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2.
BMJ ; 375: n2374, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853003
3.
BMJ ; 375: n2806, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853017
4.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151596, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774948

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N)-induced soil acidification has received much attention worldwide. Nitrification and soil N mineralization are two key N cycle processes that affect soil acidification. However, the seasonal dynamics of soil pH under their combined influence is unclear. We studied the effect of N fertilization on soil pH and N transformations using 15N tracing in field lysimeters with soils developed from different parent materials (Quaternary red clay, sandstone, and basalt). Maize was planted with 200 kg N ha-1 yr-115N-labeled urea addition. During 7-45 days after fertilization, proton (H+) production due to nitrification of fertilizer N, nitrate (NO3-) leaching, and plant uptake exceeded H+ consumption by base cations mobilization and leaching, resulting in a significant soil pH decline. When nitrification activity decreased (after 45 days), due to exhausted ammonium (NH4+) availability, soil pH rose again. During the fallow period, acid neutralization due to base cation mobilization, and ammonification of soil organic N (SON) offset H+ production caused by nitrification of mineralized SON, leading to a sustained rise in soil pH. After the one-year experiment, no significant soil pH decrease was observed in any of the soils. Parent material had little effect on the seasonal dynamics of soil acidification, which appeared to be controlled by fertilization, environmental factors (temperature and moisture), and plant uptake. In subtropical regions, monitoring of soil pH on an annual basis may mask the effect of N fertilization on soil acidification.

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e049846, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740929

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Myopia is the common cause of reduced uncorrected visual acuity among school-age children. It is more prevalent in urban than in rural areas. Although many myopia studies have focused on the effect of urbanisation, it remains unclear how visual experience in urban regions could affect childhood myopia. This study aims to investigate the incidence and prevalence of myopia among school-age children in urban and rural settings, thereby identifying the environmental factors that affect the onset and progression of myopia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A school-based cohort study will be conducted. We will enroll all first-grade students from an urban (10 primary schools) and a rural (10 primary schools) regions of Zhaoqing city, China. Over 3-year follow-up period, students will receive detailed eye examinations annually and complete questionnaires about living habits and environment. In a 5% random subsample of the cohort, physical activity, light intensity and eye-tracking data will be obtained using wearable devices, and high-resolution macular images will be obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The primary outcome is incident myopia, defined as myopia (spherical equivalent refractive of at least -0.5D) detected during follow-up among those without myopia at baseline. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center (number: 2019KYPJ171). Study findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04219228.

6.
Nutrition ; 93: 111495, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735920

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the effect of malnutrition on the in-hospital outcomes of patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes for a primary diagnosis of TCM from the National Inpatient Sample database (2016-2018). A concurrent diagnosis of malnutrition was then identified, and these patients were divided into the malnutrition group and non-malnutrition group. To adjust for underlying risk factors, a multivariable logistic regression model was employed followed by a propensity score matching analysis for the malnutrition and the non-malnutrition group. We then compared the in-hospital outcomes between these two groups. RESULTS: Among 4733 patients with a primary diagnosis of TCM, 221 (4.7%) patients with TCM were found to be malnourished. After propensity score matching, patients with TCM with malnutrition were found to have a higher mortality rate (8.3% versus 2.0%, P < 0.001), a higher rate of complications including cardiogenic shock (16.1% versus 7.0%, P < 0.001), ventricular arrhythmia (8.8% versus 3.9%, P = 0.01), acute kidney injury (24.9% versus 10.6%, P < 0.001), and acute respiratory failure (32.7% versus 17.8%, P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of cardiac arrest between the two groups. Malnutrition of severe degree was associated with a sevenfold (odds ratio 6.8, 95% confidence interval, 3.2-13.4) increased risk of in-hospital mortality compared with those without malnutrition. CONCLUSION: Patients with malnutrition who were admitted with TCM were associated with higher rates of in-hospital mortality and complications compared with those without malnutrition.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804177

