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1.
Brain Topogr ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006499

RESUMO

To study the associations between RDH12 gene mutations, fundus types, and clinical manifestations. In total, 46 patients with inherited eye diseases caused by RDH12 gene mutations were included in this study. High-throughput chip capture sequencing, Sanger sequencing, and gene panel detection were used to determine that RDH12 was the pathogenic gene. All patients underwent the following detailed ophthalmic examinations: visual acuity, visual field, intraocular pressure, fundus photography, electroretinography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Statistical analysis was used to evaluate the clinical phenotype. A total of 32 mutations were identified in 46 patients. The most common mutations were c.437T > A, c.184C > T, and c.524C > T; the corresponding amino acid changes were p.Val146Asp, p.Arg62Ter, and p.Ser175Leu. Of the 46 patients, retinitis pigmentosa (RP) was found in 31 (68.9%); leber congenital amaurosis (LVA) was found in 11 (24.4%); early onset of severe retinal dystrophy (EOSRD) was found in one (2.2%); cone rod dystrophy (CORD) was found in one (2.2%); and Stargardt disease was found in one (2.2%). There was a significant difference in best-corrected visual acuity among patients based on fundus type (p = 0.0124). Linear trend analysis showed that best-corrected visual acuity gradually decreased as the fundus type increased in severity. In addition, there was a significant difference in the incidence of night blindness among patients with different fundus types (p = 0.0429): types I and IV fundi were associated with the highest incidences of night blindness. RDH12 gene mutation can cause serious inherited retinal diseases, which primarily include RP and LCA. Combined with clinical symptoms and fundus types, the progression of the disease can be characterized and used to guide genetic diagnosis and gene therapy.

2.
Lipids Health Dis ; 21(1): 3, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can be easily evaluated by noninvasive scoring systems, of which the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) is the most commonly used. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a new predictor of cardiovascular events, has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular outcomes and NAFLD. However, the relationship of NFS with PCSK9 and their prognostic abilities in cardiovascular risks are unknown. METHODS: A total of 2008 hospitalized subjects who had chest pain without lipid-lowering therapy were consecutively included. Baseline clinical data were collected, and the NFS was calculated. The circulating PCSK9 concentration was determined by enzyme immunoassay. The major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) occurrences were recorded in the follow-up period. Associations of PCSK9 concentration with NFS were examined. All of the participants were categorized into three groups according to NFS levels and were further stratified by PCSK9 tertiles to evaluate the MACEs. RESULTS: 158 (7.87%) MACEs were observed during a mean of 3.2 years of follow-up. NFS levels were independently related to higher PCSK9 levels according to multivariable linear regression analysis. Furthermore, elevated PCSK9 and NFS concentrations were respectively associated with increased MACE incidence in multivariable Cox regression models. When combining NFS status with PCSK9 tertiles as a stratifying factor, patients with intermediate-high NFS and high PCSK9 levels had higher risks of events than those with low NFS and low PCSK9 levels. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed for the first time that NFS is positively related to PCSK9 and that the combination of NFS and PCSK9 greatly increased the risk of MACEs in patients with chest pain, providing a potential link between NFS and PCSK9 for predicting cardiovascular events.

3.
Technol Health Care ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT) is widely used in the treatment of thoracic cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a non-rebreather mask (NRBM) and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in patients with radiation pneumonia complicated with respiratory failure. METHODS: This was a single-center randomized controlled study. Patients admitted to the EICU of the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University were selected and divided into NRBM and HFNC group. Arterial blood gas analysis, tidal volume, respiratory rates and the cases of patients receiving invasive assisted ventilation were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after admission. RESULTS: (1) The PaO2/FiO2, respiratory rates, and tidal volume between the two groups at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h were different, with F values of 258.177, 294.121, and 134.372, all P< 0.01. These indicators were different under two modes of oxygenation, with F values of 40.671, 168.742, and 55.353, all P< 0.01, also varied with time, with an F value of 7.480, 9.115, and 12.165, all P< 0.01. (2) The incidence of trachea intubation within 72 h between HFNC and NRBM groups (23 [37.1%] vs. 34 [54.0%], P< 0.05). The transition time to mechanical ventilation in the HFNC and NRBM groups (55.3 ± 3.2 h vs. 45.9 ± 3.6 h, P< 0.05). (3) The risk of intubation in patients with an APACHE-II score > 23 was 2.557 times than score ⩽ 23, and the risk of intubation in the NRBM group was 1.948 times more than the HFNC group (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared with the NRBM, HFNC can improve the oxygenation state of patients with radiation pneumonia complicated with respiratory failure in a short time, and reduce the incidence of trachea intubation within 72 h.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981373

