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1.
Nat Immunol ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632289

RESUMO

In response to pathogenic threats, naive T cells rapidly transition from a quiescent to an activated state, yet the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Using a pulsed SILAC approach, we investigated the dynamics of mRNA translation kinetics and protein turnover in human naive and activated T cells. Our datasets uncovered that transcription factors maintaining T cell quiescence had constitutively high turnover, which facilitated their depletion following activation. Furthermore, naive T cells maintained a surprisingly large number of idling ribosomes as well as 242 repressed mRNA species and a reservoir of glycolytic enzymes. These components were rapidly engaged following stimulation, promoting an immediate translational and glycolytic switch to ramp up the T cell activation program. Our data elucidate new insights into how T cells maintain a prepared state to mount a rapid immune response, and provide a resource of protein turnover, absolute translation kinetics and protein synthesis rates in T cells (https://www.immunomics.ch).

2.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(4): 217, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166419

RESUMO

An electrochemical immunosensor for the determination of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is described. It was manufactured by using gold nanoparticles/molybdenum disulfide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites modified on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The independently developed monoclonal antibody of PEDV-2C11 was immobilized on the modified electrode at site of gold nanoparticles provided in the nanocomposites. The concentration of PEDV was quantified by measuring the changes in the charge transfer resistance of the electrode before and after the immunoreaction between antigen-antibody by using hexacyanoferrate(II)/(III) as the redox probe. The frequency range was 10-1 to 105 Hz at the amplitude of 10 mV and an applied potential of + 0.180 V. Based on the immunoreaction between PEDV antigen and PEDV-2C11 antibody in 0.1 M phosphate buffer containing 0.1 M KCl at 37.5 °C for 140 min, the relative change in impedance was proportional to the logarithmic value of PEDV concentrations in the range of 82.5 to 1.65 × 104 TCID50 mL-1. Good reproducibility, stability, and specificity of the proposed immunosensor were obtained. It was successfully applied to the determination of PEDV in the spiked sample. Graphical abstractSchematic representation. a The preparation of AuNP/MoS2/rGO composites. b Representation of modification and functioning of the label-free electrochemical immunosensor and the electrochemical impedimetric response obtained before (a) and after (b) incubation of PEDV.

3.
Pain Physician ; 23(1): E31-E40, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) can effectively relieve the pain for patients with acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs), many patients still complain of mild back pain in the early postoperative period. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of early limited activity (LA) on prognosis after bipedicular small-cement-volume (i.e., PVP) to treat single-segment acute OVCFs. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study and retrospective observations were performed on 125 patients with a minimum of 1 year of follow-up. SETTING: A university hospital orthopedics and pathology departments. METHODS: All patients were allocated into an LA group (n = 64) and an unlimited activity group (ULA group, n = 61). Patients in the LA group were suggested to keep time of off-bed activity < 4 hours per day in the first 3 weeks postoperatively. Patients in the ULA group did not limit activity. The demographic, clinical, and radiologic outcomes were assessed, such as pain intensity Numeric Rating Scale (NRS-11) and vertebral height ratio (i.e., fractured vertebral height/adjacent nonfractured vertebral height). Based on outcomes following surgery, all patients were classified as responders (NRS-11 score 1-day postoperation < 50% of preoperative NRS-11 score) or low responders (NRS-11 score 1-day postoperation >= 50% of preoperative NRS-11 score). RESULTS: The demographic results and complications were similar. In the LA group, NRS-11 scores at 1 and 3 months postoperation respectively were 2.23 ± 0.42 and 1.46 ± 0.40, and corresponding scores respectively were 2.85 ± 0.80 and 1.73 ± 0.77 in the ULA group, and there was a difference in the 2 groups in both time points (P < 0.05). At 12 months postoperation, anterior and middle vertebral height ratio respectively were 78.42% ± 3.52% and 82.37% ± 3.49% in the LA group, which were higher than 76.87% ± 3.68% and 81.10% ± 3.31% in the ULA group (P < 0.05). Thirty-two cases were low responders. Among those, NRS-11 scores at 1 and 3 months postoperation respectively were 2.29 ± 0.45 and 1.53 ± 0.46 in the LA group, which were lower than 3.67 ± 0.80 and 2.56 ± 0.79 in the ULA group (P < 0.05), and at 12 months postoperation, anterior vertebral height ratio was 79.81% ± 3.25% in the LA group and 75.60% ± 3.50% in the ULA group (P < 0.05). LIMITATIONS: First, some patients lacked the results of bone mineral density during follow-up; second, the limited time in our study was chosen from our previous working experience, which may lack an objective basis; third, NRS-11 is solely used as an indicator of clinical outcomes in our study; finally, our next studies can increase the sample size to improve the clinically difference. CONCLUSIONS: LA in the early period after PVP can help patients achieve more pain relief postoperatively and maintain better vertebral shape, especially for low responders. KEY WORDS: Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, percutaneous vertebroplasty, Numeric Rating Scale, vertebral height, responders, low responders, limited activity, complications.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113577, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761595

