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1.
Neurosci Bull ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633650

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common and fastest-growing neurodegenerative disorder. In recent years, it has been recognized that neurotransmitters other than dopamine and neuronal systems outside the basal ganglia are also related to PD pathogenesis. However, little is known about whether and how the caudal zona incerta (ZIc) regulates parkinsonian motor symptoms. Here, we showed that specific glutamatergic but not GABAergic ZIcVgluT2 neurons regulated these symptoms. ZIcVgluT2 neuronal activation induced time-locked parkinsonian motor symptoms. In mouse models of PD, the ZIcVgluT2 neurons were hyperactive and inhibition of their activity ameliorated the motor deficits. ZIcVgluT2 neurons monosynaptically projected to the substantia nigra pars reticulata. Incerta-nigral circuit activation induced parkinsonian motor symptoms. Together, our findings provide a direct link between the ZIc, its glutamatergic neurons, and parkinsonian motor symptoms for the first time, help to better understand the mechanisms of PD, and supply a new important potential therapeutic target for PD.

2.
Shock ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618729

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Blocking ferroptosis reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury in some pathological contexts. However, there is no evidence that ferroptosis contributes to post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction (PRMD). Here, we evaluated the therapeutic performance of ferroptosis inhibitors (UAMC-3203 or/and Deferoxamine) on the PRMD in a rat model of cardiac arrest and surveyed the changes of essential ferroptosis markers in the myocardium. Remarkably, all treatments reduce the severity of cardiac dysfunction and microcirculation hypoperfusion after resuscitation compared with control. Consistently, we observe that the ferroptosis marker Glutathione peroxidase 4, 4-hydroxynonenal and non-heme iron altered (1 ±â€Š0.060 vs. 0.021 ±â€Š0.016, 1 ±â€Š0.145 vs. 3.338 ±â€Š0.221, 52.010 ±â€Š3.587 ug/g vs. 70.500 ±â€Š3.158 ug/g, all P < 0.05) in the myocardium after resuscitation. These changes were significantly suppressed by UAMC-3203 [(0.187 ±â€Š0.043, 2.848 ±â€Š0.169, all P < 0.05), (72.43 ±â€Š4.920 ug/g, P  > 0.05)], or Deferoxamine (0.203 ±â€Š0.025, 2.683 ±â€Š0.273, 55.95 ±â€Š2.497 ug/g, all P < 0.05). Briefly, UAMC-3203 or/and Deferoxamine improve post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction and provide evidence of ferroptosis involvement, suggesting that ferroptosis inhibitors could potentially provide an innovative therapeutic approach for mitigating the myocardial damage caused by cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20046, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625651

RESUMO

Radio frequency (RF) blackout occurs during radio attenuation measurement C (RAMC) vehicle reentry due to the attenuation effect of the plasma sheath on the communication signal. In recent years, the mitigation mechanism of chemical reaction for RF blackout problem has gradually been studied numerically and experimentally. However, the effect of non-ionization reaction rate has been ignored because it does not directly involve the generation of electrons. In the present study, the influence of non-ionizing reaction rate on the plasma generation mechanism and EM wave attenuation was numerically solved by the plasma flow and multilayer transmission model. According to the simulation results, only the reaction rate of [Formula: see text] has a significant effect on the electron number density in all non-ionizing reactions, and the degree of influence is less than the ionization reaction rate. The EM wave attenuation decreases with the decrease of the reaction rate of [Formula: see text]. When the reaction rate is reduced by 25 times, the maximum attenuation of electromagnetic wave can be reduced by 12 dB. Finally, a potential scheme by reducing the reaction rate of [Formula: see text] was proposed to mitigate the RF blackout problem.

