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1.
Lab Invest ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625658

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant primary tumor in the central nervous system of adults. Temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating agent, is the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for GBM patients. However, its efficacy is often limited by innate or acquired chemoresistance. Cancer cells can rewire their metabolic programming to support rapid growth and sustain cell survival against chemotherapies. An example is the de novo serine synthesis pathway (SSP), one of the main branches from glycolysis that is highly activated in multiple cancers in promoting cancer progression and inducing chemotherapy resistance. However, the roles of SSP in TMZ therapy for GBM patients remain unexplored. In this study, we employed NCT503, a highly selective inhibitor of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH, the first rate-limiting enzyme of SSP), to study whether inhibition of SSP may enhance TMZ efficacy in MGMT-positive GBMs. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), flowcytometry and colony formation assays demonstrated that NCT503 worked synergistically with TMZ in suppressing GBM cell growth and inducing apoptosis in T98G and U118 cells in vitro. U118 and patient-derived GBM subcutaneous xenograft models showed that combined NCT503 and TMZ treatment inhibited GBM growth and promoted apoptosis more significantly than would each treatment alone in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that NCT503 treatment decreased MGMT expression possibly by modulating the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Moreover, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species were elevated especially when NCT503 and TMZ treatments were combined, and the synergistic effects could be partially negated by NAC, a classic scavenger of reactive oxygen species. Taken together, these results suggest that NCT503 may be a promising agent for augmenting TMZ efficacy in the treatment of GBM, especially in TMZ-resistant GBMs with high expression of MGMT.

2.
Appl Opt ; 60(24): 7485-7491, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613042

RESUMO

We propose an amplitude-modulated continuous-wave laser rangefinder employing Bessel-Gauss beamforming. Our Bessel-Gauss beam was generated by a newly proposed doublet configuration, which is simple and low cost. Such a beam was propagated >2m with a mainlobe having the diameter <1mm. We have conducted proof-of-concept ranging experiments employing the amplitude-modulated continuous-wave scheme with the Bessel-Gauss beam and obtained ranging results of a measurement distance up to 2 m. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply zeroth-order Bessel-Gauss beamforming to laser rangefinders.

3.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(37): 773-777, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594988

RESUMO

What is already known on this topic?: The prevalence of structural birth defects, especially neural tube defects, decreased after national folic acid (FA) supplementation initiation. What is added by this report?: The prevalence of orofacial clefts (OFCs) in five counties of Shanxi Province in northern China, including most subtypes except cleft palate, showed a downward trend in the past two decades. In this study, pre-perinatal prevalence increased due to earlier detection. What are the implications for public health practice?: Periconceptional supplementation with FA may contribute to the decline in OFCs prevalence, while the effect on the OFCs subtype needs further investigation. Continuing to advocate for earlier supplementation (3 months before conception) and increased supplementation frequency (daily consumption) could promote further reduction in the prevalence of OFCs. Specific surveillance of this effect in the era of universal three-child policy is warranted.

4.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(37): 778-782, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594989

RESUMO

What is already known about this topic?: Passive smoking during pregnancy, which is prevalent in China, has been reported to be associated with an increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) in five counties of Shanxi Province in northern China. What is added by this report?: After 4 years since the implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in China, 59.4% of mothers of NTDs cases and 29.4% of mothers of healthy controls reported passive smoking during the periconceptional period. The association between periconceptional passive smoking and an increased risk for NTDs remains in the study population. What are the implications for public health practice?: It's urgent to take measures to prevent passive smoking among pregnant women to minimize the harmful effects on offspring.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647228

RESUMO

PURPOSE: "Zygotic cleavage failure" is an embryonic phenotype that causes female infertility and failure of in vitro fertilization and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. We aimed to identify pathogenic variants in a female infertility patient from a consanguineous family with the "zygotic cleavage failure" phenotype. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed in the affected patient; Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the identified variant. The functional effect of the identified variant was further investigated in HeLa cells. RESULTS: We identified a novel homozygous missense mutation in BTG4 (c.285G > C, p.W95C) in the affected individual. Co-immunoprecipitation in HeLa cells showed the complete loss of the interaction between the p.W95C BTG4 variant protein and CNOT7. CONCLUSION: This study confirms our previous research and expands the mutational spectrum of BTG4. Our findings complement the diagnostic genetic basis for "zygotic cleavage failure" patients and suggest that BTG4 may be a good target for future therapeutic strategies.