RESUMO

A self-assembly method was adopted to synthesize loading architecture of ZnO/g-C3N4 heterojunction composites by hybridization of g-C3N4 nanosheets and ZnO nanoparticles utilizing a refluxing method at a low temperature. More importantly, we provided a novel route to regulate the π-π restacking thickness of the g-C3N4 nanosheets among ZnO/g-C3N4 composites by the controlling the refluxing time in the ethanol solution, which can optimize the surface hybrid structure, optical response and photocatalytic activity. Among all of samples, ZnO/g-C3N4 composites with a refluxing 12 h showed the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. The enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of ZCN-12 composites can be ascribed to the synergistic effects of the construction of hybrid structures, reduction of structural defects of g-C3N4 nanosheets and suitable π-π restacking g-C3N4 nanosheets loading thickness.


Assuntos
Grafite , Nanocompostos/química , Compostos de Nitrogênio , Óxido de Zinco , Catálise , Grafite/química , Luz , Tamanho da Partícula , Processos Fotoquímicos
5.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 96: 125-135, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035063

RESUMO

Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement has been widely used to fill and stabilize hard tissue defects in clinical surgery, especially in percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP). However, the dense body of pure PMMA in defects has no ability to promote bone regeneration. We herein aim to fabricate novel PMMA/silicate bioceramic hybrid cements by adding bioactive calcium silicate (CS) particles into PMMA to endow PMMA/CS hybrid cements with bioactivity and biodegradability without losing the excellent mechanical strength and injectability. Following comprehensive characterization of the physicochemical properties and in vitro bioactivity study, our results showed compared with PMMA cement, the constructed PMMA/CS hybrid cements possessed significantly lower curing temperatures and simultaneously retained the acceptable mechanical strength and injectability. Moreover, obvious bioactive ion release and hydroxyapatite formation could be detected and observed after the PMMA/CS hybrid cements were soaked in simulated body fluid, indicating their pronounced bioactivity. A further in vivo study of the PMMA/CS hybrid cements on goat vertebral body defect models reflected that the PMMA/CS hybrid cements could be biodegraded well and could significantly promote new bone formation in defects 6 months of post-injection. Our results suggest that PMMA/CS hybrid cements may be promising candidates for PVP and PKP in clinic.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(7): e14362, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate postoperative pain management can improve outcomes in patients with esophageal cancer (EC). OBJECTIVE: To compare different combinations of anesthesia and analgesia techniques in patients with EC undergoing open thoracotomy. METHODS: This randomized, controlled, open-label trial enrolled 100 patients with EC (aged 40-65 years; American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] grade I/II) receiving elective surgery at Jiangsu Province Hospital (China) between July 2016 and December 2017. Patients were randomized to 4 groups (n = 25 per group): total intravenous general anesthesia plus patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (TIVA/PCIA); TIVA plus patient-controlled epidural analgesia (TIVA/PCEA); thoracic epidural anesthesia with intravenous general anesthesia plus PCIA (TEA-IVA/PCIA); and TEA-IVA/PCEA (TEA-IVA plus PCEA). Primary outcomes were plasma cortisol level (measured at baseline, 2 h after skin incision, surgery completion, and 24 and 48 h post-surgery) and pain (assessed at 24, 48, and 72 hours post-surgery using a visual analog scale). Secondary outcomes included time to first flatus, hospital stay and treatment costs. Postoperative adverse events (AEs) were analyzed. RESULTS: Baseline and operative characteristics were similar between the 4 groups. Plasma cortisol level increased (P <.05 vs baseline) earlier in the TIVA groups (2 h after skin incision) than in the TEA-IVA groups (24 h after surgery). At 48 hours after surgery, plasma cortisol had returned to baseline levels in the PCEA groups but not in the PCIA groups. VAS pain scores at rest and during coughing were lower in the PCEA groups than in the PCIA groups (P <.05). Compared with the PCIA groups, the PCEA groups had shorter time to first flatus and shorter hospital stay, while use of TEA-IVA lowered the costs of intraoperative anesthesia (P <.05). However, the PCEA groups had a higher incidence of nausea, vomiting, and pruritus. CONCLUSION: Thoracic epidural anesthesia/analgesia can reduce the stress response, improve postoperative recovery and reduce hospital stay and costs for patients with EC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente/métodos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anestesia Epidural/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , China , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Preços Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050870