4.
Appl Opt ; 60(22): 6487-6494, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612884

RESUMO

Photonic time-stretch (PTS) has been extensively studied due to its great potential in analog-to-digital converters. Here, we propose and demonstrate a PTS system based on phase modulation for sub-octave applications. Different from the PTS system using a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM), the PTS system, which uses a phase modulator (PM), has an operation bandwidth within an octave and is more suitable for preprocessing of sub-octave signals. Within the sub-octave band, the system is free of all second-order spurious signals. Because there is no direct current bias in a PM, the problem of bias drift, as well as the nonlinear distortion caused by it, can be thoroughly avoided. In addition, based on phase modulation and direct detection, the proposed PTS system has higher stability and a more simplified structure than that based on coherent detection. An exact analytical model has been established, and some compact expressions have been derived to fully characterize all frequency components of the PM-based PTS system. System properties, including the power transfer function, 3-dB bandwidth, and nonlinear distortion have been discussed, and numerical and experimental results on the performance of the PM-based PTS have been presented. In addition, a dual-channel PTS that employs a PM and a push-pull MZM has been proposed to extend the operation bandwidth to multi-octave.

5.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (U-VATS) can achieve comparable traditional clinical outcomes as those of multiportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (M-VATS). This study aimed to compare patient-reported outcomes between U-VATS and M-VATS for lung cancer lobectomy in the early postoperative period. METHODS: This comparative analysis used data from a longitudinal prospective study (CN-PRO-Lung 1). Symptom severity, functional status, and quality of life were compared between groups using generalized estimation equation models. Symptom severity and functional status were reported as proportion of patients with clinically meaningful severe scores on 0-10-point scales assessed using the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Lung Cancer module. RESULTS: Of the 174 patients included, 102 (58.6%) underwent U-VATS lobectomy and 72 (41.4%) underwent M-VATS lobectomy. After adjusting for confounders, patients in the U-VATS group reported less severe pain (p = 0.02), fatigue (p = 0.001), constipation (p = 0.01), coughing (p = 0.003), shortness of breath (p < 0.001), and disturbed sleep (p = 0.007) during the 6-day postoperative hospitalization than those in the M-VATS group. Moreover, fewer patients reported severe impairment to walking (p = 0.033) or their capacity to enjoy life (p = 0.027) in the U-VATS group. Meanwhile, there were no significant between-group differences in the quality of life scores, operative time, chest tube duration, length of hospital stay, or early complication rate (≥ grade II) (all p ˃ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: U-VATS might produce fewer severe symptoms and better functional status than M-VATS for lung cancer lobectomy in the early postoperative period.

6.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595735

RESUMO

Kiwi, a fruit from plants of the genus Actinidia, is one of the famous fruits with thousand years of edible history. In the past twenty years, a great deal of research has been done on the chemical constituents of the Actinidia species. A large number of secondary metabolites including triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, etc. have been identified from differents parts of Actinidia plants, which exhibited significant in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anti-oxidative, anti-bacterial, and anti-diabetic activities. In order to fully understand the chemical components and biological activities of Actinidia plants, and to improve their further research, development and utilization, this review summarizes the compounds extracted from different parts of Actinidia plants since 1959 to 2020, classifies the types of constituents, reports on the pharmacological activities of relative compounds and medicinal potentials.

7.
Crit Care Med ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the therapeutic potential and underlying mechanisms of exogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+ on postresuscitation myocardial and neurologic dysfunction in a rat model of cardiac arrest. DESIGN: Thirty-eight rats were randomized into three groups: 1) Sham, 2) Control, and 3) NAD. Except for the sham group, untreated ventricular fibrillation for 6 minutes followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed in the control and NAD groups. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+ (20 mg/kg) was IV administered at the onset of return of spontaneous circulation. SETTING: University-affiliated research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Hemodynamic and myocardial function were measured at baseline and within 4 hours following return of spontaneous circulation. Survival analysis and Neurologic Deficit Score were performed up to 72 hours after return of spontaneous circulation. Adenosine triphosphate (adenosine triphosphate) level was measured in both brain and heart tissue. Mitochondrial respiratory chain function, acetylation level, and expression of Sirtuin3 and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 9 (NDUFA9) in isolated mitochondrial protein from both brain and heart tissue were evaluated at 4 hours following return of spontaneous circulation. The results demonstrated that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+ treatment improved mean arterial pressure (at 1 hr following return of spontaneous circulation, 94.69 ± 4.25 mm Hg vs 89.57 ± 7.71 mm Hg; p < 0.05), ejection fraction (at 1 hr following return of spontaneous circulation, 62.67% ± 6.71% vs 52.96% ± 9.37%; p < 0.05), Neurologic Deficit Score (at 24 hr following return of spontaneous circulation, 449.50 ± 82.58 vs 339.50 ± 90.66; p < 0.05), and survival rate compared with that of the control group. The adenosine triphosphate level and complex I respiratory were significantly restored in the NAD group compared with those of the control group. In addition, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+ treatment activated the Sirtuin3 pathway, down-regulating acetylated-NDUFA9 in the isolated mitochondria protein. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+ treatment attenuated postresuscitation myocardial and neurologic dysfunction. The responsible mechanisms may involve the preservation of mitochondrial complex I respiratory capacity and adenosine triphosphate production, which involves the Sirtuin3-NDUFA9 deacetylation.