6.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt B): 127466, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653865

RESUMO

The adverse effects of uranium exposure on human health are well-known; less is known, however, regarding its association with congenital malformations. We conducted a case-control study to examine the association between prenatal exposure to uranium and risk for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs) using the concentration of uranium in placental tissue as an exposure marker in 408 NTD cases and 593 healthy controls. Uranium concentration was quantified with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The odds ratios of NTDs for uranium exposure levels, categorized into quartiles, were estimated using logistic regression. The median concentration of uranium in the NTD group (0.409 ng/g) was significantly higher than that in the control group (0.218 ng/g). The risk for NTDs increased 2.52-fold (95% CI, 1.85-3.45) for concentrations of uranium above the median value for all participants. After adjusting for confounders, the risk for NTDs increased 1.36-fold (95% CI, 1.25-6.17), 1.77-fold (95% CI, 1.09-2.85), and 3.60-fold (95% CI, 2.30-5.64) for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of uranium concentrations compared to the lowest quartile, respectively. Prenatal exposure to uranium is a risk factor for NTDs in this population. Prospective studies are needed to further validate this finding.

7.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 7432-7445, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605340

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is involved in the diabetogenic process and cerebral ischemic injury. However, it remained unclear whether BTK inhibition has remedial effects on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury complicated with diabetes. We aim to investigate the regulatory role and potential mechanism of ibrutinib, a selective inhibitor of BTK, in cerebral I/R injured diabetic mice. The cytotoxicity and cell vitality tests were performed to evaluate the toxic and protective effects of ibrutinib at different incubating concentrations on normal PC12 cells or which were exposed to high glucose for 24 h, followed by hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R), respectively. Streptozotocin (STZ) stimulation-induced diabetic mice were subjected to 1 h ischemia and then reperfusion. Then the diabetic mice received different dosages of ibrutinib or vehicle immediately and 24 h after the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The behavioral, histopathological, and molecular biological tests were then performed to demonstrate the neuroprotective effects and mechanism in I/R injured diabetic mice. Consequently, Ibrutinib improved the decreased cell viability and attenuated oxidative stress in the high glucose incubated PC12 cells which subjected to H/R injury. In the I/R injured diabetic mice, ibrutinib reduced the cerebral infarct volume, improved neurological deficits, ameliorated pathological changes, and improved autophagy in a slightly dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the expression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway-related proteins were significantly upregulated by ibrutinib treatment. In summary, our finding collectively demonstrated that Ibrutinib could effectively ameliorate cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via ameliorating inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and improving autophagy through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in diabetic mice.

8.
Theranostics ; 11(19): 9605-9622, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646389

RESUMO

Rationale: Recurrent and metastatic cancers often undergo a period of dormancy, which is closely associated with cellular quiescence, a state whereby cells exit the cell cycle and are reversibly arrested in G0 phase. Curative cancer treatment thus requires therapies that either sustain the dormant state of quiescent cancer cells, or preferentially, eliminate them. However, the mechanisms responsible for the survival of quiescent cancer cells remain obscure. Methods: Dual genome-editing was carried out using a CRISPR/Cas9-based system to label endogenous p27 and Ki67 with the green and red fluorescent proteins EGFP and mCherry, respectively, in melanoma cells. Analysis of transcriptomes of isolated EGFP-p27highmCherry-Ki67low quiescent cells was conducted at bulk and single cell levels using RNA-sequencing. The extracellular acidification rate and oxygen consumption rate were measured to define metabolic phenotypes. SiRNA and inducible shRNA knockdown, chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays were employed to elucidate mechanisms of the metabolic switch in quiescent cells. Results: Dual labelling of endogenous p27 and Ki67 with differentiable fluorescent probes allowed for visualization, isolation, and analysis of viable p27highKi67low quiescent cells. Paradoxically, the proto-oncoprotein c-Myc, which commonly drives malignant cell cycle progression, was expressed at relatively high levels in p27highKi67low quiescent cells and supported their survival through promoting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In this context, c-Myc selectively transactivated genes encoding OXPHOS enzymes, including subunits of isocitric dehydrogenase 3 (IDH3), whereas its binding to cell cycle progression gene promoters was decreased in quiescent cells. Silencing of c-Myc or the catalytic subunit of IDH3, IDH3α, preferentially killed quiescent cells, recapitulating the effect of treatment with OXPHOS inhibitors. Conclusion: These results establish a rigorous experimental system for investigating cellular quiescence, uncover the high selectivity of c-Myc in activating OXPHOS genes in quiescent cells, and propose OXPHOS targeting as a potential therapeutic avenue to counter cancer cells in quiescence.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 735643, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552595