RESUMO

Objectives:Citrobacter freundii is a frequent cause of nosocomial infections and a known cause of diarrheal infections, and has increasingly become multidrug resistant (MDR). In this study, we aimed to determine the genetic diversity, the antimicrobial resistance profiles and in vitro virulence properties of C. freundii from diarrheal patients and healthy individuals. Methods: 82 C. freundii isolates were obtained from human diarrheal outpatients and healthy individuals. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) of seven housekeeping genes was performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the disk diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. Adhesion and cytotoxicity to HEp-2 cells were assessed. PCR and sequencing were used to identify blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrC, qnrD, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA genes. Results: The 82 C. freundii isolates were divided into 76 sequence types (STs) with 65 STs being novel, displaying high genetic diversity. Phylogenetic analysis divided the 82 isolates into 5 clusters. All 82 isolates were sensitive to imipenem (IPM), but resistant to one or more other 16 antibiotics tested. Twenty-six isolates (31.7%) were multidrug resistant to three or more antibiotic classes out of the 10 distinct antibiotic classes tested. Five MDR isolates, all of which were isolated from 2014, harbored one or more of the resistance genes, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-9, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrS1, qnrB9, and qnrB13. All 11 qnrB-carrying C. freundii isolates belonged to cluster 1, and one C. freundii isolate carried a new qnrB gene (qnrB92). Six isolates showed strong cytotoxicity to HEp-2 cells, one of which was multidrug resistant. Conclusions:C. freundii isolates from human diarrheal outpatients and healthy individuals were diverse with variation in sequence types, antibiotic resistance profiles and virulence properties.


Assuntos
Citrobacter freundii/classificação , Citrobacter freundii/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Citrobacter freundii/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrobacter freundii/patogenicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Hepatócitos/microbiologia , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus
8.
Chem Sci ; 9(19): 4529-4534, 2018 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896396

RESUMO

Coupling reactions involving non-sulfonated C-O electrophiles provide a promising method for forming C-C bonds, but the incorporation of functionalized or secondary alkyl groups remains a challenge due to the requirement for well-defined alkylmetal species. In this study, we report a reductive nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling of benzyl oxalates with alkyl bromides, using oxalate as a new leaving group. A broad range of highly functionalized alkyl units (such as functional groups: alkyl chloride, alcohol, aldehyde, amine, amide, boronate ester, ether, ester, heterocycle, phosphonate, strained ring) were efficiently incorporated at the benzylic position. The utility of this synthetic method was further demonstrated by late-stage modification of complex bioactive compounds. Preliminary mechanistic experiments revealed that a radical process might be involved in the reaction.

