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1.
Int J Cancer ; 150(2): 243-252, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498732

RESUMO

Gastric atrophy caused by Helicobacter pylori infection was suggested to influence the risk of adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEGJ), however, the evidence remains limited. We aimed to examine the associations of H. pylori infection and gastric atrophy (defined using serum pepsinogen [PG] I to PGII ratio) with AEGJ risk, based on a population-based case-control study in Taixing, China (2010-2014), with 349 histopathologically confirmed AEGJ cases and 1859 controls. We explored the potential effect modification by H. pylori serostatus and sex on the association of serum PGs with AEGJ risk. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). H. pylori seropositivity was associated with an elevated AEGJ risk (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.47-2.63). Neither CagA-positive nor VacA-positive strains dramatically changed this association. Gastric atrophy (PGI/PGII ratio ≤4) was positively associated with AEGJ risk (OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.72-3.22). The fully adjusted ORs for AEGJ progressively increased with the increasing levels of PGII (P-trend <.001). H. pylori showed nonsignificant effect modification (P-interaction = .385) on the association of gastric atrophy with AEGJ. In conclusion, H. pylori and gastric atrophy were positively associated with AEGJ risk. These results may contribute evidence to the ongoing research on gastric atrophy-related cancers and guide the prevention and control of AEGJ.

2.
Chemosphere ; : 133112, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856241

RESUMO

The thermal degradation mechanisms of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) dimer were studied by the B3P86 density functional theory (DFT) approach at 6-31++G (d, p) base set in this paper. Seven possible reaction paths were designed and analyzed, and the thermodynamic parameters for all reactions were computed. The calculated results indicate that the bond dissociation energy values (BDEs) of C-C bonds on the main-chain are the smallest, followed by those of C-O bonds. The kinetics analysis indicates that the concerted reactions are obviously liable to occur rather than radical reactions in the initial thermal decomposition process. In the processes of initial reactions, all concerted reactions occurred by six-membered cyclic transition states (TSs) are more prone to carry out than those happened by four-membered cyclic transition states. The research results show that the primary products of PET dimer pyrolysis are terephthalic acid, vinyl terephthalate, CH3CHO and divinyl terephthalate. CH3CHO is mainly formed by a concerted reaction in the initial degradation process, and CO2 is mainly produced by the decarboxylation via a concerted reaction and CO is mainly produced by the decarbonylation of a radical in secondary degradation.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are widely used to prevent and control diseases and infection for reducing the morbidity and mortality of animals, because of the high-density stocking in modern food-source animal production. However, the overuse of antibiotics in animal farms results in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and causes public health issues through the food chain. Therefore, the AMR analysis of the farms and their surrounding environments is great significance to public health. METHODS: To investigate the distribution of AMR genes and analyze the antimicrobial drug resistance of Escherichia coli in feces and surrounding soil of animal farm in Zhanjiang, China. E. coli was isolated and identified through PCR, and the distribution of 21 common antimicrobial drug resistance genes were also detected by using PCR. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the isolated E. coli strains against 22 drugs was detected using the broth double dilution method. RESULTS: The results showed that the different AMR genes were detected in both feces and soil, and the detection rate of each AMR gene was higher than 50%. The detection rate of most AMR genes in feces was higher than those in soil. Besides, the isolated 88 strains of E. coli were resistant to 22 kinds of antimicrobial drugs. The highest drug resistance rate (100%) was observed for amoxicillin, colistin, doxycycline and oxytetracycline, and the drug resistance rate of cephalosporins was less than 10%. The drug resistance rate of the isolated strains of E. coli from feces was higher than those from soil, however, in both of feces and soil, most of the isolated strains of E. coli from (77.55% of isolates from feces, 79.49% of isolates from soil and total 78.41%) showed multi-drug resistance (resistant to 15-22 drugs). CONCLUSION: Overall, the detection rate of AMR genes in feces and soil from hog farms was high, and the isolated strains of E. coli from both feces and soil showed multi-drug resistance. Also, the results showed that the AMR genes and drug resistance in the feces and soil from the hog farms are similar. These findings suggested that the AMR genes could be transmitted horizontally from the animal feces to surrounding environments of farms. Therefore, it is urgent need to strengthen the monitoring and guide the rational use of antimicrobial drugs in the hog industry of Zhanjiang, China.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(45): 54124-54132, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726365