RESUMO

During the operation of the boiler, the ash deposition phenomenon in the furnace will cause abnormal operation of the boiler system. This will lead to an increase the pollutant emission. To relieve the pollutant emission during the abnormal operation of the boiler, the mechanism of ash deposition was investigated from the perspective of reducing the phenomenon for ash deposition in this paper. Calcium-containing compounds play an important role in ash deposition burning coal. Therefore, the influence of calcium-containing compounds on ash deposition was investigated with Zhundong coal in a horizontal tube furnace in this paper. Furthermore, the binding and diffusion properties of calcium-containing compounds on the oxide film's surface were characterized under different temperatures by molecular dynamics simulations. The growth process of surface crystals was also researched by kinetic Monte Carlo method. The results indicated the precipitation rate of calcium gradually increases with the increase of combustion temperature. CaO, CaSO4, and CaSiO3 can play an important role in ash deposition burning Zhundong coal. CaSO4 is more easily to react with α-Fe2O3 (110) than CaO or CaSiO3. The diffusion coefficient of CaSO4, CaO, or CaSiO3 increases gradually with the increase of temperature. Furthermore, the system composed of CaSO4 and oxide film is more affected by temperature than that of CaO or CaSiO3 and oxide film. Moreover, under the whole temperature, the content of CaSO4 on the surface of the oxide film is the most. Finally, three calcium-containing minerals can promote each other during the deposition process and accelerate the formation of ash deposits.

5.
Thorac Cancer ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early identification of the malignant propensity of pulmonary ground-glass nodules (GGNs) can relieve the pressure from tracking lesions and personalized treatment adaptation. The purpose of this study was to develop a deep learning-based method using sequential computed tomography (CT) imaging for diagnosing pulmonary GGNs. METHODS: This diagnostic study retrospectively enrolled 762 patients with GGNs from West China Hospital of Sichuan University between July 2009 and March 2019. All patients underwent surgical resection and at least two consecutive time-point CT scans. We developed a deep learning-based method to identify GGNs using sequential CT imaging on a training set consisting of 1524 CT sections from 508 patients and then evaluated 256 patients in the testing set. Afterwards, an observer study was conducted to compare the diagnostic performance between the deep learning model and two trained radiologists in the testing set. We further performed stratified analysis to further relieve the impact of histological types, nodule size, time interval between two CTs, and the component of GGNs. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the performance of all models. RESULTS: The deep learning model that used integrated DL-features from initial and follow-up CT images yielded the best diagnostic performance, with an area under the curve of 0.841. The observer study showed that the accuracies for the deep learning model, junior radiologist, and senior radiologist were 77.17%, 66.89%, and 77.03%, respectively. Stratified analyses showed that the deep learning model and radiologists exhibited higher performance in the subgroup of nodule sizes larger than 10 mm. With a longer time interval between two CTs, the deep learning model yielded higher diagnostic accuracy, but no general rules were yielded for radiologists. Different densities of components did not affect the performance of the deep learning model. In contrast, the radiologists were affected by the nodule component. CONCLUSIONS: Deep learning can achieve diagnostic performance on par with or better than radiologists in identifying pulmonary GGNs.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666066

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The reorganization of the limbic regions extend to general cognitive network is believed to exist in the chronicity of tinnitus with particular 'hubs' contributing to a 'noise-cancellation' mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the topological brain network of tinnitus in different periods. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were obtained from 32 patients with acute tinnitus, 41 patients with chronic tinnitus and 60 age- and gender- matched healthy controls (HC). The topological features of their brain networks were explored using graph theory analysis. RESULTS: Common small-world attributes were compared between the three groups, all showed a significantly increased values in Cp, Lp, λ (all p < 0.05). Significantly increased nodal centralities in the left superior frontal gyrus and the right precuneus, significantly decreased nodal centralities in the right inferior temporal gyrus were observed for acute tinnitus patients compared to HC. While for chronic tinnitus patients, there were significant increased nodal centralities in the left hippocampus, amygdala, and temporal pole, but decreased nodal centralities in the right inferior temporal gyrus. Additionally, significant higher nodal centralities were found in bilateral medial superior frontal gyrus for acute tinnitus patients compared to chronic tinnitus patients. Besides, alterations in rich-club organization were found in acute tinnitus patients and chronic tinnitus patients compared with HC, with increased functional connections among rich-club nodes and peripheral nodes in patients with tinnitus. CONCLUSIONS: Brain network topological properties altered across prefrontal-limbic-subcortical regions in tinnitus. The existed hubs in tinnitus might indicate an emotional and cognitive burden in 'noise-cancellation' mechanism.