9.
J Exp Med ; 215(6): 1531-1542, 2018 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769249

RESUMO

T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells are a population of CD4+ T cells that express regulatory T cell markers and have been shown to suppress humoral immunity. However, the precise mechanisms and location of Tfr-mediated suppression in the lymph node (LN) microenvironment are unknown. Using highly multiplexed quantitative imaging and functional assays, we examined the spatial distribution, suppressive function, and preferred interacting partners of Tfr cells in human mesenteric LNs. We find that the majority of Tfr cells express low levels of PD-1 and reside at the border between the T cell zone and B cell follicle, with very few found in the germinal centers (GCs). Although PD-1+ Tfr cells expressed higher levels of CD38, CTLA-4, and GARP than PD-1Neg Tfr cells, both potently suppressed antibody production in vitro. These findings highlight the phenotypic diversity of human Tfr cells and suggest that Tfr-mediated suppression is most efficient at the T-B border and within the follicle, not in the GC.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Humanos , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR5/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
10.
J Neuroinflammation ; 15(1): 41, 2018 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29433511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Astrocytes have attracted increasing attention over recent decades for their role in neuroinflammation. Histamine, a major aminergic brain neurotransmitter, has an important influence on the main activities of astrocytes, such as ion homeostasis, energy metabolism, and neurotransmitter clearance. However, little is known about the impact of histamine on astrocyte immunomodulatory function. METHODS: The expression of all known histamine receptor subtypes was examined in primary astrocytes. Then, primary astrocytes were pretreated with selective histamine receptor antagonists and stimulated with histamine. Cellular activation, proinflammatory cytokine production, and expression of neurotrophic factors were assessed. RESULTS: Astrocytes could constitutively express three histamine receptors (H1R, H2R, and H3R), and these three histamine receptors could be selectively upregulated to varying degrees upon histamine treatment. Histamine also dose-dependently stimulated astrocyte activation and subsequent production of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), whereas it suppressed the secretion of the proinflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). The effects of histamine were completely abolished by either an H1R or H3R antagonist, while an H2R antagonist attenuated the effects partly. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified the expression of H1R, H2R, and H3R on astrocytes. We also demonstrated that negative regulation of astrocytic TNF-α and IL-1ß production and the enhancement of astrocytic GDNF stimulated by histamine were receptor-mediated processes in which all three of the expressed histamine receptors (H1R, H2R, and H3R) were involved. These findings may further clarify the involvement and mechanism of astrocyte activation in neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Histamina/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo , Receptores Histamínicos/biossíntese , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Histamínicos/genética , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(10): 1193-1197, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28475377

RESUMO

We evaluated organosulphur compounds in Allium vegetables, including garlic, elephant garlic and onion, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among organosulphur compounds, elephant garlic had considerable γ-glutamyl peptides, and garlic had the highest alliin content. Onion had low level of organosulphur compounds than did elephant garlic and garlic. In addition, antioxidant capacities were evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. The results showed that garlic had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by elephant garlic and onion. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between antioxidant activities and organosulphur compounds (R > 0.77). Therefore, our results indicate that there was a close relationship between antioxidant capacity and organosulphur compounds in Allium vegetables.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Alho/química , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Cebolas/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Compostos de Enxofre/farmacologia
12.
Naturwissenschaften ; 104(11-12): 97, 2017 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29086031

RESUMO

Estrogen-related receptor gene (ERR) and ecdysone receptor gene (EcR) belong to the nuclear receptor gene superfamily, both of which are associated with the regulation of insect reproductive development. However, the relationship between ERR and EcR and whether ERR participates in the 20E signal pathway during male reproduction are unclear. In this paper, adult male crickets Teleogryllus emma Ohmschi & Matsumura were divided into the experimental group, negative group, and control group. Crickets of the experimental group were injected with TeERR or TeEcR-dsRNA, and those in the negative group received EGFP-dsRNA. The efficiency of TeERR and TeEcR-RNAi was detected in the experimental group. Furthermore, the transcription level, morphological characteristics as well as weight were analyzed in the TeERR or TeEcR knocked-down testis. Results showed that the expression level of TeERR or TeEcR was significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05) when treated with 2000 ng TeERR or TeEcR-dsRNA for 48 h. The expression level of TeERR could be down-regulated (P < 0.05) using TeEcR-RNAi and vice versa. TeERR and TeEcR-RNAi caused morphological changes in testes, but they had no obvious effect on weight (P > 0.05). These results indicate that TeERR and TeEcR are intimately related to each other. In addition, TeERR may be involved in the 20E signal pathway and maintain the function of adult cricket testis.


