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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727161, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603298

RESUMO

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are known to respond to viral infections. However, the activation of pDCs by bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) has not been well studied. Here, we found that pDCs, conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), and B cells express high levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a receptor for LPS. Moreover, LPS could effectively bind to not only cDCs but also pDCs and B cells. Intraperitoneal administration of LPS promoted activation of splenic pDCs and cDCs. LPS treatment led to upregulation of interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) and induced production of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in splenic pDCs. Furthermore, LPS-dependent upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules in pDCs did not require the assistance of other immune cells, such as cDCs. However, the production levels of IFN-α were decreased in cDC-depleted splenocytes, indicating that cDCs may contribute to the enhancement of IFN-α production in pDCs. Finally, we showed that activation of pDCs by LPS requires the TLR4 and myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2) signaling pathways. Thus, these results demonstrate that the gram-negative component LPS can directly stimulate pDCs via TLR4/MD2 stimulation in mice.

2.
Chaos ; 31(9): 093103, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598451

RESUMO

The crosstalk between pyroptosis and apoptosis pathways plays crucial roles in homeostasis, cancer, and other pathologies. However, its molecular regulatory mechanisms for cell death decision-making remain to be elucidated. Based on the recent experimental studies, we developed a core regulatory network model of the crosstalk between pyroptosis and apoptosis pathways. Sensitivity analysis and bifurcation analysis were performed to assess the death mode switching of the network. Both the approaches determined that only the level of caspase-1 or gasdermin D (GSDMD) has the potential to individually change death modes. The decrease of caspase-1 or GSDMD switches cell death from pyroptosis to apoptosis. Seven biochemical reactions among the 21 reactions in total that are essential for determining cell death modes are identified by using sensitivity analysis. While with bifurcation analysis of state transitions, nine reactions are suggested to be able to efficiently switch death modes. Monostability, bistability, and tristability are observed under different conditions. We found that only the reaction that caspase-1 activation induced by stimuli can trigger tristability. Six and two of the nine reactions are identified to be able to induce bistability and monostability, respectively. Moreover, the concurrence of pyroptosis and apoptosis is observed not only within proper bistable ranges, but also within tristable ranges, implying two potentially distinct regulatory mechanisms. Taken together, this work sheds new light on the crosstalk between pyroptosis and apoptosis and uncovers the regulatory mechanisms of various stable state transitions, which play important roles for the development of potential control strategies for disease prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Apoptose , Morte Celular , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638944

RESUMO

Natural polysaccharides have shown promising effects on the regulation of immunity in animals. In this study, we examined the immune stimulatory effect of intranasally administered Codium fragile polysaccharides (CFPs) in mice. Intranasal administration of CFPs in C57BL/6 mice induced the upregulation of surface activation marker expression in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in the mediastinal lymph node (mLN) and the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12p70, and tumor necrosis factor-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, the number of conventional DCs (cDCs) was increased in the mLNs by the upregulation of C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 expression, and subsets of cDCs were also activated following the intranasal administration of CFP. In addition, the intranasal administration of CFPs promoted the activation of natural killer (NK) and T cells in the mLNs, which produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic mediators. Finally, daily administration of CFPs inhibited the infiltration of Lewis lung carcinoma cells into the lungs, and the preventive effect of CFPs on tumor growth required NK and CD8 T cells. Furthermore, CFPs combined with anti-programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody (Ab) improved the therapeutic effect of anti-PD-L1 Ab against lung cancer. Therefore, these data demonstrated that the intranasal administration of CFP induced mucosal immunity against lung cancer.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(40): 47572-47580, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607433

RESUMO

The slow kinetics of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation reaction is the bottleneck of PEC water splitting. Here, we report a comprehensive method to improve the PEC water oxidation performance of a hematite (α-Fe2O3) photoanode, that is, fluorine doping and an ultrathin amorphous cobalt silicate (Co-Sil) oxygen evolution reaction (OER) cocatalyst by photo-assisted electrophoretic deposition (PEPD). Detailed investigations reveal that fluorine doping can reduce the interfacial transfer resistance of charge and increase the carrier density to improve the conductivity of hematite. Also, simultaneously, the Co-Sil is used as an excellent OER cocatalyst to accelerate OER kinetics. Specifically, surface reconstruction of cobalt species occurred, and its average oxidation state increased significantly, which was more conducive to water oxidation. In addition, the presence of silicate groups could reduce the OOH* adsorption free energy. The synergistic effect of these efforts significantly reduced the onset potential and overpotential and enhanced the charge separation of the α-Fe2O3 photoanode, resulting in an excellent photocurrent density around 2.61 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V vs RHE (4.75 times higher than the primitive α-Fe2O3). This work provides a feasible strategy for the construction and development of a potential hematite photoanode.

