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2.
Int J Surg ; : 106223, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the stone clearance rate and stone-success rate among lithotripter with ultrasonic lithotripter alone, pneumatic lithotripter alone and combined mechanisms. METHODS: Up till 2021 May, we conducted a literature search among several widely used database around the world, including Pubmed, Embase (Ovid Version), Medline (Ovid Version) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only English literature was considered. Pediatric patients were excluded. Reviews and protocols without any published data were excluded. Conference abstracts and articles with unrelated contents were also excluded. RESULTS: Fifteen articles were included in our final meta-analysis, with 9 RCTs and 6 cohort studies. In Lithoclast combined with ultrasonic device vs pneumatic device subgroup, overall stone-success rate yielded insignificant difference. As for subgroup of Shock Pulse vs pneumatic device, pooled analysis yielded a higher 1-month stone-success rate for Shock Pulse (RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.19). In Lithoclast combined with ultrasonic device vs ultrasonic device subgroup and Cyberwand vs ultrasonic device subgroup, both overall stone-success rate did not differ from one another. We found Lithoclast with ultrasonic device was more efficient in stone clearance rate than pneumatic device (mean difference = 8.23, 95% CI: 4.99-11.47). The same situation was applied to the comparison between Lithoclast with ultrasonic device and ultrasonic device (mean difference = 13.02, 95% CI: 4.57-21.46). CONCLUSIONS: Combined lithotripter was more efficient in clearing stones than pneumatic or ultrasonic device alone. However, when it came to stone-success rate, no obvious superiority was seen in combined one.

3.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(1): 73-85, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil fumigants-the most effective agrochemicals for managing soil-borne diseases-have been used extensively. However, high volatility, moderate toxicity and insufficient effective duration considerably limit their application. In the present study, interface polymerization was used to combine modified biochar (BC) and polyurea microcapsules (MCs) to co-encapsulate allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), developing a model fumigant for controlled release (AITC@BC-MCs). RESULTS: The physical characteristics of BC modified by sand-milling were significantly improved. In addition, chemical properties and morphological features of AITC@BC-MCs characterized by integrated methods revealed successful preparation of BC-MCs. Compared with monolayer MCs, BC-MCs could significantly delay AITC release owing to the composite obstruction effect. Moreover, modifying BC endowed the cargo molecules with a pH-responsive release property. Additionally, this composite showed a longer persistent duration by prolonging AITC degradation half-life, which was 3.2-3.5-fold greater than that of the AITC technical concentrate under different soil conditions. Finally, the control efficacy of the AITC@BC-MC against pathogens, including nematodes and fungi, as well as against weeds was significantly enhanced at the same dose, but the composite did not inhibit seed germination and growth after 10 days when fumigated soil was aerated. CONCLUSION: Construction of a composite encapsulation system enhanced pesticide efficacy, reduced dose via controlled release and delayed fumigant degradation in soil, indicating the great potential of this strategy for developing an effective and environmentally friendly fumigant formulation. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Solo , Cápsulas , Carvão Vegetal , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Praguicidas/análise , Polimerização , Polímeros
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127132, 2022 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537652

RESUMO

The abuse of antibiotics has triggered the rise of drug-resistance bacteria, which has seriously threatened public health globally. As a result, carrying out efficient and accurate antibiotic and bacteria identification are quite significant but challenge. Herein, an unprecedented Cd-MOF-based sensor, [CdL]n [1, H2L = 4-(2-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl) isophthalic acid] with multiple fluorescence response behaviours towards antibiotics and bacteria was developed. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that 1 is a mesomeric 2D bilayer, which is comprised of two opposite chiral mono-layers, each assembled by left-handed or right-handed helixes. More interestingly, 1 represented multiplex detection capability towards antibiotics and bacteria through two detection behaviors: toward nitro-antibiotics and chlortetracycline (CTC) via fluorescent quenching, while toward Staphylococcus albus (S. albus) via fluorescent enhancement. Remarkably, 1 showed a low limit of detection (LOD, 47 CFU/mL) accompanied with specificity in the detection of S. albus compared to other bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. In addition, the LOD could reach to ppm level for nitro-antibiotics and CTC. Moreover, the practical application of 1 was further reinforced through the detection of nitro-antibiotics and CTC, as well as S. albus in fetal calf serum and river water.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Cádmio , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis
5.
Environ Pollut ; 295: 118653, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921948