Assuntos
Genes de Insetos/genética , Gryllidae/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/farmacologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Gryllidae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Masculino , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/farmacologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Oncotarget ; 8(38): 63360-63369, 2017 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968996

RESUMO

Anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is essential for cell cycle progression. Recently, its non-mitotic functions were also reported but less studied in several tissues including hematopoietic cells. Here, we developed an inducible Anapc2 (a core subunit of APC/C) knockout mice. The animals displayed a fatal bone marrow failure within 7 days after knockout induction. Their hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) demonstrated a sharp decline and could form little colony. Further, the results of BrdU label-retaining cell assay showed that the dormant HPSCs lost rapidly. Analysis of cell cycle regulators, Skp2, P27, Cdk2, and Cyclin E1, suggested that these quiescent stem cells underwent a shift from quiescence to mitosis followed by apoptosis. We next detected Anapc2-expression in the CD34+ HSPCs of patients with aplastic anemia. CD34+ cells were markedly decreased in the bone marrow and Anapc2-expression in the residual CD34+ cells was undetectable, suggesting that APC/C was deficient and might have a relationship with the pathogenesis of aplastic anemia.

14.
Avian Dis ; 61(3): 341-346, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28956993

RESUMO

Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) infect chickens worldwide, resulting in global economic losses in the poultry industry. We examined the strains present in chickens in regions of China where infections are particularly prevalent. Fifteen FAdV strains were successfully isolated in the field. The L1 loop region of the hexon gene was sequenced to genetically identify the FAdV isolates. By comparing these sequences to adenovirus reference strain sequences using phylogenetics, 15 adenovirus strains were found to cluster into two distinct species. One cluster containing 12 strains belonged to the fowl adenoviruses C species and serotyped as FAdV-4. The other cluster containing three strains belonged to the fowl adenoviruses E species and serotyped as FAdV-10. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the existence of fowl adenoviruses E in China. Furthermore, at least two types of fowl adenovirus strains are predominant among poultry in China. Cumulatively, this study helps lays the groundwork for future research on the pathogenicity and potential treatment measures for FAdV infections in chickens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Aviadenovirus/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Aviadenovirus/classificação , Aviadenovirus/fisiologia , China , Filogenia , Sorogrupo
15.
Anaesthesist ; 66(11): 850-857, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28914327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is one of the most widely used inhalation anesthetics in pediatric anesthesia. A large number of studies have demonstrated that repeated treatment with high concentrations or long durations of sevoflurane anesthesia during the neonatal period can induce neuroapoptosis and long-term learning disability. In clinical practice, we observed that a subset of patients underwent minor surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia more than once from birth to adolescence. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate whether a 2% concentration of sevoflurane (clinically relevant usage of sevoflurane) for 1 h (a short duration) can induce neuroapoptosis and neurocognitive dysfunction in adolescent rats that received sevoflurane (2% for 1 h) during the neonatal period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Group I: neonatal rats at postnatal day 7 (PND-7) were treated with oxygen under controlled conditions and then raised to PND-60. Group II: PND-7 rats were treated with 2% sevoflurane for 1 h and then raised to PND-60. Group III: the PND-60 rats were treated with 2% sevoflurane for 1 h and in group IV the PND-7 rats were treated with 2% sevoflurane for 1 h and then anesthetized with 2% sevoflurane for 1 h at PND-60 again. The expression of caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) were measured by Western blot analysis. Neuroapoptosis in the hippocampal DG was assessed using NeuN/caspase-3 double-immunofluorescence staining. Spatial reference memory was tested by the Morris water maze test. RESULTS: The present data showed that sevoflurane (2% for 1 h) did not induce obvious hippocampal neuroapoptosis in the PND-7 rats and PND-60 rats; their performance in hippocampal-dependent spatial memory was not significantly impaired; however, the rats in group IV showed poor performance in the Morris water maze test and the neuroapoptosis in group IV was significantly increased. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that sevoflurane can induce neuroapoptosis and cognitive dysfunction in adolescent rats that received repeated sevoflurane (2% for 1 h) during the postnatal period. These findings will promote further studies to investigate the effects of repeated sevoflurane exposure on the development of the central nervous system and function of learning and memory, as well as the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/toxicidade , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Éteres Metílicos/toxicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/psicologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Antígenos Nucleares/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Caspase 3/biossíntese , Caspase 3/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sevoflurano
16.
Arch Virol ; 162(12): 3611-3618, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803371