7.
J Neurosci Methods ; 365: 109378, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common spatial pattern (CSP) is a prevalent method applied to feature extraction in motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) recorded by electroencephalogram (EEG). The selection of time windows and frequency bands prominently affects the performance of CSP algorithms. Concerning the joint optimization of these two parameters, several studies have utilized a unified framework based on different feature selection strategies and achieved considerable improvement. However, during the feature selection process, useful information could be discarded inevitably and the underlying internal structure of features could be neglected. NEW METHOD: In this paper, we proposed a novel framework termed time window filter bank common spatial pattern with multi-view optimization (TWFBCSP-MVO) to further boost the decoding of MI tasks. Concretely, after extracting CSP features from different time-frequency decompositions of EEG signals, a preliminary screening strategy based on variance ratio was devised to filter out the unrelated spatial patterns. We then introduced a multi-view learning strategy for the simultaneous optimization of time windows and frequency bands. A support vector machine classifier was trained to determine the output of the brain. RESULTS: An experimental study was conducted on two public datasets to verify the effectiveness of TWFBCSP-MVO. Results showed that the proposed TWFBCSP-MVO could help improve the performance of MI classification. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: In comparison to other competing methods, the proposed method performed significantly better (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method is a promising contestant to improve the performance of practical MI-based BCIs.

8.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 239: 113879, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758947

RESUMO

A total of 649 children aged 7-13 years of age were recruited in a cross-sectional study in Tongxu County, China (2017) to assess the effects of interaction between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SOD2 and SOD3 gene and fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis (DF) status. Associations between biomarkers and DF status were evaluated. Logistic regression suggested that the risk of DF in children with rs10370 GG genotype and rs5746136 TT genotype was 1.89-fold and 1.72-fold than that in children with TT/CC genotype, respectively. Increased T-SOD activity was associated with a lower risk of DF (OR = 0.99). The rs2855262*rs10370*UF model was regarded as the optimal interaction model in generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analyses. Our findings suggested that rs4880 and rs10370 might be useful genetic markers for DF, and there might be interactions among rs10370 in SOD2, rs2855262 in SOD3, and fluoride exposure on DF status.

9.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 610: 164-172, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923264

RESUMO

In the semiconductor/molecule/metal system, enhancing the efficiency of the charge-transfer (CT) plays a pivotal role in improving the sensitivity of semiconductor-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this work, use of SERS for detection of an enhanced CT in a chemically-etched Al-doped ZnO (AZO), 4-mercaptopyridine (MPy) molecule, and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) (AZO/MPy/Ag) sandwich structure is reported. A series of CT routes are proposed in the energy level diagram of AZO/MPy/Ag assemblies under the excitation line at 633 nm. Very interestingly, for the first of its kind, a significant CT route from the conduction band (CB) of AZO to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of MPy molecule is detected. This route can remarkably improve the degree of CT in the AZO/MPy/Ag system by about 48% compared with that of the ZnO/MPy/Ag system. Furthermore, the uniquely enhanced CT route is also further confirmed by alternative probe molecules like p-aminothiophenol (PATP) and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA). The discovery of this extra CT route will inevitably play an irreplaceable role in SERS enhancement through its participating in the CT enhancement mechanism.

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854672

RESUMO

To assess potential differences in the intestinal microbial metabolism of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated forms 3-Ac-DON and 15-Ac-DON, in vitro anaerobic incubations with intestinal contents from chickens were conducted. Quantitative microbiota characterization was obtained by 16S rRNA sequencing. The data showed substantial differences in the level of different toxin conversions by the microbiota from the different intestinal segments. The transformation rate of DON to its metabolite DOM-1 decreased in the order of cecum > ileum > jejunum, and caecum contents could completely transform DON to DOM-1 within 24 h. However, no transformation appeared in the duodenum. For 3-Ac-DON, the deacetylation rate decreased as follows: duodenum > caecum > ileum > jejunum, and 100% deacetylation was observed in the duodenum within 24 h. The deacetylation of 15-Ac-DON decreased in the order of cecum > duodenum > ileum with no transformation in the jejunum. Some genera may contribute to the transformation of the toxins. Based on the in vitro kinetic parameters and their scaling to the in vivo situation, it was concluded that in the chicken small intestine, the deconjugation of both 3-Ac-DON and 15-Ac-DON will not likely be completed upon full transit. Whether this also holds for humans remains to be established.