RESUMO

Soil fumigants aim to control soil-borne diseases below levels that affect economic crop production, but their use also reduces the abundance of beneficial microorganisms. Previous studies have shown that adding various types of fertilizers to soil after fumigation can reshape the soil microbial community and regulate crop growth. We fumigated soil with dazomet (DZ) that had been cropped continuously for more than 20 years. After fumigation we applied silicon fertilizer, potassium humate organic fertilizer, Bacillus microbial fertilizer or a mixture of the last two. We studied the effects of different fertilizers treatments on the soil's physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, key soil pathogens and beneficial microbes. We found that fertilizers applied after fumigation promoted soil beneficial microorganisms (such as Fimicutes, Chloroflexi, Bacillus and Actinomadura) restoration; increased Fusarium and Phytophthora pathogen mortality, the content of ammonium nitrogen, sucrase enzyme activity; and increased strawberry fruit yield. A significant increase in strawberry yield was positively correlated with increases in beneficial microorganisms such as Gemmatimonadota, Firmicutes, Bacillus and Flavisolibacter. We concluded that organic fertilizer applied after fumigation significantly increased the number of beneficial microorganisms, improved the physicochemical properties of the soil, increased soil enzyme activities, inhibited the growth of soil pathogens to increase strawberry fruit yield. In summary, organic fertilizer activated soil beneficial microorganisms after soil fumigation, promoted soil health, and increased strawberry fruit yield.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Fragaria , Fumigação , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
6.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 777324, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34900876

RESUMO

Purpose: The effectiveness of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), even uniportal VATS (U-VATS), in the treatment of pleural empyema has recently been demonstrated. However, few works have evaluated its safety and feasibility for children. We review our experience with U-VATS in the treatment of pleural empyema for children under 11 years old. Methods: From January 2019 to December 2020, we consecutively enrolled 21 children with stage II and stage III pleural empyema in our institution. A 1.0 cm utility port was created in the 5th intercostal space at the anterior axillary line. A rigid 30°5 mm optic thoracoscope was used for vision, and two or three instruments were used through the port. Surgery was based on three therapeutic columns: removal of pleural fluid, debridement, and decortication. A chest tube was inserted through the same skin incision. Perioperative data and outcomes were summarized. Results: The procedures were successful, and satisfactory debridement of the pleural cavity was achieved in all cases. The mean age was 4.1 years (range: 6 months to 11 years old). The mean operating time was 65.7 ± 23.2 min. No intraoperative conversion or major complications were identified among the patients. The mean hospital stay was 5.0 ± 0.6 days. At a follow-up of more than 4 months after operating, all patients had recovered well without recurrence. Conclusion: According to our experience, U-VATS debridement is feasible for the surgical management of stage II and III empyema in the pediatric population. Indeed, U-VATS permits easier performance and complete debridement and decortication, with a very low risk for conversion.

7.
Org Lett ; 2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967647

RESUMO

With 8-(methyltosylaminoethynyl)-1-naphthyl (MTAEN) glycoside as donors, a novel and efficient glycosylation protocol has been established. The MTAEN glycosylation protocol exhibits the merits of shelf-stable donors, mild catalytic promotion conditions, considerably extended substrate scope encompassing both free alcohols, silylated alcohols, nucleobases, primary amides, and C-type nucleophile acceptors, and applicability to various one-pot strategies for highly efficient synthesis of oligosaccharides, such as orthogonal one-pot, single-catalyst one-pot, and acceptor reactivity-controlled one-pot strategies.