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a causative agent of porcine intestinal disease, which causes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration in piglets. PEDV is associated with the most severe pathogenesis in one-week-old piglets, with mortality rates reaching 100%. A PEDV strain was isolated from the intestinal tract of diarrheic piglets from a pig farm in Jiangsu Province in March 2016, termed the JS201603 isolate. The isolated virus was confirmed to be PEDV via RT-PCR, electron microscopy, a cytopathic effect assay and sequence analysis. The S and ORF3 genes of the JS201603 isolate were sequenced, revealing that the S gene was associated with a 15-base insertion at 167 nt, 176 - 186 nt, and 427 - 429 nt, as well as a six-base deletion in 487 - 492 nt, indicating that it was a current epidemic variant compared with the classical strain, CV777. No deletion occurred between 245 - 293 nt of the ORF3 gene in the JS201603 isolate compared with the vaccine isolates YY2013 and SQ2014. An experimental infection model indicated that the piglets in the challenge group successively developed diarrhea, exhibiting yellow-colored loose stools with a foul odor. The piglets in the JS201603 isolate challenge group displayed reduced food consumption, lost weight, and in severe cases even died. No abnormalities were observed in the control group. The JS201603 variant isolated in this study contributes to the evolutionary analysis of diarrhea virus. The experimental infection model has established a foundation for further studies on vaccine development.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Genótipo , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/classificação , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Diarreia/patologia , Diarreia/virologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mutação , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/patogenicidade , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos , Proteínas Virais/genética , Vírion/ultraestrutura , Virulência
17.
Neural Regen Res ; 12(7): 1166-1171, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852401

RESUMO

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is an important factor in inhibiting oxidative stress and has been shown to protect against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, we hypothesized that ALDH2 could reduce spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced in rats using the modified Zivin's method of clamping the abdominal aorta. After successful model establishment, the agonist group was administered a daily consumption of 2.5% alcohol. At 7 days post-surgery, the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score significantly increased in the agonist group compared with the spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury group. ALDH2 expression also significantly increased and the number of apoptotic cells significantly decreased in the agonist group than in the spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury group. Correlation analysis revealed that ALDH2 expression negatively correlated with the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells (r = -0.485, P < 0.01). In summary, increased ALDH2 expression protected the rat spinal cord against ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting apoptosis.

18.
Behav Brain Res ; 332: 145-153, 2017 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28587818

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation induced by peripheral trauma plays a key role in the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Substantial evidence points to reactive glia as a pivotal factor during the inflammation process. However, little is known about the functional interactions between astrocytes and microglia. Recent evidence suggests the involvement of the CCL2-CCR2 pathway in CNS inflammation-related diseases. Our previous studies have suggested that astrocyte-derived CCL2 can induce microglial activation in vitro. Within this context, we sought to determine if the CCL2/CCR2 axis is involved in the crosstalk between astrocytes and microglia, contributing to increased neuroinflammation. Here, we show that tibial fracture surgery promoted CCL2 upregulation in activated astrocytes, increased CCR2 expression in activated microglia, and induced deficits in learning and memory. Site-directed pre-injection of RS504393, a CCR2 antagonist, inhibited this effect by reducing microglial activation, M1 polarization, inflammatory cytokines, and neuronal injury and death and improving cognitive function. Taken together, these data implicate CCL2-CCR2 signaling in astrocyte-mediated microglial activation in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and suggest that interference with CCL2 signaling could constitute another potential therapeutic target for POCD.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/patologia , Benzoxazinas/farmacologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/patologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/psicologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores CCR2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores CCR2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/complicações , Fraturas da Tíbia/metabolismo , Fraturas da Tíbia/patologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia
19.
Pathol Res Pract ; 213(7): 863-867, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28554756