RESUMO

High permittivity materials for a gigahertz (GHz) communication technology have been actively sought for some time. Unfortunately, in most materials, the dielectric constant starts to drop as frequencies increase through the megahertz (MHz) range. In this work, we report a large dielectric constant of ∼800 observed in defect-mediated rutile SnO2 ceramics, which is nearly frequency and temperature independent over the frequency range of 1 mHz to 35 GHz and temperature range of 50-450 K. Experimental and theoretical investigations demonstrate that the origin of the high dielectric constant can be attributed to the formation of locally well-defined Zn2+-Nb4+ defect clusters, which create hole-pinned defect dipoles. We believe that this work provides a promising strategy to advance dipole polarization theory and opens up a direction for the design and development of high frequency, broadband dielectric materials for use in future communication technology.

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 720906, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744714

RESUMO

Purpose: Studies involving mouse models and human uterine smooth muscle cells have shown that phenylephrine inhibits uterine contractions in non-pregnant mice and human in vitro cell via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling. However, there has been no limited exploration to date of the effect of phenylephrine on uterine contractions in clinical practice. This study aimed to compare the dose requirement of oxytocin with or without the infusion of prophylactic phenylephrine to prevent post spinal hypotension during cesarean delivery under combined spinal and epidural anesthesia. Methods: This was a double-blinded, single-center, randomized, control study. One hundred and sixty pregnant patients provided informed consent and were randomly allocated to the phenylephrine (phenylephrine infusion) and control (saline infusion) groups. Patients randomized to the phenylephrine group received an intravenous prophylactic phenylephrine infusion at a fixed rate of 0.5 µg/kg/min. The control group received a saline placebo at the same rate and used the same apparatus for delivery. After neonatal delivery and clamping of the umbilical cord, patients received a standard institutional oxytocin protocol. The primary outcome measure was the total dose of oxytocin administered during CD. Secondary outcomes including the proportion (%) of patients requiring a secondary uterotonic agent and estimated blood loss (EBL) in the first 24 h after surgery. Results: The median oxytocin dose administered was significantly higher in the phenylephrine group than in the control group [6.9 ± 2.5 international standardized units (IU) vs. 5.4 ± 2.4 IU, p = 0.0004]. The number of patients that required a secondary uterotonic agent was significantly higher in the phenylephrine group than in the control group (24.2% vs. 9.1%; p = 0.034). The EBL in the first 24-h postoperatively was similar between the two groups (467 ± 47 ml vs. 392 ± 38 ml; p = 0.22). Conclusions: Prophylactic infusion of phenylephrine used to prevent post-spinal hypotension during CD was associated with a higher dose of oxytocin. This has important clinical implications, as the suboptimal use of oxytocin is associated with an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage and increased maternal morbidity and mortality. Further studies are now needed to confirm these findings.

6.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747287

RESUMO

A new dihydroflavone, 2(S)-isookanin-4'-methoxy-8-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (1), and a new polyacetylene glucoside, (10S)-tridecane-2E-ene-4,6,8-triyne-1-ol-10-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2), along with seven known compounds (3-9), were isolated from the herb of Bidens parviflora Willd. The structures of all the extracted compounds were elucidated by HR-ESI-MS, 1 D and 2 D NMR spectra, as well as circular dichroism (CD).

7.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e24094, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ferroptosis is a novel iron-dependent form of cell death, which is implicated in various diseases including cancers. However, the influence of ferroptosis-related genes on the prognosis of breast cancer remains unclear. METHODS: RNA sequencing data of 1053 breast cancer tissue samples and 111 normal tissue samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were analyzed. Expression levels of 259 ferroptosis-related genes were compared. Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Gene and Genomic Encyclopedia (KEGG) analyses were conducted on differentially expressed genes. Cox univariate analysis was conducted to explore the potential prognostic biomarkers of breast cancer. Infiltrating immune cell status was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 66 ferroptosis-related genes were differentially expressed in breast cancer tissues. The enriched GO terms included Biological Process (mainly included response to oxidative stress, cellular response to chemical stress, multicellular organismal homeostasis, cofactor metabolic process, response to metal ion, response to steroid hormone, cellular response to oxidative stress, transition metal ion homeostasis, iron ion homeostasis, and cellular iron ion homeostasis), Cellular Component (mainly included apical plasma membrane, early endosome, apical part of cell, lipid droplet, basolateral plasma membrane, blood microparticle, clathrin-coated pit, caveola, astrocyte projection, and pronucleus) and Molecular Function (mainly included iron ion binding, ubiquitin protein ligase binding, oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor, ferric iron binding, aldo-keto reductase (NADP) activity, oxidoreductase activity, acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen, steroid dehydrogenase activity, alditol:NADP+1-oxidoreductase activity, and alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity). The enriched KEGG pathway mainly included the HIF-1 signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, ferroptosis, IL-17 signaling pathway, central carbon metabolism in cancer, PPAR signaling pathway, PD-L1 expression, and PD-1 checkpoint pathway in cancer. Among them, 38 ferroptosis-related genes were significantly associated with the prognosis of breast cancer. The prognostic model was constructed, and breast cancer patients in low-risk group had a better prognosis. In addition, risk score of ferroptosis prognostic model was negatively correlated with B cells (r = -0.063, p = 0.049), CD8+ T cells (r = -0.083, p = 0.010), CD4+ T cells (r = -0.097, p = 0.002), neutrophils (r = -0.068, p = 0.033), and dendritic cells (r = 0.088, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The ferroptosis pathway plays a key role in breast cancer. Some differentially expressed ferroptosis-related genes can be used as prognostic biomarkers for breast cancer.