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicine has been used as adjunctive or complementary therapy for breast cancer. Diterpenoids from Euphorbia fischeriana Steud. have been demonstrated to possess anti-breast-cancer activity. This research was aimed to systematically explore the diterpenoids from E. fischeriana and study the multiple mechanisms on breast cancer. The structures of diterpenoids were identified by the integrated strategy of UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS and molecular networking. A total of 177 diterpenoids belonging to 13 types were collected. In silico ADME analysis was performed on these compounds. It indicated that 130 of 177 diterpenoids completely adjusted to Lipinski's rule. The targets of compounds were obtained from PharmMapper. The targets of breast cancer were collected from GeneCards. Then, 197 compounds-related targets and 544 breast cancer-related targets were identified. After the intersection process, 58 overlapping targets between compounds-related targets and breast cancer-related targets were acquired. The STRING database was applied to predict the protein-protein interactions. The GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed by using the KOBAS database. It indicated that these predicted pathways were closely related to breast cancer. The treatment effect of E. fischeriana on breast cancer might be performed through signaling pathways, such as IL-17 signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. The predicted top genes such as EGFR, ESR, MAPK, SRC, CASP3, CDK2, and KDR were involved in cell proliferation, gene transcription, apoptosis, signal transduction, DNA damage and repair, tumor differentiation, metastasis, and cell cycle, which indicated that E. fischeriana might treat breast cancer comprehensively. A compounds-KEGG pathways-related targets network was built by using cytoHubba to analyze the hub compounds and targets. It concluded that E. fischeriana treated breast cancer not only by the main components but also by the microconstituents, which reflected the overall regulatory role of multicomponents treating breast cancer. To estimate the binding affinities, binding sites, and binding postures, molecular docking simulations between 177 diterpenoids and top 19 targets were carried out. The results are basically in line with expectations. In conclusion, these results can serve as references for researchers studying potential targets of diterpenoids from E. fischeriana on breast cancer in the future.

8.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2100808, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719888

RESUMO

A differentiation switch of bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) from osteoblasts to adipocytes contributes to age- and menopause-associated bone loss and marrow adiposity. Here it is found that osteocytes, the most abundant bone cells, promote adipogenesis and inhibit osteogenesis of BMSCs by secreting neuropeptide Y (NPY), whose expression increases with aging and osteoporosis. Deletion of NPY in osteocytes generates a high bone mass phenotype, and attenuates aging- and ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone-fat imbalance in mice. Osteocyte NPY production is under the control of autonomic nervous system (ANS) and osteocyte NPY deletion blocks the ANS-induced regulation of BMSC fate and bone-fat balance. γ-Oryzanol, a clinically used ANS regulator, significantly increases bone formation and reverses aging- and OVX-induced osteocyte NPY overproduction and marrow adiposity in control mice, but not in mice lacking osteocyte NPY. The study suggests a new mode of neuronal control of bone metabolism through the ANS-induced regulation of osteocyte NPY.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725759

RESUMO

Nitrate (NO3-) loss and enrichment in water bodies caused by fertilization are a major environmental problem in agricultural areas. However, the quantitative contribution of different NO3- sources, especially chemical fertilizers (CF) and soil organic nitrogen (SON), to NO3- runoff loss remains unclear. In this study, a systematic investigation of NO3- runoff and its sources was conducted in a subtropical agricultural watershed located in Yujiang County, Jiangxi Province, China. A semi-monthly sampling was performed at the inlet and outlet from March 2018 to February 2019. Hydrochemical and dual NO3- isotope (15 N and 18O) approaches were combined to estimate the NO3- runoff loss and quantify the contribution of different sources with a Bayesian isotope mixing model. Source apportionment by Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR) suggested that NO3- in runoff was mainly derived from nitrification of ammonium (NH4+) mineralized from SON (37-52%) and manure/sewage (M&S) (25-47%), while the contribution of CF was relatively small (14-25%). The contribution of various sources showed seasonal variations, with a greater contribution of CF in the wet growing season (March to August). Compared with the inlet which contributed 37-40% to runoff NO3-, SON contributed more at the outlet (49-52%). Denitrification in the runoff was small and appeared to be confined to the dry season (September to February), with an estimated NO3- loss of 2.73 kg N ha-1. The net NO3- runoff loss of the watershed was 34.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1, accounting for 15% of the annual fertilization rate (229 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Besides M&S (22%), fertilization and remineralization of SON (CF + SON) were the main sources for the NO3- runoff loss (78%), suggesting accelerated nitrification of NH4+ from CF (24%) and SON mineralization (54%). Our study indicates that NO3- runoff loss in subtropical agricultural watersheds is dominated by nonpoint source pollution from fertilization. SON played a more important role than CF. Besides, the contribution of sewage should not be neglected. Our data suggest that a combination of more rational fertilizer N application (CF), better management of SON, and better treatment of domestic sewage could alleviate NO3- pollution in subtropical China.