RESUMO

Metanephric stromal tumor (MST) of the kidney, a rare benign pediatric neoplasm recognized for less than 20 years, is not widely known. The authors describe a case of MST with rare squamous epithelium in a 14-month-old female. A renal mass was discovered during her fetal period. After her birth, computerized tomography revealed that the mass was localized in the inferior pole of her left kidney. She then underwent nephrectomy. The tumor was an unencapsulated but well-defined mass with a white, solid and firm cut surface and had dimensions of 4cm×3.5cm×3cm. The tumor was initially diagnosed as Wilms tumor because its frozen section exhibited spindle cells with cartilaginous and rare squamous epithelial elements. However, the paraffin-embedded section of the tumor exhibited bland stromal cells surrounding the entrapped tubules; this arrangement produced an "onion-skin" appearance. The rare squamous epithelial element appeared to originate from normal renal tubules. Immunohistochemistry results were positive for CD34 and INI1, as well as a low Ki-67 expression level, but were negative for S-100, Desmin, Actin, CD117 and Catenin-ß. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis did not detect an ETV6 rearrangement. Morphological characteristics, immunophenotyping and molecular genetic analysis indicated MST. No recurrence or metastases occurred during the follow-up period of 36 months. Epithelial elements should be examined carefully in pediatric patients with renal masses. MST should be included in their differential diagnoses.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Células Estromais/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biópsia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/química , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Lactente , Neoplasias Renais/química , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Nefrectomia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Células Estromais/química , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
J Neurotrauma ; 34(21): 3051-3057, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27842476

RESUMO

The mechanisms of late recurrent neurological deterioration after conservative treatment for acute traumatic central cord syndrome (ATCCS) remain unclear. Seventeen operative cases sustaining late recurrent neurological deterioration after conservative treatment for ATCCS were reviewed to investigate the mechanisms. The assessment of neurological status was based on International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI). Gender, age, cause of injury, results of image, conservative treatment and operative data, and neurological status at different time points were recorded. The mean age of 17 patients was 43.8 ± 2.3 years old, and the causes of the cervical injury were 14 vehicle accidents and 3 falls. The neurological deficits of 17 patients on admission were not serious, and patients recovered quickly after conservative treatment. No fractures or dislocation were found in any patient's radiographs or CT scan images. All 17 patients performed first MRI test in 4 days and there was a slight or mild compression on the spinal cord in 16 patients. Eight patients had a second MRI scan ∼6 weeks later, which showed that there was aggravated compression on the spinal cord in six patients. All patients underwent an anterior approach to cervical decompression and internal fixation operation. During the operation, there were loose discs found in all 17 patients, obvious ruptures of disks found in 3 patients, obvious ruptures of anterior longitudinal ligaments (ALLs) found in 8 patients, and obvious ruptures of posterior longitudinal ligaments (PLLs) found in 7 patients. There was serious adhesion between PLLs and cervical disks in 12 patients. In five patients, partial ossification of PLLs was detected. All patients had a good neurological outcome at 6 month follow-up. Ruptures of ALLs, PLLs, and discs resulting in cervical instability and secondary compression on the spinal cord were important causes for recurrent neurological deterioration after conservative treatment for ATCCS. With timely spinal decompression after recurrent neurological deterioration, patients could achieve a good neurological outcome.


Assuntos
Síndrome Medular Central/etiologia , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Degeneração Neural/etiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Adulto , Síndrome Medular Central/patologia , Síndrome Medular Central/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Ligamentos Longitudinais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Degeneração Neural/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ruptura
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