5.
Theranostics ; 11(19): 9431-9451, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646379

RESUMO

The immunosuppressive, inflammatory microenvironment orchestrated by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) plays a principal role in pathogenesis of sepsis. Fibroblast growth factor-inducible molecule 14 (Fn14) has been established as a potential target for septic acute kidney injury (AKI), making further therapeutic benefits from combined NETs and Fn14 blockade possible. Methods: The concurrence of NETs and Fn14 in mice and patients with septic AKI were assessed by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and in silico studies. Survival, histopathological and biochemical analyses of wild-type and PAD4-deficient CMV-Cre; PAD4 fl/fl mice with septic AKI were applied to evaluate the efficacy of either pharmacological or genetic NETs interruption in combination with Fn14 blockade. Molecular mechanisms underlying such effects were determined by CRISPR technology, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis (FACS), cycloheximide (CHX) pulse-chase, luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Results: NETs formation is concurred with Fn14 upregulation in murine AKI models of abdominal, endotoxemic, multidrug-resistant sepsis as well as in serum samples of patients with septic AKI. Pharmacological or genetic interruption of NETs formation synergizes with ITEM-2, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) of Fn14, to prolong mice survival and provide renal protection against abdominal sepsis, the effects that could be abrogated by elimination of macrophages. Interrupting NETs formation predominantly perpetuates infiltration and survival of efferocytic growth arrest-specific protein 6+ (GAS6+) macrophages in combination with ITEM-2 therapy and enhances transcription of tubular cell-intrinsic Fn14 in a DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a)-independent manner through dismantling the proteasomes-mediated turnover of homeobox protein Hox-A5 (HOXA5) upon abdominal sepsis challenge or LPS stimuli. Pharmacological NETs interruption potentiates the anti-septic AKI efficacy of ITEM-2 in murine models of endotoxemic and multidrug-resistant sepsis. Conclusion: Our preclinical data propose that interrupting NETs formation in combination with Fn14 mAb might be a feasible therapeutic strategy for septic AKI.

6.
Front Chem ; 9: 748044, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631669

RESUMO

As functional nanomaterials with simulating enzyme-like properties, nanozymes can not only overcome the inherent limitations of natural enzymes in terms of stability and preparation cost but also possess design, versatility, maneuverability, and applicability of nanomaterials. Therefore, they can be combined with other materials to form composite nanomaterials with superior performance, which has garnered considerable attention. Carbon dots (CDs) are an ideal choice for these composite materials due to their unique physical and chemical properties, such as excellent water dispersion, stable chemical inertness, high photobleaching resistance, and superior surface engineering. With the continuous emergence of various CDs-based nanozymes, it is vital to thoroughly understand their working principle, performance evaluation, and application scope. This review comprehensively discusses the recent advantages and disadvantages of CDs-based nanozymes in biomedicine, catalysis, sensing, detection aspects. It is expected to provide valuable insights into developing novel CDs-based nanozymes.

7.
ACS Omega ; 6(39): 25782-25790, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632234

RESUMO

Core-shell micro-spheres (MS) with both negative and positive charges in the core and only negative charges in the shell were developed as adaptive plugging agents for in-depth conformance control for enhanced oil recovery. The MS were designed to propagate deeply into the reservoir due to the small particle size and electrostatic repulsion between the MS and the sandstone at the initial stage of injection and form aggregates by electrostatic attraction between the cores with mixed charges when the shells degraded at a given time during transportation, leading to an effective plugging of the highly permeable layers with low residual oil saturation. The self-assembling and plugging behaviors of the MS have been studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that charge density (D charge), fraction of positive charge (F p), MS concentration, temperature, and salinity are the key factors influencing the self-assembling behaviors. The electrostatic interaction would become stronger with the increase in D charge when it is larger than 0.5. The MS are more likely to form aggregates when F p approaches 0.5. The higher the concentration of the MS, the stronger the electrostatic interaction between the MS. In addition, electrostatic interactions between the MS become stronger with the increase in temperature and decrease in salinity. Simulation results prove that the MS with mixed charges can effectively and adaptively plug highly permeable layers with low residual oil saturation through self-assembling by combination of electrostatic interactions along with physical bridging, leading to the improvement of oil recovery. Furthermore, block charge distribution will be helpful for the MS with mixed charges to form larger aggregates than that of the random mode to effectively plug the highly permeable layers.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645125