8.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944096

RESUMO

As an ecofriendly biocontrol agent, antagonistic bacteria are a crucial class of highly efficient fungicides in the field against Verticillium dahliae, the most virulent pathogen for cotton and other crops. Toward identifying urgently needed bacterial candidates, we screened bacteria isolated from the cotton rhizosphere soil for antagonisitic activity against V. dahliae in an artificially infested nursery. In preliminary tests of antagonistic candidates to characterize the mechanism of action of on culture medium, 88 strains that mainly belonged to Bacillus strongly inhibited the colony diameter of V. dahliae, with inhibiting efficacy up to 50% in 9 strains. Among the most-effective bacterial strains, Bacillus sp. ABLF-18, and ABLF-50 and Paenibacillus sp. ABLF-90 significantly reduced the disease index and fungal biomass of cotton to 40-70% that of the control. In further tests to elucidate the biocontrol mechanism (s), the strains secreted extracellular enzymes cellulase, glucanase, and protease, which can degrade the mycelium, and antimicrobial lipopeptides such as surfactin and iturin homologues. The expression of PAL, MAPK and PR10, genes related to disease resistance, was also elicited in cotton plants. Our results clearly show that three candidate bacterial strains can enhance cotton defense responses against V. dahliae; the secretion of fungal cell-wall-degrading enzymes, synthesis of nonribosomal antimicrobial peptides and induction of systemic resistance shows that the strains have great potential as biocontrol fungicides.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Gossypium/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Espaço Extracelular/enzimologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Lipopeptídeos/metabolismo , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/genética
10.
Andrology ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The causal effects of individual risk factors of metabolic syndrome on erectile dysfunction (ED) are still unclear OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the causal effect of risk factors of metabolic syndrome on ED through Mendelian randomization (MR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data for risk factors were obtained from multiple databases with 173,082 to 757,601 individuals, and that for ED were collected from a genome-wide association study including 223,805 Europeans. We performed univariate MR analysis using inverse-variance weighted, MR-Egger, weighted-median, weighted mode methods and multivariable MR analysis to evaluate the total and direct causal effects. RESULTS: The univariable MR supported that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.08-1.21, p < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.12-1.44, p < 0.001) were associated with ED. After excluding the SNPs associated with BMI and other risk factors, the results of multivariable MR for T2D (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05 -1.25, p = 0.001) remained consistent. However, the results of multivariable MR provided limited evidence for the causality between BMI and ED (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.88 -1.29, p = 0.532). For systolic blood pressure and lipid components (low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides), both univariable and multivariable MR failed to offer sufficient evidence to confirm their causal effect on ED. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: T2D showed a direct causal effect on ED independent of obesity and dyslipidemia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846621

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The current research is aimed at analyzing the relationship between kidney stone (KS) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) and the relationship between KS components and AAC. METHODS: This is a retrospective, case-control study. Kidney stone formers (KSFs) were treated at the Department of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University for urological calculus disease from January 2014 to January 2020. Matched non-stone formers (non-SFs) were drawn from the same hospital for routine health examination from January 2018 to February 2019. Research-related information was collected and reviewed retrospectively from the hospital's computerized records. AAC were evaluated using available results of computed tomography imaging and abdominal vascular ultrasound. The relationships of AAC between KSFs and non-SFs were compared. The composition of renal calculi was analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer. KSFs were divided into AAC groups and non-AAC based on AAC. The relationship of the composition of renal calculi between AAC and non-AAC were compared. The independent-sample t test, the chi-squared test and binary logistics regression were performed. RESULTS: Altogether, 4516 people were included, with 1027 KSFs and 3489 non-SFs. There were no significant differences in the laboratory parameters between KSFs and non-SFs. The association between the presence of AAC and KS was significant in multivariable model 2 [adjusting hypertension, diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose, uric acid, serum triglyceride (TG), serum calcium, and urine pH] (OR 5.756, 95% CI 4.616-7.177, p < 0.001). The result of KSFs showed that calcium oxalate calculi (CaOx) was significantly associated with AAC in multivariable model 3 (adjusting age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, drinking history, smoking history, and TG) (OR 1.351, 95% CI 1.002-1.822, p = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: The current study pioneered the revelation of the relationship between CaOx and AAC. Through an elimination of the confounding factors, the study demonstrated that KS and AAC were connected.

12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 395, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785655