8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(17): 4563-4568, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581062

RESUMO

In order to solve the problems of confusion in clinical medication and imperfect instructions in Chinese patent medicines(CPMs), the Standardization Department of the China Association of Chinese Medicine and Center for Pharmacovigilance and Rational use of Chinese Medicine in Beijing University of Chinese Medicine jointly compiled the Instructions for Clinical Application of Chinese Patent Medicines(CPMs). As the interpretation and supplement of drug instruction information, it aims to guide clinical safety and rational use of CPMs. In addition, the technical specification for clinical application description of CPMs has been formulated, which covers the seven processes of "carding instructions, clinical investigation, data retrieval, data screening, evidence classification, path transformation and writing format". It will enable readers of Instructions for Clinical Application of Chinese Patent Medicines to understand the work behind the compilation.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Pequim , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Farmacovigilância
9.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; : AEM0153421, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586909

RESUMO

Biological foaming (or biofoaming) is a frequently occurring problem in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and is attributed to the overwhelming growth of filamentous bulking and foaming bacteria (BFB). Biological foaming has been intensively investigated, with BFB like Microthrix and Skermania having been identified from WWTPs and implicated in foaming. Nevertheless, studies are still needed to improve our understanding of the microbial diversity of WWTPs biofoams and how microbial activities contribute to foaming. In this study, sludge foaming at the Qinghe WWTP of China was monitored, and sludge foams were investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent microbiological methods. The foam microbiomes exhibited high abundances of Skermania, Mycobacterium, Flavobacteriales, and Kaistella. A previously unknown bacterium, Candidatus Kaistella beijingensis, was cultivated from foams, its genome sequenced, and it was phenotypically characterized. Ca. K. beijingensis exhibits hydrophobic cell surfaces, produces extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and metabolizes lipids. Ca. K. beijingensis abundances were proportional to EPS levels in foams. Several proteins encoded by the Ca. K. beijingensis genome were identified from EPS that was extracted from sludge foams. Ca. K. beijingensis populations accounted for 4-6% of the total bacterial populations in sludge foam samples within the Qinghe WWTP, although their abundances were higher in spring than in other seasons. Co-occurrence analysis indicated that Ca. K. beijingensis was not a core node among the WWTP community network, but its abundances were negatively correlated with those of the well-studied BFB Skermania piniformis among cross-season Qinghe WWTP communities. Importance Biological foaming or scumming is a sludge separation problem that has become the subject of major concern for long-term stable activated sludge operation in decades. Biological foaming was considered induced by foaming bacteria. However, the occurrence and deterioration of foaming in many WWTPs are still not completely understood. Cultivation and characterization of the enriched bacteria in foaming are critical to understand their genetic, physiological, phylogenetic, and ecological traits, as well as to improve the understanding of their relationships with foaming and performance of WWTPs.