10.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729559

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of COVID-19, the most severe pandemic in a century. The virus gains access to host cells when the viral Spike protein (S-protein) binds to the host cell-surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Studies have attempted to understand SARS-CoV-2 S-protein interaction with vertebrate orthologs of ACE2 by expressing ACE2 orthologs in mammalian cells and measuring viral infection or S-protein binding. Often these cells only transiently express ACE2 proteins and levels of ACE2 at the cell surface are not quantified. Here, we describe a cell-based assay that uses stably transfected cells expressing ACE2 proteins in a bi-cistronic vector with an easy to quantify reporter protein to normalize ACE2 expression. We found that both binding of the S-protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and infection with a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus is proportional to the amount of human ACE2 expressed at the cell surface, which can be inferred by quantifying the level of reporter protein, Thy1.1. We also compared different ACE2 orthologs which were expressed in stably transfected cells expressing equivalent levels of Thy1.1. When ranked for either viral infectivity or RBD binding, mouse ACE2 had a weak to undetectable affinity for S-protein while human ACE2 was the highest level detected and feline ACE2 had an intermediate phenotype. The generation of stably transfected cells whose ACE2 level can be normalized for cross-ortholog comparisons allows us to create a reusable cellular library useful for measuring emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant's ability to potentially infect different animals. Importance: SARS-CoV-2 is a zoonotic virus responsible for the worst global pandemic in a century. An understanding of how the virus can infect other vertebrate species is important for controlling viral spread and understanding the natural history of the virus. Here we describe a method to generate cells stably expressing equivalent levels of different ACE2 orthologs, the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, on the surface of a human cell line. We find that both binding of the viral Spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) and infection of cells with a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus are proportional to ACE2 levels at the cell surface. Adaptation of this method will allow for the creation of a library of stable transfected cells expressing equivalent levels of different vertebrate ACE2 orthologs which can be repeatedly used for identifying vertebrate species which may be susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2 and its many variants.

11.
Front Psychol ; 12: 759229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744935

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to implement and investigate the application of a special intelligent diagnostic system based on deep learning in the diagnosis of pterygium using anterior segment photographs. Methods: A total of 1,220 anterior segment photographs of normal eyes and pterygium patients were collected for training (using 750 images) and testing (using 470 images) to develop an intelligent pterygium diagnostic model. The images were classified into three categories by the experts and the intelligent pterygium diagnosis system: (i) the normal group, (ii) the observation group of pterygium, and (iii) the operation group of pterygium. The intelligent diagnostic results were compared with those of the expert diagnosis. Indicators including accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, kappa value, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), as well as 95% confidence interval (CI) and F1-score were evaluated. Results: The accuracy rate of the intelligent diagnosis system on the 470 testing photographs was 94.68%; the diagnostic consistency was high; the kappa values of the three groups were all above 85%. Additionally, the AUC values approached 100% in group 1 and 95% in the other two groups. The best results generated from the proposed system for sensitivity, specificity, and F1-scores were 100, 99.64, and 99.74% in group 1; 90.06, 97.32, and 92.49% in group 2; and 92.73, 95.56, and 89.47% in group 3, respectively. Conclusion: The intelligent pterygium diagnosis system based on deep learning can not only judge the presence of pterygium but also classify the severity of pterygium. This study is expected to provide a new screening tool for pterygium and benefit patients from areas lacking medical resources.