RESUMO

Aberrant activation of the TGF-ß/SMAD signaling pathway is often observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Whether lncRNA regulates the TGF-ß/SMAD signaling remains largely unknown. Here, we identified an oncogenic lncRNA that was upregulated in HCC and was transcriptionally induced by TGF-ß (named lnc-UTGF, lncRNA upregulated by TGF-ß). Upon TGF-ß stimulation, SMAD2/3 bound to the lnc-UTGF promoter and activated lnc-UTGF expression. In turn, the TGF-ß/SMAD signaling was augmented by overexpressing lnc-UTGF, but was inhibited by silencing lnc-UTGF. Mechanism investigations revealed that lnc-UTGF interacted with the mRNAs of SMAD2 and SMAD4 via complementary base-pairing, resulting in enhanced stability of SMAD2/4 mRNAs. These data suggest a novel TGF-ß/SMAD/lnc-UTGF positive feedback circuitry. Subsequent gain- and loss-of-function analyses disclosed that lnc-UTGF promoted the migration and invasion of hepatoma cells, and this effect of lnc-UTGF was attenuated by repressing SMAD2/4 expression or by mutating the SMAD2/4-binding sites in lnc-UTGF. Studies using mouse models further confirmed that in vivo metastasis of hepatoma xenografts was inhibited by silencing lnc-UTGF, but was enhanced by ectopic expression of lnc-UTGF. The lnc-UTGF level was positively correlated with the SMAD2/4 levels in xenografts. Consistently, we detected an association of lnc-UTGF upregulation with increase of SMAD2, SMAD4, and their metastasis effector SNAIL1 in human HCC. And high lnc-UTGF level was also significantly associated with enhanced metastasis potential, advanced TNM stages, and worse recurrence-free survival. Conclusion: there exists a lnc-UTGF-mediated positive feedback loop of the TGF-ß signaling and its deregulation promotes hepatoma metastasis. These findings may provide a new therapeutic target for HCC metastasis.

13.
J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol ; 26(4): 716-721, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789108

RESUMO

Volar plate fixation (VPF) of scaphoid fractures has received increased attention over the past decade. The purported benefits over headless screw fixation are increased rigidity, better purchase of small fragments, the ability to prevent extrusion of bone graft, and to act as a buttress against excessive scaphoid flexion. We report a case of symptomatic radioscaphoid impingement presenting two years after successful VPF for a non-united scaphoid fracture. We performed an arthoscopic evaluation, synovectomy and chondroplasty, followed by open radial styloidectomy and implant removal. This article highlights the pertinent clinical features, relevant imaging, and key intra-operative findings. We have analyzed the factors that led to this complication and have highlighted several technical tips to minimize radiocarpal impingement and ongoing chondral damage.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Osso Escafoide , Placas Ósseas , Transplante Ósseo , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Osso Escafoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Escafoide/cirurgia
14.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 2725799, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790251

RESUMO

Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells play a fundamental role in maintaining and inducing immune tolerance. Our preliminary study demonstrated that an interleukin- (IL-) 10-mediated pathway is a possible regulatory mechanism underlying the xenoantigen-specific human Treg enhanced suppressive capacity. Here, we developed a feasible protocol for expanding IL-10-induced xenoantigen-specific human Tr1 cells in vitro which would be more efficient in transplantation immunotherapy efficiency. In this study, xenoantigen-specific Tr1 cells are generated from human naive CD4+ T cells expanded for two subsequent xenoantigen-stimulation cycles with recombinant human IL-10. The phenotype and suppressive capacity of xenoantigen-stimulated Tr1 cells are assessed, and the mechanism of their suppression is studied. Tr1 cells can be induced by porcine xenoantigen stimulation combined with IL-10, IL-2, and IL-15, displaying an increased expression of CD49b, CTLA-4, and LAG-3 without expressing Foxp3 which also showed an effector memory Treg phenotype and expressed high levels of CD39. After xenoantigen stimulation, the IL-10 and IL-5 gene expression in Tr1 cells increased, secreting more IL-10, and xenoantigen-stimulated Tr1 cells changed their T cell receptor (TCR) Vß repertoire, increasing the expression of TCR Vß2, TCR Vß9, and TCR Vß13. In a pig to human mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), xenoantigen-stimulated Tr1 cells displayed enhanced suppressive capacity via CD39 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, IL-5 could affect the proliferation of xenoantigen-specific Tr1 cells, but not their phenotypes' expression. This study provides a theory and feasible method for immune tolerance induction in clinical xenotransplantation.

15.
Front Oncol ; 11: 741145, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733784

RESUMO

Background: Studies have reported that diabetes is related to the prognosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU), but this conclusion is still controversial. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively explore the association between diabetes and UTUC prognosis. Methods: In November 2020, we searched PubMed, Web of science and the Cochrane Library to find relevant studies that evaluated the effect of diabetes on the prognosis of UTUC. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale was used to assess the quality of the literature. Review Manager 5.3 was used to pool cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS) and intravesical recurrence (IVR). Results: A total of 10 studies with 11,303 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Our pooled results showed that diabetes did not affect the survival outcome of UTUC, including CSS (HR: 1.33, 95% CI: 0.89-1.98; P = 0.16), OS (HR: 1.18, 95% CI: 0.77-1.80; P = 0.45) and RFS (HR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.91-2.05; P = 0.13). However, diabetes increased the risk of IVR of UTUC patients (HR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11-1.43; P = 0.0004). Conclusion: Although diabetes has no significant impact on the survival outcomes of UTUC after RNU, it increases the risk of IVR. Therefore, special attention should be paid to monitoring the IVR for UTUC patients with diabetes and the necessity of appropriate intravesical adjuvant treatment when needed.