8.
J Biotechnol ; 343: 7-14, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763007

RESUMO

Transaminases catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor to a keto group of an acceptor substrate and are applicable to the asymmetric synthesis of herbicide L-phosphinothricin (L-PPT). Here, the important residue sites (C390, I22, V52, R141, Y138 and D239) of transaminase from Salmonella enterica (SeTA) were modified at the adjacency of the substrate-binding pocket to improve the enzyme activity. Among the constructed mutant library, the SeTA-Y138F mutant displayed higher activity than the wild-type enzyme. Compared to the wild-type, SeTA-Y138F showed improved catalytic efficiency with a 4.36-fold increase. The Km and kcat of SeTA -Y138F toward 4-(hydroxy(methyl) phosphoryl)-2-oxobutanoic acid (PPO) were 26.39 mM and 34.28 s-1, respectively. Subsequently, the three-enzyme co-expression system of E. coli BL21 (DE3)/pACYCDuet-SeTA-Y138F/pETDuet-AlaDH-BsGDH was developed by combining a alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) to recycle the byproduct of amino donor, a glucose dehydrogenase (BsGDH) for cofactor recycling. Under the optimized conditions, an excellent L-PPT yield of 90.8% was achieved by the whole-cell biotransformation with 500 mM PPO. It exhibited the tri-enzymatic coupling system was potential for effective production of target L-PPT.

9.
Opt Express ; 29(24): 39342-39351, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809300

RESUMO

We propose an imaging system with scanning feedback of an optical phased array (OPA) for moving targets with unknown speed. The system combines OPA scanning velocimetry capability with OPA-based ghost imaging to enable trajectory tracking of targets moving within the field-of-view of the system while accomplishing image reconstruction. The proposed system can perform image reconstruction for millimeter-scale moving targets placed up to 20 m away from the camera. The system can be applied in areas such as autonomous driving and high-resolution imaging.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone mass acquisition during growth is a major determinant of the risk of developing osteoporosis later in life. Body composition is an anthropometric determinant of bone mineral density (BMD) and significantly influences its development during childhood and adolescence. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically examine the association between body composition and bone mineral density in children and adolescents. METHODS: Observational studies addressing this association were identified from PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, Scopus and the Cochrane Library (up to January 2021). The study populations consisted of healthy children and adolescents. The DerSimonian and Laird method was used to compute pooled estimates of effect size and the respective 95% confidence intervals for upper limbs, femoral neck (FN), lumbar spine (LS) and total body, respectively. Subgroup analyses were further performed based on age, sex and ethnicity. RESULTS: Thirty-one published studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis, including three longitudinal studies. The combined population from all the studies amounted to 21,393 (11,205 males and 10,188 females). The pooled estimates of the correlation coefficients for lean mass (LM) and BMD ranged from 0.53 to 0.74 (p < 0.050), and the pooled regression coefficients ranged from 0.23 to 0.79 for FN, LS and total body (p < 0.050). For fat mass (FM), the pooled correlation coefficients ranged from 0.10 to 0.50 (p < 0.050) and the pooled regression coefficient was only significant for FN BMD with a weak strength (pooled ß = 0.07, p < 0.050). The pooled regression coefficients for body fat percentage (BF%) were between -0.54 and -0.04 (p < 0.050). The subgroup analysis revealed a stronger association in Asians than in Caucasians for LM and in males compared to females for BF% (p < 0.050). CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis supports a positive association between LM and BMD. BF% appears to have a deleterious effect on bone acquisition in children and adolescents.