12.
J Surg Case Rep ; 2021(10): rjab464, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729172

RESUMO

Bouveret's syndrome is a rare complication that occurs most commonly in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. It is secondary to an impacted gallstone causing gastric outlet obstruction from a cholecystoduodenal fistula, and there is no defined standardized management in current literature. A 92-year-old woman presents to our tertiary community hospital with abdominal discomfort concerning for bowel obstruction. Computed tomography revealed pneumobilia with a cholecystoduodenal fistula and a large gallstone in the proximal duodenum causing gastric outlet obstruction. The impacted gallstone failed endoscopic extraction with electrohydraulic lithotripsy, and patient subsequently developed distal gallstone ileus requiring exploratory laparotomy and enterolithotomy. This case report examines the need for early coordinated endoscopic and surgical management of a patient with Bouveret's syndrome complicated by gallstone ileus as it is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates.

13.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(10): 3322-3334, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729319

RESUMO

10-Deacetylbaccatin III (10-DAB) C10 acetylation is an indispensable procedure for Taxol semi-synthesis, which often requires harsh conditions. 10-Deacetylbaccatin III-10-ß-O-acetyltransferase (DBAT) catalyzes the acetylation but acetyl-CoA supply remains a key limiting factor. Here we refactored the innate biosynthetic pathway of acetyl-CoA in Escherichia coli and obtained a chassis with acetyl-CoA productivity over three times higher than that of the host cell. Then, we constructed a microbial cell factory by introducing DBAT gene into this chassis for efficiently converting 10-DAB into baccatin III. We found that baccatin III could be efficiently deacetylated into 10-DAB by DBAT with CoASH and K+ under alkaline condition. Thus, we fed acetic acid to the engineered strain both for serving as a substrate of acetyl-CoA biosynthesis and for alleviating the deacetylation of baccatin III. The fermentation conditions were optimized and the baccatin III titers reached 2, 3 and 4.6 g/L, respectively, in a 3-L bioreactor culture when 2, 3 and 6 g/L of 10-DAB were supplied. Our study provides an environment-friendly approach for the large scale 10-DAB acetylation without addition of acetyl-CoA in the industrial Taxol semi-synthesis. The finding of DBAT deacetylase activity may broaden its application in the structural modification of pharmaceutically important lead compounds.

14.
Appl Opt ; 60(30): 9396-9403, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807078

RESUMO

The concentration-path-length product (CL) image of the leaking gas cloud measured by the passive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) scanning remote-sensing imaging system has a low resolution. Gas cloud diffusion is affected by wind speed and direction, which makes it difficult to trace the source of a leakage. Therefore, we propose a method to reconstruct the CL image of the leaking gas cloud applied to the passive FTIR scanning remote-sensing imaging system. First, bicubic interpolation is employed to upsample the low-resolution CL image of gas clouds. Second, the maximum noise-equivalent concentration-path-length (NECL) product is used as a threshold to segment the high-resolution gas cloud image. Third, image morphology processing and the evaluation criteria of the leaking gas cloud are applied to detect the leaking gas cloud. Finally, the high-resolution CL image of the leaking gas cloud is superimposed onto the background image. The effectiveness of the reconstruction method is proven by the SF6 remote-sensing experiment and simulation. The results show that the proposed method should be effectively implemented to reconstruct the high-resolution CL image of the leaking gas cloud. The reconstructed leaking gas cloud plume, as well as the location of the leakage source, are quite obvious. The reconstruction method has been successfully applied to passive FTIR scanning remote-sensing imaging systems, with high accuracy, in real time, and with robustness.