RESUMO

Tissue-resident-memory T cells (TRM) populate the body's barrier surfaces, functioning as frontline responders against reencountered pathogens. Understanding of the mechanisms by which CD8TRM achieve effective immune protection remains incomplete in a naturally recurring human disease. Using laser capture microdissection and transcriptional profiling, we investigate the impact of CD8TRM on the tissue microenvironment in skin biopsies sequentially obtained from a clinical cohort of diverse disease expression during herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) reactivation. Epithelial cells neighboring CD8TRM display elevated and widespread innate and cell-intrinsic antiviral signature expression, largely related to IFNG expression. Detailed evaluation via T-cell receptor reconstruction confirms that CD8TRM recognize viral-infected cells at the specific HSV-2 peptide/HLA level. The hierarchical pattern of core IFN-γ signature expression is well-conserved in normal human skin across various anatomic sites, while elevation of IFI16, TRIM 22, IFITM2, IFITM3, MX1, MX2, STAT1, IRF7, ISG15, IFI44, CXCL10 and CCL5 expression is associated with HSV-2-affected asymptomatic tissue. In primary human cells, IFN-γ pretreatment reduces gene transcription at the immediate-early stage of virus lifecycle, enhances IFI16 restriction of wild-type HSV-2 replication and renders favorable kinetics for host protection. Thus, the adaptive immune response through antigen-specific recognition instructs innate and cell-intrinsic antiviral machinery to control herpes reactivation, a reversal of the canonical thinking of innate activating adaptive immunity in primary infection. Communication from CD8TRM to surrounding epithelial cells to activate broad innate resistance might be critical in restraining various viral diseases.

10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 702061, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526967

RESUMO

Aims: This study aimed to explore the value of ovarian reserve tests (ORTs) for predicting poor ovary response (POR) and whether an age cutoff could improve this forecasting, so as to facilitate clinical decision-making for women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on poor ovary response (POR) patients using real-world data from five reproductive centers of university-affiliated hospitals or large academic hospitals in China. A total of 89,002 women with infertility undergoing their first traditional ovarian stimulation cycle for in vitro fertilization from January 2013 to December 2019 were included. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to estimate the prediction value of POR by the following ORTs: anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), antral follicle count (AFC), basal FSH (bFSH), as well as patient age. Results: In this retrospective cohort, the frequency of POR in the first IVF cycle was 14.8%. Age, AFC, AMH, and bFSH were used as predicting factors for POR, of which AMH and AFC were the best indicators when using a single factor for prediction (AUC 0.862 and 0.842, respectively). The predictive values of the multivariate model included age and AMH (AUC 0.865), age and AFC (AUC 0.850), age and all three ORTs (AUC 0.873). Compared with using a single factor alone, the combinations of ORTs and female age can increase the predictive value of POR. Adding age to single AMH model improved the prediction accuracy compared with AMH alone (AUC 0.865 vs. 0.862), but the improvement was not significant. The AFC with age model significantly improved the prediction accuracy of the single AFC model (AUC 0.846 vs. 0.837). To reach 90% specificity for POR prediction, the cutoff point for age was 38 years old with a sensitivity of 40.7%, 5 for AFC with a sensitivity of 55.9%, and 1.18 ng/ml for AMH with a sensitivity of 63.3%. Conclusion: AFC and AMH demonstrated a high accuracy when using ROC regression to predict POR. When testing is reliable, AMH can be used alone to forecast POR. When AFC is used as a prediction parameter, age is suggested to be considered as well. Based on the results of the cutoff threshold analysis, AFC ≤ 5 and AMH ≤ 1.18 ng/ml should be recommended to predict POR more accurately in IVF/ICSI patients.