RESUMO

Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) ligands have been widely shown to correlate with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer progression. Lobeglitazone (LGZ) is a novel ligand of PPAR-γ; and its role in EMT and metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the role of LGZ in metastatic behavior of PTC cells. Methods: Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of LGZ in BRAF-mutated PTC cell lines (BCPAP and K1) were determined using MTT assay. Rosiglitazone (RGZ), the PPAR-γ ligand was used as a positive control. The protein expression of PPAR-γ, cell-surface proteins (E-cadherin, N-cadherin), cytoskeletal protein (Vimentin), transcription factor (Snail), p38 mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 pathway, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression were measured using Western blotting. Changes in E-cadherin expression were also determined using immunocytochemistry. Cell migration and invasion were analyzed using wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays. Results: Treatment with LGZ or RGZ significantly inhibited transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-ß1)-induced EMT-associated processes such as fibroblast-like morphological changes, EMT-related protein expression, and increased cell migration and invasion in BCPAP and K1 cells. LGZ restored TGF-ß1-induced loss of E-cadherin, as observed using immunocytochemistry. Furthermore, LGZ and RGZ suppressed TGF-ß1-induced MMP-2 expression and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not ERK1/2. Although there was no change in PPAR-γ expression after treatment with LGZ or RGZ, the effect of downstream processes mediated by LGZ was hampered by GW9662, a PPAR-γ antagonist. Conclusion: LGZ inhibits TGF-ß1-induced EMT, migration, and invasion through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in a PPAR-γ-dependent manner in PTC cells.

9.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2021: 5538395, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659403

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of thyroid nodules increases in the general population. Similarly, we have also seen a dramatic increase in the number of thyroid surgeries. However, the mortality rate of thyroid cancer remained stable or even decreased. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether thyroid cancer affects the malignant risk of the contralateral TI-RADS 3 and 4 nodules. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in our institution for all thyroid procedures due to nodules from December 2018 to December 2019. All eligible patients were divided into the experimental group (bilateral nodules) and the control group (unilateral nodules) to assess whether the proportion of malignant nodules was different between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to control potential confounding factors to investigate whether their differences were statistically significant. Results: A total of 330 patients underwent thyroid surgery, of whom 137 were eligible, including 84 in the experimental group and 53 in the control group. The proportion of malignant nodules was significantly different between the experimental group and the control group (29.8% versus 58.5%, unadjusted OR 0.30, 95% CI: 0.17-0.82, p=0.001). However, after controlling for potential confounding factors, including age (p=0.004), gender (p=0.775), and TI-RADS classification (p ≤ 0.001), we found that the difference was not significant (adjusted OR 1.08, 95% CI: 0.39-3.01, p=0.886). Conclusion: There is no evidence that thyroid cancer affects the malignant risk of the contralateral TI-RADS 3 and 4 nodules. This study has been registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (clinical trial registration number: ChiCTR2000038611, registration time: September 26, 2020).

10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 755715, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660350

RESUMO

The current methods of treating toxoplasmosis have a number of side effects, and these therapies are only effective against the acute stage of the disease. Thus, development of new low toxicity and efficient anti-Toxoplasma drugs is extremely important. Natural products are important sources for screening new drugs; among them, essential oils (EOs) have efficacy in anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-insect, and other aspects. In this study, 16 EOs were screened for their anti-T. gondii activity. Lavandula angustifolia essential oil (La EO)was found to have an anti-parasitic effect on T. gondii. The cytotoxicity of La EO was firstly evaluated using the MTT assay on human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells, and then the anti-T. gondii activity was evaluated by plaque assay. Finally, the invasion experiment and electron microscope observation were used to study the mechanism of La EO in anti-toxoplasma activity. The results indicated that the CC50 of La EO was 4.48 mg/ml and that La EO had activity against T. gondii and the inhibition was in a dose-dependent manner under safe concentrations. La EO was able to reduce T. gondii invasion, which may be due to its detrimental effect on changes of the morphology of tachyzoites. These findings indicated that La EO could be a potential drug for treating toxoplasmosis.