16.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e13289, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816596

RESUMO

In China, the prevalence of undernutrition among children under 5 years of age has declined significantly during recent decades. However, noticeable gaps exist between rural and urban areas. Since 2012, a government-funded nutrition programme, Ying Yang Bao (YYB; soybean powder-based iron-rich supplement) programme, has been implemented in poor rural areas to decrease the risk of developing anaemia among children aged 6-23 months, but there are still inadequate health care awareness, feeding knowledge and skills among caregivers. From June 2018 to December 2020, a child health counselling intervention was delivered through a home visit based on the YYB programme in Liangshan. Child health messages were given by trained village child health assistants while distributing YYB. Surveys were conducted before and after the intervention to analyse changes in child health check-up frequency, complementary feeding practice and prevalence of undernutrition. After the intervention, the proportion of children who had regular health check-ups, who were vaccinated and who met the minimum YYB consumption significantly increased from 26.0%, 81.6%, and 67.8% to 59.7%, 95.0%, and 79.2%. Increased rates of IYCF indicators (introduction of solid, semisolid, or soft foods, minimum dietary diversity and consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods) were observed after the intervention. The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting, and anaemia significantly decreased from 26.3% to 10.8%, 13.4% to 8.7%, 14.0% to 10.5%, and 52.1% to 43.9%. This intervention can be well integrated into the YYB programme with less additional resources. Children in resource-limited areas will benefit more from a comprehensive nutritional package, including food supplements and child health education.

17.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 755328, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778145

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to compare the outcomes and pulmonary function test (PFT) of thoracoscopic segmentectomy and lobectomy in infants with congenital lung malformation and study the result of PFT on a medium-term basis. Methods: The clinical data of 19 infants with congenital lung malformation who underwent thoracoscopic surgery in our hospital from January 2018 to March 2019 were retrospectively studied; these infants were paired with another 19 infants who underwent thoracoscopic lobectomy during the same period using propensity score matching. Age-matched healthy individuals with similar body sizes were recruited for PFT as the control group. Patient characteristics, postoperative PFT, and outcomes were extracted for statistical analysis. Results: The average length of hospital stay did not significantly differ between segmentectomy and lobectomy groups. The segmentectomy group had more chest tube drainage than the lobectomy group. PFT 1 month after the operation showed that the tidal volume of the lobectomy group was lower than that of the segmentectomy group. Time to peak expiratory flow/time of expiration and peak flow/terminal airway velocity (V25%) indicated small airway dysfunction in the lobectomy group, and no obvious abnormalities were found in "time of inspiratory/time of expiration" in either group. Reexamination of pulmonary function 2 years after the operation showed that the small airway function of the segmentectomy group returned to normal, and no significant difference in pulmonary function was noted among the three groups. Conclusion: The short-term pulmonary function recovery was better after segmentectomy than after lobectomy. Patients who underwent thoracoscopic lobectomy and segmentectomy have normal lung function 2 years after the operation.

18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 742952, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778177

RESUMO

Background: The impact of educational attainment (EA) on multiple urological and reproductive health outcomes has been explored in observational studies. Here we used Mendelian randomization (MR) to investigate whether EA has causal effects on 14 urological and reproductive health outcomes. Methods: We obtained summary statistics for EA and 14 urological and reproductive health outcomes from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). MR analyses were applied to explore the potential causal association between EA and them. Inverse variance weighted was the primary analytical method. Results: Genetically predicted one standard deviation (SD) increase in EA was causally associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.25, P = 0.003] and a reduced risk of kidney stone (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.62-0.87, P < 0.001) and cystitis (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.67-0.86, P < 0.001) after Bonferroni correction. EA was also suggestively correlated with a lower risk of prostatitis (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.59-0.98, P = 0.037) and incontinence (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.47-0.87, P = 0.004). For the bioavailable testosterone levels and infertility, sex-specific associations were observed, with genetically determined increased EA being related to higher levels of testosterone in men (ß 0.07, 95% CI 0.04-0.10, P < 0.001), lower levels of testosterone in women (ß -0.13, 95% CI-0.16 to-0.11, P < 0.001), and a lower risk of infertility in women (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.86, P < 0.001) but was not related to male infertility (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.52-1.20, P = 0.269) after Bonferroni correction. For bladder cancer, kidney cancer, testicular cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and erectile dysfunction, no causal effects were observed. Conclusions: EA plays a vital role in urological diseases, especially in non-oncological outcomes and reproductive health. These findings should be verified in further studies when GWAS data are sufficient.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Testiculares , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Saúde Reprodutiva
19.
mSystems ; : e0104521, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783577

