of totally thoracoscopic mitral valve replacement, indicating that 40 cases are needed to master the technique.

19.
Curr Zool ; 67(4): 411-418, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616938

RESUMO

Coordination and consensus in collective behavior have attracted a lot of research interest. Although previous studies have investigated the role of compromisers in group consensus, they provide little insight into why compromisers would allow such social arrangements to persist. In this study, the potential relationship between group movements and conflict management in Tibetan macaques in Anhui province, China, was investigated using hierarchical cluster analyses. Some members with higher social centrality or social rank often formed a front-runner cluster during group movements. They had higher leadership success than individuals outside the front-runner cluster. Other members with lower social centrality or social rank often followed the group movements initiated by the front-runner cluster, and thus formed the compromiser cluster. Compromisers' proximity relations with front-runners increased with their following scores to front-runners. Compromisers had fewer events of being attacked when they followed group movements initiated by the front-runners. The compromising process made compromisers lose the choice of direction preference, but it could increase their individual safeties. This trade-off suggests that compromisers play a role of decision-maker in coordination and consensus scenarios among social animals.

20.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In chronic kidney disease (CKD), patients inevitably reach end-stage renal disease and require renal transplant. Evidence suggests that CKD is associated with metabolite disorders. However, the molecular pathways targeted by metabolites remain enigmatic. Here, we describe roles of 1-hydroxypyrene in mediating renal fibrosis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We analysed 5406 urine and serum samples from patients with Stage 1-5 CKD using metabolomics, and 1-hydroxypyrene was identified and validated using longitudinal and drug intervention cohorts as well as 5/6 nephrectomised and adenine-induced rats. KEY RESULTS: We identified correlations between the urine and serum levels of 1-hydroxypyrene and the estimated GFR in patients with CKD onset and progression. Moreover, increased 1-hydroxypyrene levels in serum and kidney tissues correlated with decreased renal function in two rat models. Up-regulated mRNA expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and its target genes, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1, were observed in patients and rats with progressive CKD. Further we showed up-regulated mRNA expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and its three target genes, plus up-regulated nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor protein levels in mice and HK-2 cells treated with 1-hydroxypyrene, which caused accumulation of extracellular matrix components. Treatment with aryl hydrocarbon receptor short hairpin RNA or flavonoids inhibited mRNA expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and its target genes in 1-hydroxypyrene-induced HK-2 cells and mice. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene was demonstrated to mediate renal fibrosis through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor signalling pathway. Targeting aryl hydrocarbon receptor may be an alternative therapeutic strategy for CKD progression.

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