11.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 139: 103666, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619323

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in the various physiological processes of insects. The wing is a successful adaptation allowing insects to escape from unfavorable environments, while information on lncRNAs related to wing development is limited. In this study, we constructed 12 libraries from two RNA-seq comparisons: 4th instar winged nymphs versus winged adults and 4th instar wingless nymphs versus wingless adults in the brown citrus aphid Aphis citricidus, to identify the wing development-associated lncRNAs. A total of 2914 lncRNAs were identified and 50 lncRNAs were differentially expressed during the 4th instar winged nymphs to winged adults transition, and 28 lncRNAs changed during the 4th instar wingless nymphs to wingless adults transition. The differentially expressed lncRNAs were grouped into six clusters according to the expression patterns in the combined two-winged morphs. lncRNA Ac_lnc54106.1 was up-regulated during 4th instar winged nymphs to winged adults transition, but a lack of change during the 4th instar wingless nymphs to wingless adults transition implied a critical role in the specific regulation of wing development. RNA interference of Ac_lnc54106.1 resulted in malformed wings. Targets prediction, expression patterns, and RNAi assay results showed that Ac_lnc54106.1 may target the PiggyBac transposable element-derived protein 4 (PGBD4) gene, decrease expression of the canonical wing development-related genes, and finally regulate wing development. The systematic identification of lncRNAs in an aphid increases our understanding of how non-coding RNA mediates the wing plasticity of insects.

12.
J Econ Entomol ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668540

RESUMO

Eotetranychus kankitus is an important mite pest in citrus, but molecular data on the developmental processes of E. kankitus are lacking. The different development stages mix of E. kankitus was used to sequence for transcriptome and small RNAs to identify genes and predict miRNAs associated with sesquiterpenoid and ecdysteroid biosynthesis and signaling pathways. More than 36 million clean reads were assembled and 67,927 unigenes were generated. Of the unigenes, 19,300 were successfully annotated through annotation databases NR, SwissProt, COG, GO, KEGG, PFAM, and KOG. The transcripts were involved in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis (11 genes) and ecdysteroid biosynthesis and signaling pathway (13 genes). Another, small RNA library was obtained and 31 conserved miRNAs were identified. Five most abundant miRNAs were Ek-miR-5735, Ek-miR-1, Ek-miR-263a, Ek-miR-184, and Ek-miR-8. The target genes related to sesquiterpenoid and ecdysteroid showed that 10 of the conserved miRNAs could potentially target the sesquiterpenoid and ecdysteroid pathway according to four-prediction software, sRNAT, miRanda, RNAhybrid, and Risearch2. Thus, the results of this study will provide bioinformatics information for further molecular studies of E. kankitus which may facilitate improved pest control strategies.

13.
ACS Nano ; 15(9): 14492-14508, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478266

RESUMO

Recent advances in supramolecular chemistry research have led to the development of artificial chemical systems that can form self-assembled structures that imitate proteins involved in the regulation of cellular function. However, intracellular polymerization systems that operate inside living cells have been seldom reported. In this study, we developed an intramitochondrial polymerization-induced self-assembly system for regulating the cellular fate of cancer cells. It showed that polymeric disulfide formation inside cells occurred due to the high reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration of cancer mitochondria. This polymerization barely occurs elsewhere in the cell owing to the reductive intracellular environment. The polymerization of the thiol-containing monomers further increases the ROS level inside the mitochondria, thereby autocatalyzing the polymerization process and creating fibrous polymeric structures. This process induces dysfunction of the mitochondria, which in turn activates cell necroptosis. Thus, this in situ polymerization system shows great potential for cancer treatment, including that of drug-resistant cancers.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos , Neoplasias , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Polimerização
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502035