12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 771010, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804999

RESUMO

Synonymous codon usage bias is a universal characteristic of genomes across various organisms. Autophagy-related gene 13 (atg13) is one essential gene for autophagy initiation, yet the evolutionary trends of the atg13 gene at the usages of nucleotide and synonymous codon remains unexplored. According to phylogenetic analyses for the atg13 gene of 226 eukaryotic organisms at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, it is clear that their nucleotide usages exhibit more genetic information than their amino acid usages. Specifically, the overall nucleotide usage bias quantified by information entropy reflected that the usage biases at the first and second codon positions were stronger than those at the third position of the atg13 genes. Furthermore, the bias level of nucleotide 'G' usage is highest, while that of nucleotide 'C' usage is lowest in the atg13 genes. On top of that, genetic features represented by synonymous codon usage exhibits a species-specific pattern on the evolution of the atg13 genes to some extent. Interestingly, the codon usages of atg13 genes in the ancestor animals (Latimeria chalumnae, Petromyzon marinus, and Rhinatrema bivittatum) are strongly influenced by mutation pressure from nucleotide composition constraint. However, the distributions of nucleotide composition at different codon positions in the atg13 gene display that natural selection still dominates atg13 codon usages during organisms' evolution.


Assuntos
Uso do Códon , Nucleotídeos , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Eucariotos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Nucleotídeos/genética , Filogenia
13.
Aging Cell ; : e13519, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825761

RESUMO

Ageing is characterized by degeneration and loss of function across multiple physiological systems. To study the mechanisms and consequences of ageing, several metrics have been proposed in a hierarchical model, including biological, phenotypic and functional ageing. In particular, phenotypic ageing and interconnected changes in multiple physiological systems occur in all ageing individuals over time. Recently, phenotypic age, a new ageing measure, was proposed to capture morbidity and mortality risk across diverse subpopulations in US cohort studies. Although phenotypic age has been widely used, it may overlook the complex relationships among phenotypic biomarkers. Considering the correlation structure of these phenotypic biomarkers, we proposed a composite phenotype analysis (CPA) strategy to analyse 71 biomarkers from 2074 individuals in the Rugao Longitudinal Ageing Study. CPA grouped these biomarkers into 18 composite phenotypes according to their internal correlation, and these composite phenotypes were mostly consistent with prior findings. In addition, compared with prior findings, this strategy exhibited some different yet important implications. For example, the indicators of kidney and cardiovascular functions were tightly connected, implying internal interactions. The composite phenotypes were further verified through associations with functional metrics of ageing, including disability, depression, cognitive function and frailty. Compared to age alone, these composite phenotypes had better predictive performances for functional metrics of ageing. In summary, CPA could reveal the hidden relationships of physiological systems and identify the links between physiological systems and functional ageing metrics, thereby providing novel insights into potential mechanisms underlying human ageing.

14.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1820, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a highly heterogeneous disease, and up to 25% of cases can be explained by genetic causes. The transcription factor WT1 has long been reported to play a crucial role in ovary function. Wt1-mutated female mice exhibited POI-like phenotypes. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, whole exome sequencing (WES) was applied to find the cause of POI in Han Chinese women. A nonsense variant in the WT1 gene: NM_024426.6:c.1387C>T(p.R463*) was identified in a non-syndromic POI woman. The variant is a heterozygous de novo mutation that is very rare in the human population. The son of the patient inherited the mutation and developed Wilms' tumor and urethral malformation at the age of 7. According to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines, the novel variant is categorized as pathogenic. Western blot analysis further demonstrated that the WT1 variant could produce a truncated WT1 isoform in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: A rare heterozygous nonsense WT1 mutant is associated with non-syndromic POI and Wilms' tumor. Our finding characterized another pathogenic WT1 variant, providing insight into genetic counseling.