11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 699702, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512626

RESUMO

The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) pathway senses DNA and induces type I interferon (IFN) production. Whether and how the STING pathway crosstalk to other innate immune pathways during pathogen infection, however, remains unclear. Here, we showed that STING was needed for Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced late, not early, stage of lung IFNγ production. Using knockout mice, IFNγ reporter mice, intracellular cytokine staining, and adoptive cell transfer, we showed that cGAS-STING-dependent lung IFNγ production was independent of type I IFNs. Furthermore, STING expression in monocyte/monocyte-derived cells governed IFNγ production in the lung via the production of IL-12p70. Surprisingly, DNA stimulation alone could not induce IL-12p70 or IFNγ in Ly6Chi monocyte. The production of IFNγ required the activation by both DNA and heat-killed S. pneumococcus. Accordingly, MyD88-/- monocyte did not generate IL-12p70 or IFNγ. In summary, the cGAS-STING pathway synergizes with the MyD88 pathway in monocyte to promote late-stage lung IFNγ production during pulmonary pneumococcal infection.

12.
Langmuir ; 37(38): 11251-11259, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528801

RESUMO

Solid/liquid interfacial structure occupies great importance in chemistry, biology, and materials. In this paper, by combining EC-SERS study and DFT calculation, we reveal the adsorption and dimerization of sulfite (SO32-) at a gold electrode/water solution interface, and establish an adsorption displacement strategy to suppress the dimerization of sulfite. At the gold electrode/sodium sulfite solution interface, at least two layers of SO32- anions are adsorbed on the electrode surface. As the applied potential shifts negatively, the adsorption strength of the first SO32- layer is weakened gradually and then is dimerized with the second orientated SO32- layer to form S2O52-, and S2O52- is further reduced to S2O32-. After hydroxyethylene disphosphonic acid (HEDP) is introduced to the gold electrode/sodium sulfite solution interface, the second oriented SO32- layer is replaced by a HEDP coadsorption layer. This results in the first layer of SO32- being desorbed directly without any structural transformation or chemical reaction as the potential shifts negatively. The suppression of sulfite dimerization by HEDP is more clear at the gold electrode/gold sulfite solution interface owing to the electroreduction of gold ions. Furthermore, the electrochemical studies and electrodeposition experiments show that as the sulfite dimerization reaction is suppressed, the electroreduction of gold ions is accelerated, and the deposited gold coating is bright and dense with finer grains.

13.
Anxiety Stress Coping ; : 1-10, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Little has been done to examine socioeconomic differences in the trajectory of psychological well-being during a disaster. This paper investigates educational differences in the changes in psychological well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic and explores the mechanisms of the differences. METHODS: The data were obtained from a unique two-wave panel survey conducted during the peak and waning phases of the pandemic in Hubei province, the epicenter of the pandemic in China. RESULTS: At the peak of the pandemic, individuals with different levels of education reported high and similar levels of psychological distress. As the pandemic subsided, the psychological well-being of people of all educational levels rebounded, but the recovery was greater and faster for those with tertiary education. Mediation analysis shows that neighborhood social support and evaluation of the performance of grassroots government partially explained the advantage of the more highly educated. CONCLUSION: This study reveals how social differentiation is translated into health disparities when a disaster strikes. It may also inform public policy by identifying segments of the population at heightened risk of psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic.

14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502833

RESUMO

Information and communication technologies have essential impacts on people's life. The real time convenience of the internet greatly facilitates the information transmission and knowledge exchange of users. However, network intruders utilize some communication holes to complete malicious attacks. Some traditional machine learning (ML) methods based on business features and deep learning (DL) methods extracting features automatically are used to identify these malicious behaviors. However, these approaches tend to use only one type of data source, which can result in the loss of some features that can not be mined in the data. In order to address this problem and to improve the precision of malicious behavior detection, this paper proposed a one-dimensional (1D) convolution-based fusion model of packet capture files and business feature data for malicious network behavior detection. Fusion models improve the malicious behavior detection results compared with single ones in some available network traffic and Internet of things (IOT) datasets. The experiments also indicate that early data fusion, feature fusion and decision fusion are all effective in the model. Moreover, this paper also discusses the adaptability of one-dimensional convolution and two-dimensional (2D) convolution to network traffic data.