11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888656

RESUMO

Huntington's Disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG expansion in the huntingtin gene (HTT). Post-translational modifications of huntingtin protein (HTT), such as phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitination, have been implicated in HD pathogenesis. Arginine methylation/dimethylation is an important modification with an emerging role in neurodegeneration, however arginine methylation of HTT remains largely unexplored. Here we report nearly two dozen novel arginine methylation/dimethylation sites on the endogenous HTT from human and mouse brain and human cells suggested by mass spectrometry with data-dependent acquisition (DDA). Targeted quantitative mass spectrometry identified differential arginine methylation at specific sites in HD patient-derived striatal precursor cell lines compared to normal controls. We found that HTT can interact with several type I protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) via its N-terminal domain. Using a combination of in vitro methylation and cell-based experiments we identified PRMT4 (CARM1) and PRMT6 as major enzymes methylating HTT at specific arginines. Alterations of these methylation sites had a profound effect on biochemical properties of HTT rendering it less soluble in cells and affected its liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) and phase transition patterns in vitro. We found that expanded HTT 1-586 fragment can form liquid-like assemblies, which converted into solid-like assemblies when the R200/205 methylation sites were altered. Methyl-null alterations increased HTT toxicity to neuronal cells, while overexpression of PRMT 4 and 6 was beneficial for neuronal survival. Thus, arginine methylation pathways that involve specific HTT-modifying PRMT enzymes and modulate HTT biochemical and toxic properties could provide targets for HD-modifying therapies.

12.
Front Oncol ; 11: 784156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869040

RESUMO

Objectives: To develop a prognostic prediction MRI-based nomogram model for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) treated with neoadjuvant therapy. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 233 LARC (MRI-T stage 3-4 (mrT) and/or MRI-N stage 1-2 (mrN), M0) patients who had undergone neoadjuvant radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery with baseline MRI and operative pathology assessments at our institution from March 2015 to March 2018. The patients were sequentially allocated to training and validation cohorts at a ratio of 4:3 based on the image examination date. A nomogram model was developed based on the univariate logistic regression analysis and multivariable Cox regression analysis results of the training cohort for disease-free survival (DFS). To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the nomogram, Harrell's concordance index (C-index), calibration plot, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and decision curve analysis (DCA) were conducted in both cohorts. Results: The median follow-up times were 43.2 months (13.3-61.3 months) and 32.0 months (12.3-39.5 months) in the training and validation cohorts. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified MRI-detected extramural vascular invasion (mrEMVI), pathological T stage (ypT) and perineural invasion (PNI) as independent predictors. Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (which almost reached statistical significance in multivariate regression analysis) and three other independent predictors were included in the nomogram model. The nomogram showed the best predictive ability for DFS (C-index: 0.769 (training cohort) and 0.776 (validation cohort)). It had a good 3-year DFS predictive capacity [area under the curve, AUC=0.843 (training cohort) and 0.771 (validation cohort)]. DCA revealed that the use of the nomogram model was associated with benefits for the prediction of 3-year DFS in both cohorts. Conclusion: We developed and validated a novel nomogram model based on MRI factors and pathological factors for predicting DFS in LARC treated with neoadjuvant therapy. This model has good predictive value for prognosis, which could improve the risk stratification and individual treatment of LARC patients.

13.
Molecules ; 26(23)2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34885740

RESUMO

Both UV and blue light have been reported to regulate the biosynthesis of flavonoids in tea plants; however, the respective contributions of the corresponding regions of sunlight are unclear. Additionally, different tea cultivars may respond differently to altered light conditions. We investigated the responses of different cultivars ('Longjing 43', 'Zhongming 192', 'Wanghai 1', 'Jingning 1' and 'Zhonghuang 2') to the shade treatments (black and colored nets) regarding the biosynthesis of flavonoids. For all cultivars, flavonol glycosides showed higher sensitivity to light conditions compared with catechins. The levels of total flavonol glycosides in the young shoots of different tea cultivars decreased with the shade percentages of polyethylene nets increasing from 70% to 95%. Myricetin glycosides and quercetin glycosides were more sensitive to light conditions than kaempferol glycosides. The principal component analysis (PCA) result indicated that shade treatment greatly impacted the profiles of flavonoids in different tea samples based on the cultivar characteristics. UV is the crucial region of sunlight enhancing flavonol glycoside biosynthesis in tea shoots, which is also slight impacted by light quality according to the results of the weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA). This study clarified the contributions of different wavelength regions of sunlight in a field experiment, providing a potential direction for slightly bitter and astringent tea cultivar breeding and instructive guidance for practical field production of premium teas based on light regimes.