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(38): 11303-11310, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542281

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis has accounted for liver diseases and overall mortality, but no relevant drug has been developed. Filamentous fungi are important resources of natural products for pharmaceutical development. Calcarisporium arbuscula is a mushroom endophytic fungus, which primarily produces aurovertins. Here, in an aurovertin null-production mutant, one silent gene cluster (mca17) was activated by overexpression of a pathway-specific zinc finger transcriptional regulator, and a tetramic acid-type compound (1, MCA17-1) was identified. Along with detailed structural characterization, its biosynthesis was proposed to be produced from the core PKS-NRPS hybrid enzyme. Moreover, 1 suppressed the activation of LX-2 upon transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) challenge and had stronger bioactivity than the positive control obeticholic acid (OCA) against liver fibrosis. Our work suggested that this engineered fungus could be a producer of 1 for promising pharmaceutical development, and alternatively, it would be developed as a mushroom ingredient in dietary therapy to prevent liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Hypocreales , Agaricales/genética , Humanos , Hypocreales/genética , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Família Multigênica
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 111935, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467895

RESUMO

The physiology and physiopathology process of mitochondrial function following cardiac arrest remains poorly understood. We aimed to assess mitochondrial respiratory function on the heart and brain homogenates from cardiac arrest rats. The expression level of SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway was measured by immunoblotting. 30 rats were assigned to the CA group and the sham group. Rats of CA were subjected to 6 min of untreated ventricular fibrillation (VF) followed by 8 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Mitochondrial respiratory function was compromised following CA and I/R injury, as indicated by CIL (451.46 ± 71.48 vs. 909.91 ± 5.51 pmol/min*mg for the heart and 464.14 ± 8.22 vs. 570.53 ± 56.33 pmol/min*mg for the brain), CI (564.04 ± 64.34 vs. 2729.52 ± 347.39 pmol/min*mg for the heart and 726.07 ± 85.78 vs. 1762.82 ± 262.04 pmol/min*mg for the brain), RCR (1.88 ± 0.46 vs. 3.57 ± 0.38 for the heart and 2.05 ± 0.19 vs. 3.49 ± 0.19, for the brain) and OXPHOS coupling efficiency (0.45 ± 0.11 vs. 0.72 ± 0.03 for the heart and 0.52 ± 0.05 vs. 0.71 ± 0.01 for the brain). However, routine respiration was lower in the heart and comparable in the brain after CA. CIV did not change in the heart but was enhanced in the brain. Furthermore, both SIRT1 and PGC-1α were downregulated concurrently in the heart and brain. The mitochondrial respiratory function was compromised following CA and I/R injury, and the major affected respiratory state is complex I-linked respiration. Furthermore, the heart and the brain respond differently to the global I/R injury after CA in mitochondrial respiratory function. Inhibition of the SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway may be a major contributor to the impaired mitochondrial respiratory function.

12.
Org Biomol Chem ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553744

RESUMO

Arylation is a common behaviour in organic synthesis for the construction of complex structures, especially the biaryls. Among those reported arylation procedures, transition-metal-catalyzed direct C(sp2)-H arylation has been rapidly developed in recent decades and has become a reliable alternative to traditional cross-coupling procedures using organometallic reagents. Great achievements in rhodium-catalyzed C(sp2)-H arylation have been witnessed during the last decade. Aryl halides, simple arenes, aryl boronic acids, arylsilanes, aryl aldehyde, aryl carboxylic acid, diazides, etc. were successfully utilized as arylating reagents under rhodium-catalyzed conditions. In this review, recent achievements in rhodium-catalyzed arylations through C(sp2)-H bond activation were summarized together with the mechanism discussions.

14.
J Invest Surg ; : 1-10, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) is a kind of safe, noninvasive, and reliable measure for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection diagnosis in patients with complete stomach. Nevertheless, the test has not indicated fully precision in people who have had a gastrectomy. So, we made the use of a systematic review of plentiful published resources and research and meta-analysis. There are prominent research achievements regarding of utilizing 13C-UBT for H. pylori infection patients diagnosis with the residual stomach. METHOD: We searched publications available on Cochrane, PubMed, and Embase databases, and on the web of science. The last search was performed in May 2021. The basis model for this meta-analysis was fixed-effect through Metadisc Beta 1.4 software (Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain). When measuring the precision of 13C-urea breath test, we utilized the ratio analysis such as Ratio of diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: Ten associated researches were analyzed with a total of 1065 patients. In general, the sensitivity of included studies ranged from 0.40 to 1.00 (I2 = 81.2%), whereas the specificity ranged from 0.59 to 1.00 (I2 = 90.1%). The pooled sensitivity, specificity were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.79-0.86; P < 0.001), 0.79 (95% CI, 0.76-0.83; P < 0.001) respectively. The accuracy ranged from 71 to 99. The positive predictive values ranged from 45 to 100. The negative predictive values ranged from 53 to 100. The combined DOR was 36.02 (95%CI 15.65-82.92; I2 = 65.8%; P = 0.0018). The corresponding AUC for the SROC curve was 0.92 and the Q value was 0.85. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the outcomes of meta-analysis indicate that during the period of patients' diagnosis in H. pylori infection, who undergoes partial gastrectomy, has high accuracy.