Assuntos
Internet das Coisas , Comunicação , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
15.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0025721, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523991

RESUMO

Human-to-human transmission of viruses, such as influenza viruses and coronaviruses, can promote virus evolution and the emergence of new strains with increased potential for creating pandemics. Clinical studies analyzing how a particular type of virus progressively evolves new traits, such as resistance to antiviral therapies, as a result of passing between different human hosts are difficult to carry out because of the complexity, scale, and cost of the challenge. Here, we demonstrate that spontaneous evolution of influenza A virus through both mutation and gene reassortment can be reconstituted in vitro by sequentially passaging infected mucus droplets between multiple human lung airway-on-a-chip microfluidic culture devices (airway chips). Modeling human-to-human transmission of influenza virus infection on chips in the continued presence of the antiviral drugs amantadine or oseltamivir led to the spontaneous emergence of clinically prevalent resistance mutations, and strains that were resistant to both drugs were identified when they were administered in combination. In contrast, we found that nafamostat, an inhibitor targeting host serine proteases, did not induce viral resistance. This human preclinical model may be useful for studying viral evolution in vitro and identifying potential influenza virus variants before they appear in human populations, thereby enabling preemptive design of new and more effective vaccines and therapeutics. IMPORTANCE The rapid evolution of viruses, such as influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is challenging the use and development of antivirals and vaccines. Studies of within-host viral evolution can contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary and epidemiological factors that shape viral global evolution as well as development of better antivirals and vaccines. However, little is known about how viral evolution of resistance to antivirals occurs clinically due to the lack of preclinical models that can faithfully model influenza infection in humans. Our study shows that influenza viral evolution through mutation or gene reassortment can be recapitulated in a human lung airway-on-a-chip (airway chip) microfluidic culture device that can faithfully recapitulate the influenza infection in vitro. This approach is useful for studying within-host viral evolution, evaluating viral drug resistance, and identifying potential influenza virus variants before they appear in human populations, thereby enabling the preemptive design of new and more effective vaccines and therapeutics.

16.
Dalton Trans ; 50(38): 13387-13398, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473154

RESUMO

Novel [CuL2Cl]Cl·H2O (1) and [FeL2Cl2]Cl·MeOH·CHCl3·H2O (2) complexes of (Z)-N'-((E)-3-methyl-4-oxothiazolidin-2-ylidene)picolinohydrazonamide (L) as antitumor agents were designed and synthesized in order to explore DNA and serum albumin interaction. X-ray diffraction revealed that both 1 and 2 were a triclinic crystal system with P1̄ space group, which consisted of a positive electric main unit, a negative chloride ion and some solvent molecules. The complexes with DNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by fluorescence and electronic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated that there was moderate intercalative binding mode between the complexes and DNA with Kapp values of 2.40 × 105 M-1 (1) and 6.49 × 105 M-1 (2). Agarose gel electrophoresis experiment showed that both 1 and 2 exhibited obvious DNA cleavage activity via an oxidative DNA damage pathway, and the cleavage activities of 1 were stronger than those of 2. Cytotoxicity assay showed that 1 had a more effective antitumor activity than 2. The two complexes were bound to BSA by a high affinity and quenched the fluorescence of BSA through a static mechanism. The thermodynamic parameters suggested that hydrophobic interactions played a key role in the binding process. The binding energy xpscore of 1 and 2 were -10.529 kcal mol-1 and -10.826 kcal mol-1 by docking studies, and this suggested that the binding process was spontaneous. Complex 1 displayed a lysosome-specific targeting behavior with a Pearson coefficient value of 0.82 by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and accumulated in the lysosomes, followed by the disruption of lysosomal integrity.

17.
J Oral Rehabil ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection combined with physical therapy for the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of PRP injection combined with individualised comprehensive physical therapy for the treatment of TMJ-OA. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 40 patients with TMJ-OA who received PRP injection or PRP injection combined with individualised comprehensive physical therapy. Pain intensity, maximum mouth opening, temporomandibular joint sounds, and the Jaw Functional Limitation Scale (JFLS) scores and imaging findings were compared before treatment and during follow-up. RESULTS: The pain intensity, maximum mouth opening, and temporomandibular joint sounds of the two groups significantly improved with an increase in treatment time (p < .05). The pain improvement in the combined treatment group was greater than that in the PRP injection group at 3 and 6 months (p < .05). The improvement of mouth opening was better in the combined treatment group, whereas the improvement of joint sounds was better in the PRP injection group. The improvement in JFLS scores in the combined treatment group was greater than that in the PRP injection group at 6 months (p < .05). The imaging improvement rates of the two groups were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet-rich plasma injection can significantly improve pain, mouth opening, abnormal joint sound, and mandibular function in patients with TMJ-OA and has good repair effect on condylar bone defects. PRP injection combined with individualised comprehensive physical therapy can effectively control the medium- and long-term pain of patients.