15.
Diabetes ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844991

RESUMO

Cardiometabolic diseases, including diabetes and its cardiovascular complications, are the global leading cause of death, highlighting a major unmet medical need. Over the last decade, MG53, also named TRIM72, has emerged as a powerful agent for myocardial membrane repair and cardioprotection, but its therapeutic value is complicated by its E3 ligase activity that mediates metabolic disorders. Here, we show that an E3 ligase-dead mutant, MG53-C14A, retains its cardioprotective function without causing metabolic side-effects. When administrated in normal animals, both recombinant human wild type MG53 protein (rhMG53-WT) and its E3 ligase-dead mutant (rhMG53-C14A) protect the heart equally from myocardial infarction and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, in diabetic db/db mice, rhMG53-WT treatment markedly aggravates hyperglycemia, cardiac I/R injury and mortality, whereas acute and chronic treatment of rhMG53-C14A still effectively ameliorates I/R-induced myocardial injury and mortality or diabetic cardiomyopathy, respectively, without inflicting metabolic side-effects. Furthermore, knock-in of MG53-C14A protects the mice from high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders and cardiac damage. Thus, the E3 ligase-dead mutant MG53-C14A not only protects the heart from acute myocardial injury but also counteract metabolic stress, providing a potentially important therapy for the treatment of acute myocardial injuries amidst metabolic disorders, including diabetes and obesity.

16.
J Periodontol ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor oral health may be a significant risk factor for gastric cancer (GC); however, previous results are not consistent. Here, we investigated the effect of oral health on GC and effect modification by other factors. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study in Taixing, China. Participants aged between 40 and 85 years and who had lived in Taixing for at least 5 years were included. The GC cases were confirmed by endoscopy and pathological diagnosis, and the controls were randomly selected using the frequency-matching method. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to derive odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of oral health for GC risk after adjusting for confounders and risk factors. RESULTS: Overall, 901 GC cases and 1972 controls were included. Tooth loss was not significantly associated with an increased risk of GC (yes vs. no, OR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.33). Compared with toothbrushing at least twice per day, toothbrushing once per day or less was associated with an increased risk of GC (OR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.94 to 2.94), and was more pronounced in esophagogastric junction cancer and intestinal-type GC. There was no significant interaction between the indicators of oral health and age, sex, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and Helicobacter pylori seropositivity. CONCLUSION: Poor oral hygiene behavior is associated with an increased risk of GC, and this positive association is consistent across all GC subgroups classified by anatomy and histology. Further studies are needed to explore the possible mechanisms behind this association.

17.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 152: 109931, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688091

RESUMO

Glucose isomerase (GI) is a key enzyme in the preparation of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). In this study, a mutant TEGI-M-L38 M/V137 L (TEGI-M2) of glucose isomerase (TEGI-M) originated from Thermoanaerobacter ethanalicus CCSD1 was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. The TEGI-M2 showed an optimal activity at 85 ℃ and pH 6.5 with the divalent cations Co2+ and Mg2+. The structural differences between TEGI-M and TEGI-M2 were investigated based on the homology modeling and molecular docking, to elucidate the mechanism of improvement in the enzymatic properties. Compared with the original enzyme, the TEGI-M2 showed a 2.0-fold increased enzyme activity and a decreased Km from 234.2 mM to 85.9 mM. Finally, the application of mutant TEGI-M2 in HFCS one-step biosynthesis was attempted, resulting in a d-fructose yield of 67.3 %, which was 14.3 % higher than that of TEGI-M. This improved catalytic performance of TEGI-M2 was of great importance for the industrial preparation of d-fructose in one-step process.


Assuntos
Aldose-Cetose Isomerases , Thermoanaerobacter , Aldose-Cetose Isomerases/genética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Thermoanaerobacter/genética
18.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(22): 10362-10375, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708495

RESUMO

The foetus can be regarded as a half-allograft implanted into the maternal body. In a successful pregnancy, the mother does not reject the foetus because of the immune tolerance mechanism at the maternal-foetal interface. The innate immune cells are a large part of the decidual leukocytes contributing significantly to a successful pregnancy. Although the contributions have been recognized, their role in human pregnancy has not been completely elucidated. Additionally, the accumulated evidence demonstrates that the immune checkpoint molecules expressed on the immune cells are co-inhibitory receptors regulating their activation and biological function. Therefore, it is critical to understand the immune microenvironment and explore the function of the innate immune cells during pregnancy. This review summarizes the classic immune checkpoints such as PD-1, CTLA-4 and some novel molecules recently identified, including TIM-3, CD200, TIGIT and the Siglecs family on the decidual and peripheral innate immune cells during pregnancy. Furthermore, it emphasizes the role of the immune checkpoint molecules in pregnancy-associated complications and reproductive immunotherapy.