15.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480337

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmunity-related chronic demyelination disease of the central nervous system (CNS), causing young disability. Currently, highly specific immunotherapies for MS are still lacking. Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is an immunosuppressive co-stimulatory molecule, which is expressed on activated T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and other immune cells. PD-L1, the ligand of PD-1, is expressed on T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages. PD-1/PD-L1 delivers negative regulatory signals to immune cells, maintaining immune tolerance and inhibiting autoimmunity. This review comprehensively summarizes current insights into the role of PD-1/PD-L1 signaling in MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The potentiality of PD-1/PD-L1 as biomarkers or therapeutic targets for MS will also be discussed.

16.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5633514, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457116

RESUMO

This study sought to perform integrative analysis of the immune/methylation/autophagy landscape on breast cancer prognosis and single-cell genotypes. Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk Score (BCRRS) and Breast Cancer Prognostic Risk Score (BCPRS) were determined based on 6 prognostic IMAAGs obtained from the TCGA-BRCA cohort. BCRRS and BCPRS, respectively, were used to construct a risk prediction model of overall survival and progression-free survival. Predictive capacity of the model was evaluated using clinical data. Analysis showed that BCRRS is associated with a high risk of stroke. In addition, PPI and drug-ceRNA networks based on differences in BCPRS were constructed. Single cells were genotyped through integrated scRNA-seq of the TNBC samples based on clustering results of BCPRS-related genes. The findings of this study show the potential regulatory effects of IMAAGs on breast cancer tumor microenvironment. High AUCs of 0.856 and 0.842 were obtained for the OS and PFS prognostic models, respectively. scRNA-seq analysis showed high expression levels of adipocytes and adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in high BCPRS clusters. Moreover, analysis of ligand-receptor interactions and potential regulatory mechanisms were performed. The LINC00276&MALAT1/miR-206/FZD4-Wnt7b pathway was also identified which may be useful in future research on targets against breast cancer metastasis and recurrence. Neural network-based deep learning models using BCPRS-related genes showed that these genes can be used to map the tumor microenvironment. In summary, analysis of IMAAGs, BCPRS, and BCRRS provides information on the breast cancer microenvironment at both the macro- and microlevels and provides a basis for development of personalized treatment therapy.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Metilação de DNA , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transcriptoma
17.
Magn Reson Med ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382694

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The pH sensitivity of chemical exchange-relayed nuclear Overhauser enhancement (rNOE) signal in a saturation transfer experiment is not fully understood and needs further investigation. METHODS: A three-pool-exchange model was simulated assuming that the magnetization transfer between an NOE pool and water is relayed by a chemical exchange (CE) pool. The saturation transfer signals from bovine serum albumin (BSA) and egg white albumin (EWA) phantoms were measured with different pH or different D2 O/H2 O mixture solutions. RESULTS: Simulation results showed that the rNOE signal is independent of the Larmor frequency of the CE pool, indicating any CE pool can effectively relay NOE magnetization. The rNOE signal is sensitive to a change of the CE pool size and/or exchange rate only if the CE becomes a rate-limiting step in the relay process. The rNOE signal from BSA phantoms showed larger pH-dependence at -3.0 ppm than those at -1.9 and -4.0 ppm. However, rNOE signals from aliphatic protons have much weaker pH-dependence than the CEST signal, suggesting that CE is unlikely the rate-limiting step and the rNOE signals in BSA are mainly relayed by fast exchanging protons. The existence of aromatic NOE was confirmed by proton spectroscopy. CONCLUSION: The pH-sensitivity of the rNOE signal is determined by whether the CE process is a rate-limiting step in the relay. The rNOE signal has much weaker pH-sensitivity than the CEST signal in BSA proteins, which can explain the weak pH sensitivity of rNOE in vivo.