18.
J Pediatr ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of maternal periconceptional supplementation with folic acid or multiple micronutrients containing FA on the prevention of fetal congenital heart defects (CHDs). STUDY DESIGN: Data were drawn from a Prenatal Health Care System and a Birth Defects Surveillance System in a district of Beijing, China. A total of 63,969 singleton births, live or stillborn, 308 CHDs among them, during 2013 to 2018 were included. Associations between different patterns of supplementation and risk for total CHDs or main types of CHDs were evaluated with risk ratios (RRs). RESULTS: For FA or MMFA users compared with nonusers, the adjusted risk ratios (ARRs) for total CHDs, critical CHD, and ventricular septal defect (VSD) were 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44-0.83), 0.41 (95%CI: 0.26-0.67), and 0.47 (95%CI: 0.30-0.74), respectively. When we compared MMFA users with FA users, the ARRs were 0.84 (95%CI: 0.66-1.09), 0.64 (95%CI: 0.41-1.00), and 0.94 (95%-CI: 0.63-1.41) for total CHDs, critical CHD, and VSD, respectively. We also found that compared with supplementation initiated after conception, supplementation initiated before conception was associated with a lower risk for CHDs: the ARRs were 0.68 (95%CI: 0.48-0.95) for total CHDs and 0.26 (95%CI: 0.10-0.71) for critical CHD but 1.08 (95%CI: 0.63-1.83) for VSD. CONCLUSION: Maternal periconceptional supplementation with FA or MMFA appears to reduce the risk for CHDs, especially critical CHD, in offspring. Supplementation confers a greater protective effect when it is initiated before conception. We did not find any difference between FA and MMFA in terms of preventing CHDs.

19.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1959708, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death in China. Little is known about the CVD burden and risk factors in Henan Province, China. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the CVD burden and main risk factors between 1990 and 2017 in the Henan Province in China. METHODS: The methodological framework and analytical strategies adopted in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 were used. RESULTS: (1) Age-standardized mortality rate attributed to CVDs increased from 355.0 per 100,000 persons in 1990 to 364.1 per 100,000 persons in 2017 in Henan. (2) Age-standardized disability adjusted life years (DALYs) rate fell by 3.9% from 1990 to 2017. However, the number of DALYs attributed to CVDs increased by 75.9% from 4.2 million person-years in 1990 to 7.3 million person-years in 2017. (3) The age-standardized years lived with disability (YLDs) rate increased by 27.5% from 1990 to 2017. However, years of life lost (YLLs) rate decreased by 6.7% from 1990 to 2017. The contribution of YLLs to the DALYs decreased from 91.4% in 1990 to 89.2% in 2017. (4) Stroke (52.3%) and ischemic heart diseases (38.8%) accounted for 91.1% of total CVDs DALYs among adults in 2017. (5) Dietary factors such as high intake of sodium, alcohol use and low intake of fruits, high systolic blood pressure, and tobacco use were the top risk factors for CVDs, and the estimated population attributable fraction in 2017 was 69.4%, 56.7% and 25.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The absolute burden of CVDs in Henan is still high, although age-standardized DALYs declined between 1990 and 2017. The prevention and control of stroke and ischemic heart diseases should focus on a few modifiable risk factors which mainly contributed to the burden of CVDs, such as dietary factors, high systolic blood pressure, and tobacco use.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Pessoas com Deficiência , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
20.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256387, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411194

RESUMO

Linear aggregation is present in some animals, such as the coordinated movement of ants and the migration of caterpillars and spinylobsters, but none has been reported on rotifers. The rotifers were collected and clone cultured in the laboratory at 25 ± 1°C, under natural light (light intensity ~130 lx, L:D = 14:10). The culture medium(pH = 7.3) was formulated as described by Suga et al., and rotifers were fed on the micro algae Scenedesmus obliquus grown in HB-4 medium to the exponential growth stage. When density was high (150 individuals ml-1), the behavior of rotifers was observed using a stereo microscope (Motic ES-18TZLED). In this paper, linear aggregation in Brachionus calyciflorus was found for the first time, and experiments were carried out to verify the correlation between linear aggregation and culture density of B. calyciflorus. With the increase of density, the number of aggregations increase, the number of individuals in the aggregation increased, and the maintenance time of the aggregation was also increased. Therefore, we speculate that the formation of aggregates is related to density and may be a behavioral signal of density increase, which may transmit information between density increase and formation of dormant eggs.

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