RESUMO

Renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone is a common urologic disease with a high prevalence and recurrence rate. However, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are less often reported in the prevention of urolithiasis. This study aimed to explore the effect of SCFAs on the renal CaOx stone formation and the underlying mechanisms. Ethylene glycol was used to induce renal CaOx crystals in rats. SCFAs (acetate, propionate, or butyrate) were added as supplements to the drinking water with or without antibiotics. Because intestinal oxalate transporters SLC26A6 and SLC26A3 regulate the excretion and absorption of oxalate in the intestine, we injected adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9)-SLC26A6-shRNA (short hairpin RNA) and AAV9-SLC26A3 into the tail vein of rats to suppress SLC26A6 and overexpress SLC26A3 expression in the intestine, respectively, to explore the role of SLC26A3 and SLC26A6 (SLC26A3/6) in the reduction of renal CaOx crystals induced by SCFAs. Results showed that SCFAs reduced renal CaOx crystals and urinary oxalate levels but, however, increased the abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria and cecum SCFA levels. SCFA supplements still reduced renal crystals and urinary oxalate after gut microbiota depletion. Propionate and butyrate downregulated intestinal oxalate transporter SLC26A3 expression, while acetate and propionate upregulated SLC26A6 expression, both in vivo and in vitro. AAV9-SLC26A3 exerted a protective effect against renal crystals, while AAV9-SLC26A6-shRNA contributed to the renal crystal formation even though the SCFAs were supplemented. In conclusion, SCFAs could reduce urinary oxalate and renal CaOx stones through the oxalate transporter SLC26A6 in the intestine. SCFAs may be new supplements for preventing the formation of renal CaOx stones. IMPORTANCE Some studies found that the relative abundances of short-chain-fatty-acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria were lower in the gut microbiota of renal stone patients than healthy controls. Our previous study demonstrated that SCFAs could reduce the formation of renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones, but the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we found that SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) reduced the formation of renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals and the level of urinary oxalate. Depleting gut microbiota increased the amount of renal crystals in model rats, and SCFA supplements reduced renal crystals and urinary oxalate after gut microbiota depletion. Intestinal oxalate transporter SLC26A6 was a direct target of SCFAs. Our findings suggested that SCFAs could reduce urinary oxalate and renal CaOx stones through the oxalate transporter SLC26A6 in the intestine. SCFAs may be new supplements for preventing the formation of renal CaOx stones.

20.
Front Oncol ; 11: 712553, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631537

RESUMO

Background and Aims: The current guidelines for the treatment of penile cancer patients with clinically non-invasive normal inguinal lymph nodes are still broad, so the purpose of this study is to determine which patients are suitable for lymph node dissection (LND). Methods: Histologically confirmed penile cancer patients (primary site labeled as C60.9-Penis) from 2004 to 2016 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Results database were included in this analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied to determine an overall estimate of LND on overall survival and cancer-specific survival. A 1:1 propensity matching analysis (PSM) was applied to enroll balanced baseline cohort, and further Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival analysis was used to get more reliable results. Results: Out of 4,458 histologically confirmed penile cancer patients with complete follow-up information, 1,052 patients were finally enrolled in this analysis. Age, pathological grade, T stage, and LND were identified as significant predictors for overall survival (OS) in the univariate Cox analysis. In the multivariate Cox regression, age, pathological grade, T stage, and LND were found significant. The same results were also found in the univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses for cancer-specific survival (CSS). After the successful PSM, further KM analysis revealed that LND could bring significant OS and CSS benefits for T3T4 patients without lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: Lymph node dissection may bring survival benefits for penile cancer patients without preoperatively detectable lymph node metastasis, especially for T3T4 stage patients. Further randomized control trial is needed.

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