15.
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther ; 11(5): 1067-1079, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815957

RESUMO

Background: Current evidence suggests that acupuncture is an effective adjunctive therapy that can bring potential benefits to patients with cardiac arrhythmias. However, there are relevant gaps in the optimal therapeutic strategy, which may cause uncertainties on the best practice of acupuncture treatment for arrhythmia. We aim to develop consensus-based recommendations for clinical guidance on acupuncture treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Methods: A multidisciplinary panel of specialists was invited to participate in a two-round semi-open clinical issue investigation. Meanwhile, relevant literature reviews were searched in 3 databases to provide evidence. Subsequently, an initial consensus voting list on acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy for cardiac arrhythmias was derived from the clinical investigation and literature review. Finally, 30 authoritative experts reached a consensus on the key issues of the voting list by a three-round modified Delphi survey. Consensus was defined when >80% agreement was achieved. Results: Following the three-round Delphi survey, there were 32 items (91.43%) finally reaching consensus, including the following 5 domains: (I) the benefits of acupuncture for the appropriate population; (II) the general therapeutic principle; (III) the acupuncture strategy; (IV) the relevant adverse events; (V) others. Conclusions: Consensus was achieved on some key elements. Given the lack of guidelines and the substantial heterogeneity of previous studies, these recommendations are of value in providing guidance for clinical practice of acupuncturists and in assisting patients with arrhythmia to obtain standardized acupuncture treatment. It also pointed out some problems that need to be carefully explored in future studies.

16.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593412

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the epidemiological trends and associated risk factors of disease burden due to trachoma. METHODS: Data for the country-specific disability-adjusted life year (DALY) number, rate and age-standardised rate of trachoma together with related data of other common eye diseases were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 database. The Socio-Demographic Index (SDI), Human Development Index (HDI), inequality-adjusted HDI and other related indices were obtained from published data or publicly available databases. Regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations between potential risk factors and the age-standardised DALY burden of trachoma. RESULTS: The global DALY burden due to trachoma decreased by 37% from 1990 to 2019 and decreased by 69.8% after adjusting for age and population growth, and, in available 1990-2019 data, had the greatest reduction in attributable DALYs of all common eye disease, with the others analysed being cataract, glaucoma, refractive disorders and age-related macular degeneration. Women had higher age-standardised DALY burden due to trachoma than men (p<0.001). The African region (p<0.001) had the heaviest burden among global regions. The age-standardised DALY rate was higher in countries with lower income (p<0.001) and lower SDI (p<0.001). Higher disease burden due to trachoma was associated with lower HDI (ß=-48.102, 95% CI -86.888 to -9.316, p=0.016), lower SDI (ß=-48.063, 95% CI -83.702 to -12.423, p<0.001) and lower expected years of schooling (ß=-2.352, 95% CI -3.756 to -0.948, p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The global disease burden due to trachoma decreased from 1990 to 2019 and it had the greatest reduction compared with other common eye diseases. Lower HDI, socioeconomic status and educational level were related to a higher national disease burden of trachoma. Our findings could provide necessary information for trachoma control and prevention.

17.
Oncogene ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645979

RESUMO

Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the second most deadly cancer worldwide. Therapies that take advantage of DNA repair defects have been explored in various tumors but not yet systematically in CRC. Here, we found that Diphosphoinositol Pentakisphosphate Kinase 2 (PPIP5K2), an inositol pyrophosphate kinase, was highly expressed in CRC and associated with a poor prognosis of CRC patients. In vitro and in vivo functional studies demonstrated that PPIP5K2 could promote the proliferation and migration ability of CRC cells independent of its inositol pyrophosphate kinase activity. Mechanically, S1006 dephosphorylation of PPIP5K2 could accelerate its dissociation with 14-3-3 in the cytoplasm, resulting in more nuclear distribution. Moreover, DNA damage treatments such as doxorubicin (DOX) or irradiation (IR) could induce nuclear translocation of PPIP5K2, which subsequently promoted homologous recombination (HR) repair by binding and recruiting RPA70 to the DNA damage site as a novel scaffold protein. Importantly, we verified that S1006 dephosphorylation of PPIP5K2 could significantly enhance the DNA repair ability of CRC cells through a series of DNA repair phenotype assays. In conclusion, PPIP5K2 is critical for enhancing the survival of CRC cells via facilitating DNA HR repair. Our findings revealed an unrecognized biological function and mechanism model of PPIP5K2 dependent on S1006 phosphorylation and provided a potential therapeutic target for CRC patients.