18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(27): 4342-4357, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366608

RESUMO

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive condition caused by several factors and characterised by pancreatic fibrosis and dysfunction. However, CP is difficult to diagnose at an early stage. Various advanced methods including endoscopic ultrasound based elastography and confocal laser endomicroscopy have been used to diagnose early CP, although no unified diagnostic standards have been established. In the past, the diagnosis was mainly based on imaging, and no comprehensive evaluations were performed. This review describes and compares the advantages and limitations of the traditional and latest diagnostic modalities and suggests guidelines for the standardisation of the methods used to diagnose early CP.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Pancreatopatias , Pancreatite Crônica , Endossonografia , Humanos , Pancreatite Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Autoimmun Rev ; : 102921, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384938

RESUMO

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) associated with autoantibody (ab) to aquaporin-4 (AQP4). There is obvious variation between regions and countries in the epidemiology, clinical features and management in NMOSD. Based on published population-based observation and cohort studies, the different clinical pattern of NMOSD has been seen in several geographical regions and some of these patients with NMOSD-like features do not fully meet the current diagnostic criteria, which is needed to consider the value of recently revised diagnostic criteria. At present, all treatments applied in NMOSD have made great progress, however, these treatments failed in AQP4 ab negative and refractory patients. Therefore, it is necessary to turn into an innovative idea and to open a new era of NMOSD treatment to develop novel and diverse targets and effective therapeutic drugs in NMOSD and to conduct the trails in large clinical samples and case-control studies to confirm their therapeutic effects on NMOSD in the future, which still remain a challenge.

20.
Nanomicro Lett ; 13(1): 178, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402993

RESUMO

As promising anodes for sodium-ion batteries, metal sulfides ubiquitously suffer from low-rate and high-plateau issues, greatly hindering their application in full-cells. Herein, exemplifying carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-stringed metal sulfides superstructure (CSC) assembled by nano-dispersed SnS2 and CoS2 phases, cocktail mediation effect similar to that of high-entropy materials is initially studied in ether-based electrolyte to solve the challenges. The high nano-dispersity of metal sulfides in CSC anode underlies the cocktail-like mediation effect, enabling the circumvention of intrinsic drawbacks of different metal sulfides. By utilizing ether-based electrolyte, the reversibility of metal sulfides is greatly improved, sustaining a long-life effectivity of cocktail-like mediation. As such, CSC effectively overcomes low-rate flaw of SnS2 and high-plateau demerit of CoS2, simultaneously realizes a high rate and a low plateau. In half-cells, CSC delivers an ultrahigh-rate capability of 327.6 mAh g-1anode at 20 A g-1, far outperforming those of monometallic sulfides (SnS2, CoS2) and their mixtures. Compared with CoS2 phase and SnS2/CoS2 mixture, CSC shows remarkably lowered average charge voltage up to ca. 0.62 V. As-assembled CSC//Na1.5VPO4.8F0.7 full-cell shows a good rate capability (0.05 ~ 1.0 A g-1, 120.3 mAh g-1electrode at 0.05 A g-1) and a high average discharge voltage up to 2.57 V, comparable to full-cells with alloy-type anodes. Kinetics analysis verifies that the cocktail-like mediation effect largely boosts the charge transfer and ionic diffusion in CSC, compared with single phase and mixed phases. Further mechanism study reveals that alternative and complementary electrochemical processes between nano-dispersed SnS2 and CoS2 phases are responsible for the lowered charge voltage of CSC. This electrolyte/structure-dependent cocktail-like mediation effect effectively enhances the practicability of metal sulfide anodes, which will boost the development of high-rate/-voltage sodium-ion full batteries.

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