RESUMO

Although fucoidan, a well-studied seaweed-extracted polysaccharide, has shown immune stimulatory effects that elicit anticancer immunity, mucosal adjuvant effects via intranasal administration have not been studied. In this study, the effect of Ecklonia cava-extracted fucoidan (ECF) on the induction of anti-cancer immunity in the lung was examined by intranasal administration. In C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, intranasal administration of ECF promoted the activation of dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells, and T cells in the mediastinal lymph node (mLN). The ECF-induced NK and T cell activation was mediated by DCs. In addition, intranasal injection with ECF enhanced the anti-PD-L1 antibody-mediated anti-cancer activities against B16 melanoma and CT-26 carcinoma tumor growth in the lungs, which were required cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells. Thus, these data demonstrated that ECF functioned as a mucosal adjuvant that enhanced the immunotherapeutic effect of immune checkpoint inhibitors against metastatic lung cancer.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Laminaria/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Metástase Neoplásica , Extratos Vegetais , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
15.
J Exerc Rehabil ; 17(4): 234-240, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527634

RESUMO

Memory state of rat pups born to old and obese mother rats and the effect of a treadmill running of mother rats on the memory of rat pups were studied. The radial 8-arm maze test was performed to detect spatial learning memory, and the level of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-6 in the hippocampus was measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Western blotting was performed for the expression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer (NF-κB), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκB-α), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 was conducted. The newborn rats were classified into following groups: pups born to old mother rats, pups born to old mother rats with exercise, pups born to old and obese mother rats, and pups born to old and obese mother rats with exercise. Exercise of mother ameliorated spatial learning memory impairment, inhibited proinflammatory cytokines production, NF-κB expression, and IκB-α phosphorylation of the pups born to old and obese mother rats. Maternal exercise suppressed Bax expression, the number of caspase-3, the level of MMP-9, and enhanced Bcl-2 expression of the pups born to old and obese mother rats. When the maternal exercise was performed, the impairment of spatial learning memory in pups was ameliorated. Therefore, it can be seen that exercise during pregnancy of older and obese mothers is an important factor in fetal health management.

16.
NPJ Syst Biol Appl ; 7(1): 35, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475401

RESUMO

Biological functions of bacteria can be regulated by monitoring their own population density induced by the quorum sensing system. However, quantitative insight into the system's dynamics and regulatory mechanism remain challenging. Here, we construct a comprehensive mathematical model of the synthetic quorum sensing circuit that controls population density in Escherichia coli. Simulations agree well with experimental results obtained under different ribosome-binding site (RBS) efficiencies. We present a quantitative description of the component dynamics and show how the components respond to isopropyl-ß-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction. The optimal IPTG-induction range for efficiently controlling population density is quantified. The controllable area of population density by acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) permeability is quantified as well, indicating that high AHL permeability should be treated with a high dose of IPTG, while low AHL permeability should be induced with low dose for efficiently controlling. Unexpectedly, an oscillatory behavior of the growth curve is observed with proper RBS-binding strengths and the oscillation is greatly restricted by the bacterial death induced by toxic metabolic by-products. Moreover, we identify that the mechanism underlying the emergence of oscillation is determined by the negative feedback loop structure within the signaling. Bifurcation analysis and landscape theory are further employed to study the stochastic dynamic and global stability of the system, revealing two faces of toxic metabolic by-products in controlling oscillatory behavior. Overall, our study presents a quantitative basis for understanding and new insights into the control mechanism of quorum sensing system, providing possible clues to guide the development of more rational control strategy.

17.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 44: 102166, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) may cause life-threatening conditions. This study aimed to screen echocardiographic parameters at sea level (SL) to identify predictors of AMS development. METHODS: Overall, 106 healthy men were recruited at SL and ascended to 4100 m within 7 days by bus. Basic characteristics, physiological data, and echocardiographic parameters were collected both at SL and 4100 m above SL. AMS was identified by 2018 Lake Louise Questionnaire Score. RESULTS: After acute high altitude exposure (AHAE), 33 subjects were diagnosed with AMS and exhibited lower lateral mitral valve tissue motion annular displacement (MV TMADlateral) at SL than AMS-free subjects (13.09 vs. 13.89 mm, p = 0.022). MV TMADlateral at SL was significantly correlated with AMS occurrence (OR = 0.717, 95% CI: 0.534-0.964, p = 0.028). The MV TMADlateral<13.30-mm group showed over 4-fold risk for AMS development versus the MV TMADlateral≥13.30-mm group. After AHAE, the MV TMADlateral<13.30-mm group had increased HR (64 vs. 74 bpm, p = 0.001) and right-ventricular myocardial performance index (0.54 vs. 0.69, p = 0.009) and decreased left ventricular global longitudinal strain (-21.50 vs. -20.23%, p = 0.002), tricuspid valve E/A ratio (2.11 vs. 1.89, p = 0.019), and MV E-wave deceleration time (169.60 vs. 156.90 ms, p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: MV TMADlateral at SL was a potential predictor of AMS occurrence and might be associated with differential alterations of ventricular systolic and diastolic functions in subjects with different MV TMADlateral levels at SL after AHAE.