14.
Aquat Toxicol ; 242: 106040, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856459

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as emerging contaminants are ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. Using in vivo and in silico techniques, this study aims to elucidate tissue distribution and endocrine disruption effects of chronic exposure (120 days) to PPCP mixture at environmentally relevant concentrations (ERCs) in adult zebrafish. Results from UHPLC-MS/MS analyses showed elevated distribution of PPCPs in zebrafish tissues in the order of liver > gonad > brain. Upregulation of steroid hormone receptors, both gonadotropin, and steroidogenic genes perturb the HPG axis pathway in females, while male fish exhibited significantly downregulated expressions of vtg, cyp17, and 17ßhsd genes with inhibited fecundity. The Spearman correlation indicated a significant positive relationship between PPCPs bioaccumulation and mRNA levels of HPG axis genes. In silico molecular docking (MD) revealed specific amino acid residues of PPCPs binding with zebrafish estrogen receptors. Furthermore, the strongest binding energies of sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, and triclosan were discovered in erα and erß estrogen receptors, confirming PPCPs' xenoestrogenic behavior. To summarize, chronic exposure to ERCs resulted in a high accumulation of PPCPs in the liver and gonad tissues of adult zebrafish, as well as associated perturbed genetic responses. As a result, strict environmental regulations for the disposal of PPCPs should be ensured to protect ecological and public health.

15.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol ; 14: 1799-1803, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858043

RESUMO

Tinea capitis is a common dermatophytosis predominantly occurring in children, which needs oral antifungal drug therapy. Itraconazole pulse therapy has been widely applicated in the treatment of adult onychomycosis. However, only a few studies are available for the treatment of pediatric tinea capitis with itraconazole pulse therapy. The therapy schedules vary with respect to dose and intermission. Here, we report four cases of tinea capitis that were treated with a novel high-dose itraconazole pulse therapy (6-10 mg/kg/d with 3 weeks off between consecutive pulses). After 2-3 pulses therapy, all the patients were cured and no adverse reactions were observed. We demonstrate the efficacy and safety of this novel itraconazole pulse therapy schedule. It may be a promising therapy in the treatment of tinea capitis in children.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890493

RESUMO

Degradable vinyl polymers by radical ring-opening polymerization are promising solutions to the challenges caused by non-degradable vinyl plastics. However, achieving even distributions of labile functional groups in the backbone of degradable vinyl polymers remains challenging. Herein, we report a photocatalytic approach to degradable vinyl random copolymers via radical ring-opening cascade copolymerization (rROCCP). The rROCCP of macrocyclic allylic sulfones and acrylates or acrylamides mediated by visible light at ambient temperature achieved near-unity comonomer reactivity ratios over the entire range of the feed compositions. Experimental and computational evidence revealed an unusual reversible inhibition of chain propagation by in situ generated sulfur dioxide (SO2), which was successfully overcome by reducing the solubility of SO2. This study provides a powerful approach to degradable vinyl random copolymers with comparable material properties to non-degradable vinyl polymers.

17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(50): 15108-15122, 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905356