19.
Hum Reprod ; 36(12): 3049-3061, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647126

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is the protein l-arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3)/asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA)/nitric oxide (NO) pathway involved in the development of recurrent miscarriage (RM), and what is the potential mechanism? SUMMARY ANSWER: Elevated levels of PRMT3 and ADMA inhibit NO formation in the decidua, thereby impairing the functions of trophoblast cells at the maternal-foetal interface. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Decreased NO bioavailability is associated with RM. ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is derived from the methylation of protein arginine residues by PRMTs and serves as a predictor of mortality in critical illness. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A total of 145 women with RM and 149 healthy women undergoing elective termination of an early normal pregnancy were enrolled. Ninety-six female CBA/J, 24 male DBA/2 and 24 male BALB/c mice were included. CBA/J × DBA/2 matings represent the abortion group, while CBA/J × BALB/c matings represent the normal control group. The CBA/J pregnant mice were then categorised into four groups: (i) normal + vehicle group (n = 28), (ii) abortion + vehicle group (n = 28), (iii) normal + SGC707 (a PRMT3 inhibitor) group (n = 20) and (iv) abortion + SGC707 group (n = 20). All injections were made intraperitoneally on Days 0.5, 3.5 and 6.5 of pregnancy. Decidual tissues were collected on Days 8.5, 9.5 and 10.5 of gestation. The embryo resorption rates were calculated on Day 9.5 and Day 10.5 of gestation. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: NO concentration, ADMA content, NOS activity, expression levels of NOS and PRMTs in decidual tissues were determined using conventional assay kits or western blotting. PRMT3 expression was further analysed in decidual stromal cells, macrophages and natural killer cells. A co-culture system between decidual macrophages (DMs) and HTR-8/SVneo trophoblasts was constructed to study the roles of the PRMT3/ADMA/NO signalling pathway. Trophoblast apoptosis was analysed via Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. CBA/J × DBA/2 mouse models were used to investigate the effects of SGC707 on embryo resorption rates. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Our results show that NO concentration and NOS activity were decreased, but ADMA content and PRMT3 expression were increased in the decidua of RM patients. Moreover, compared with the normal control subjects, PRMT3 expression was significantly up-regulated in the macrophages but not in the natural killer cells or stromal cells of the decidua from RM patients. The inhibition of PRMT3 results in a significant decrease in ADMA accumulation and an increase in NO concentration in macrophages. When co-cultured with DMs, which were treated with SGC707 and ADMA, trophoblast apoptosis was suppressed and induced, respectively. In vivo experiments revealed that the administration of SGC707 reduced the embryo resorption rate of CBA/J × DBA/2 mice. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: All sets of experiments were not performed with the same samples. The main reason is that each tissue needs to be reserved for clinical diagnosis and only a small piece of each tissue can be cut and collected for this study. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our results indicate that the PRMT3/ADMA/NO pathway is a potential marker and target for the clinical diagnosis and therapy of RM. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFC1001401), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81730039, 82071653, 81671460, 81971384 and 82171657) and Shanghai Municipal Medical and Health Discipline Construction Projects (2017ZZ02015). The authors have declared no conflict of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 227: 112879, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649142

RESUMO

Cinnamic acid (CA), one of the main autotoxins secreted by cucumber roots during continuous cropping, inhibits plant growth and reduces yield. Silicon (Si) is an environmentally friendly element that alleviates abiotic stresses in plants, but the mechanism underlying its resistance to autotoxicity remain unclear. Here, we used 0.8 mmol L-1 CA to study the effects of Si application on the growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, and ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle of cucumber seedlings under CA inducing conditions. Our results indicated that CA significantly induced photoinhibition and overaccumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby inhibiting cucumber growth. Treatment with 1.0 mmol L-1 Si improved plant height, stem diameter and biomass accumulation, and protected the photosynthetic electron transport function of photosystem II in the presence of CA. Similarly, Si application maintained the ROS status by increasing ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) production, as well as the ratios of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG in both leaves and roots during CA stress. In addition, Si application in CA-treated seedlings enhanced the activity of key enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and the transcription of several enzyme genes (CsAPX, CsMDHAR and CsGR) from the AsA-GSH cycle. These results suggest that exogenous Si enhances CA tolerance in cucumber seedlings by protecting photosystem II activity, upregulating AsA-GSH pathway, and reducing ROS levels.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Silício , Cinamatos , Glutationa , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Folhas de Planta
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