18.
Foods ; 10(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574268

RESUMO

Recently, camel milk (CM) has been considered as a health-promoting icon due to its medicinal and nutritional benefits. CM fat globule membrane has numerous health-promoting properties, such as anti-adhesion and anti-bacterial properties, which are suitable for people who are allergic to cow's milk. CM contains milk fat globules with a small size, which accounts for their rapid digestion. Moreover, it also comprises lower amounts of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids concurrent with higher levels of essential fatty acids than cow milk, with an improved lipid profile manifested by reducing cholesterol levels in the blood. In addition, it is rich in phospholipids, especially plasmalogens and sphingomyelin, suggesting that CM fat may meet the daily nutritional requirements of adults and infants. Thus, CM and its dairy products have become more attractive for consumers. In view of this, we performed a comprehensive review of CM fat's composition and nutritional properties. The overall goal is to increase knowledge related to CM fat characteristics and modify its unfavorable perception. Future studies are expected to be directed toward a better understanding of CM fat, which appears to be promising in the design and formulation of new products with significant health-promoting benefits.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; : 150546, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582862

RESUMO

The concentrations of 75 polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) congeners in 95 human serum samples from the Fengjiang electronic waste dismantling area and Huangyan District in Taizhou City (Zhejiang Province, China) were determined. Thyroid hormone (FT3, FT4, TSH, and TRH) concentrations in the samples were also determined. The total PCN concentrations in the samples from Fengjiang and Huangyan were 1.29 × 104-4.28 × 105 and 8.29 × 102-6.45 × 105 pg/g lipid, respectively. The less-chlorinated (Cl1-3) PCN concentrations were relatively high in all of the samples, and the concentrations in the samples from the two areas were not significantly different. The sums of the combustion-related PCN congener concentrations were significantly higher in the samples from Fengjiang than in the samples from Huangyan, and the sums of the more-chlorinated (Cl4-8) PCNs were slightly higher in the samples from Fengjiang than in the samples from Huangyan. The relationship between the PCN concentration and age indicated that electronic waste controls have decreased human exposure to PCNs but that attention should still be paid to exposure to less-chlorinated PCNs. The main PCN congeners that contributed to the toxic equivalent concentrations were markedly different for the samples from Fengjiang and Huangyan. CN-66/67 was dominant for the Fengjiang samples and CN-10 was dominant for the Huangyan samples. Attention should be paid to the risks posed by less-chlorinated PCNs to human health. CN-1, CN-2, and CN-20 concentrations are related to human thyroid hormone levels, and the relationships between less-chlorinated PCN concentrations and thyroid hormone concentrations should be further studied.

20.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tanning is an important physiological process with critical roles in cuticle pigmentation and sclerotization. Previous studies have shown that insect cuticle tanning is closely associated with the tyrosine metabolism pathway, which consists of a series of enzymes. RESULTS: In this study, 24 tyrosine metabolism pathway genes were identified in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) genome. Gene expression profiles throughout 15 developmental stages of B. dorsalis were established based on our previous RNA sequencing data, and we found that 13 enzyme genes could be involved in the process of pupariation. Accordingly, a tyrosine-mediated tanning pathway during the pupariation of B. dorsalis was predicted and a critical enzyme, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) decarboxylase (DDC), was used to explore its possible roles in formation of the puparium. First, a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed that BdDDC had an epidermis-specific expression pattern, and was highly expressed during larval metamorphosis in B. dorsalis. Subsequent disruption of BdDDC by feeding 5-day-old larvae with DDC inhibitor (l-α-methyl-DOPA) could lead to: (i) a significant decrease in BdDDC enzyme activity and dopamine concentration; (ii) defects in puparium pigmentation; (iii) impairment of the morphology and less thickness of the puparium; and (iv) lower pupal weight and obstacles to eclosion. CONCLUSION: This study provided a potential tyrosine metabolic pathway that was responsible for insect tanning during pupariation, and the BdDDC enzyme has been shown to have crucial roles in larval-pupal tanning of B. dorsalis.

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