RESUMO

Targeting the virulence factors of phytopathogenic bacteria is an innovative strategy for alleviating or eliminating the pathogenicity and rapid outbreak of plant microbial diseases. Therefore, several types of 1,2,4-triazole thioethers bearing an amide linkage were prepared and screened to develop virulence factor inhibitors. Besides, the 1,2,4-triazole scaffold was exchanged by a versatile 1,3,4-oxadiazole core to expand molecular diversity. Bioassay results revealed that a 1,2,4-triazole thioether A10 bearing a privileged N-(3-nitrophenyl)acetamide fragment was extremely bioactive against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) with an EC50 value of 5.01 µg/mL. Label-free quantitative proteomics found that compound A10 could significantly downregulate the expression of Xoo's type III secretion system (T3SS) and transcription activator-like effector (TALE) correlative proteins. Meanwhile, qRT-PCR detection revealed that the corresponding gene transcription levels of these virulence factor-associated proteins were substantially inhibited after being triggered by compound A10. As a result, the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity were strongly depressed, indicating that a novel virulence factor inhibitor (A10) was probably discovered. In vivo anti-Xoo trials displayed that compound A10 yielded practicable control efficiency (54.2-59.6%), which was superior to thiadiazole-copper and bismerthiazol (38.1-44.9%). Additionally, compound A10 showed an appreciable antiviral activity toward tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) with the curative and protective activities of 54.6 and 76.4%, respectively, which were comparable to ningnanmycin (55.2 and 60.9%). This effect was further validated and visualized by the inoculation test using GFP-labeled TMV, thereby leading to the reduced biosynthesis of green-fluorescent TMV on Nicotiana benthamiana. Given the outstanding features of compound A10, it should be deeply developed as a versatile agricultural chemical.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Oryza , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco , Xanthomonas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças das Plantas , Sulfetos , Triazóis , Fatores de Virulência/genética
18.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 2021 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954877

RESUMO

Bunyaviruses cleave host cellular mRNAs to acquire cap structures for their own mRNAs in a process called cap-snatching. How bunyaviruses interact with cellular mRNA surveillance pathways such as nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) during cap-snatching remains poorly understood, especially in plants. Rice stripe virus (RSV) is a plant bunyavirus threatening rice production in East Asia. Here, with a newly developed system allowing us to present defined mRNAs to RSV in Nicotiana benthamiana, we found that the frequency of RSV to target nonsense mRNAs (nsRNAs) during cap-snatching was much lower than its frequency to target normal mRNAs. The frequency of RSV to target nsRNAs was increased by virus-induced gene silencing of UPF1 or SMG7, each encoding a protein component involved in early steps of NMD (in an rdr6 RNAi background). Coincidently, RSV accumulation was increased in the UPF1- or SMG7-silenced plants. These data indicated that the frequency of RSV to target nsRNAs during cap-snatching is restricted by NMD. By restricting the frequency of RSV to target nsRNAs, NMD may impose a constraint to the overall cap-snatching efficiency of RSV. Besides a deeper understanding for the cap-snatching of RSV, these findings point to a novel role of NMD in plant-bunyavirus interactions.

19.
J Neural Eng ; 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902850

RESUMO

Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems decode electroencephalogram signals to establish a channel for direct interaction between the human brain and the external world without the need for muscle or nerve control. The P300 speller, one of the most widely used BCI applications, presents a selection of characters to the user and performs character recognition by identifying P300 event-related potentials from the EEG. Such P300-based BCI systems can reach good levels of accuracy but are difficult to use in day-to-day life due to redundancy and noisy signal. A room for improvement should be considered. We propose a novel hybrid feature selection method for the P300-based BCI system to address the problem of feature redundancy, which combines the Menger curvature and linear discriminant analysis. First, selected strategies are applied separately to a given dataset to estimate the gain for application to each feature. Then, each generated value set is ranked in descending order and judged by a predefined criterion to be suitable in classification models. The intersection of the two approaches is then evaluated to identify an optimal feature subset. The proposed method is evaluated using three public datasets, i.e., BCI Competition III dataset II, BNCI Horizon dataset, and EPFL dataset. Experimental results indicate that compared with other typical feature selection and classification methods, our proposed method has better or comparable performance. Additionally, our proposed method can achieve the best classification accuracy after all epochs in three datasets. In summary, our proposed method provides a new way to enhance the performance of the P300-based BCI speller.

20.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 749242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899305

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant tumor of the central nervous system. Temozolomide (TMZ)-based adjuvant treatment has improved overall survival, but clinical outcomes remain poor; TMZ resistance is one of the main reasons for this. Here, we report a new phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, XH30; this study aimed to assess the antitumor activity of this compound against TMZ-resistant GBM. XH30 inhibited cell proliferation in TMZ-resistant GBM cells (U251/TMZ and T98G) and induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. In an orthotopic mouse model, XH30 suppressed TMZ-resistant tumor growth. XH30 was also shown to enhance TMZ cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, the synergistic effect of XH30 may be attributed to its repression of the key transcription factor GLI1 via the noncanonical hedgehog signaling pathway. XH30 reversed sonic hedgehog-triggered GLI1 activation and decreased GLI1 activation by insulin-like growth factor 1 via the noncanonical hedgehog signaling pathway. These results indicate that XH30 may represent a novel therapeutic option for TMZ-resistant GBM.

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