18.
J Couns Psychol ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647765

RESUMO

This cross-cultural study investigated a conditional indirect effect model in which country membership (South Korea or United States) and the need for approval of others (AO) were hypothesized to moderate the direct and indirect effects of attachment insecurity on depression via social self-efficacy (SSE). A total of 673 Korean university students and 401 American university students completed research questionnaires. Results indicated that Korean students endorsed a significantly higher level of AO than American students. Additionally, findings revealed that the strengths of several significant direct and indirect effects varied significantly by country membership and AO. Finally, we found a significant three-way interaction (Attachment avoidance × Country membership × AO), suggesting the necessity of considering cultural differences in attachment influence. The limitations and implications of our cross-cultural findings for decolonization in Western-based psychology are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

19.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(2): nwaa150, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691570

RESUMO

The dendrite growth of Li anodes severely degrades the performance of lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. Recently, hybrid solid electrolyte (HSE) has been regarded as one of the most promising routes to tackle this problem. However, before this is realized, the HSE needs to simultaneously satisfy contradictory requirements of high modulus and even, flexible contact with Li anode, while ensuring uniform Li+ distribution. To tackle this complex dilemma, here, an HSE with rigid Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 (LAGP) core@ultrathin flexible poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) shell interface has been developed. The introduced large amount of nanometer-sized LAGP cores can not only act as structural enhancer to achieve high Young's modulus but can also construct Li+ diffusion network to homogenize Li+ distribution. The ultrathin flexible PVDF-HFP shell provides soft and stable contact between the rigid core and Li metal without affecting the Li+ distribution, meanwhile suppressing the reduction of LAGP induced by direct contact with Li metal. Thanks to these advantages, this ingenious HSE with ultra-high Young's modulus of 25 GPa endows dendrite-free Li deposition even at a deposition capacity of 23.6 mAh. Moreover, with the successful inhibition of Li dendrites, the HSE-based quasi-solid-state Li-O2 battery delivers a long cycling stability of 146 cycles, which is more than three times that of gel polymer electrolyte-based Li-O2 battery. This new insight may serve as a starting point for further designing of HSE in Li-O2 batteries, and can also be extended to various battery systems such as sodium-oxygen batteries.

20.
Front Nutr ; 8: 737521, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676235

RESUMO

The fruit of Lycium ruthenicum (LRF), known as black wolfberry, is a medicinal and edible fruit. The fresh LRF is perishable and has only about 3 days of shelf life. Drying could prolong the shelf life of LRF. However, it could imply physical changes and chemical modification. This study evaluated the effect of sun drying (SD), hot air drying (HD), and freeze drying (FD) on the appearance characteristics, moisture content, bioactive compounds, amino acid composition, and antioxidant activity of LRF. The results showed that LRF dried by FD was round, expansive, fragile, and maintained the largest amount of appearance traits among the three drying methods. Drying methods had a significant effect on phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of LRF (P < 0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that procyanidin content (PAC), asparagine (Asn), total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), and moisture content were the main sources of the difference in LRF dried by different methods. The characteristic of LRF in FD was low moisture content, and high TPC, Asn, PAC, and TAC. Sun drying was opposite to FD. Hot air drying was high TPC and low TAC content. The quality of LRF was in the order of FD > HD > SD based on comprehensive evaluation of the phytochemical component content and antioxidant capacity. Additionally, the water temperature and soaking time had different antioxidant activity effect on LRF dried by different methods. These findings will provide useful information for production and utilization of LRF.

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