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1.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(6): 1466, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737806

RESUMO

Ageing often results in insulin resistance (IR) and chronic inflammation, and adipose is one of the tissues in which inflammation and IR occur earliest during this process. The present study investigated the effect and underlying mechanisms of ursolic acid (UA) on adipose IR and inflammation in ageing rats. Specific pathogen-free male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: i) Young normal (young); ii) untreated ageing (aged); and groups supplemented with UA either iii) low-UA 10 mg/kg (UA-L) or iv) high-50 mg/kg (UA-H). Animals in the UA-treated groups received 10 or 50 mg/kg UA (suspended in 5% Gum Arabic solution). The rats in the corresponding aged group and young groups received vehicle (5% Gum Arabic) alone. All rats were intragastrically treated once daily by oral gavage for 7 weeks. The day before the experiment terminated, overnight fasting blood (~700 µl) was collected and plasma was prepared to measure biochemical indicators; western blotting was performed to analyze the expression of insulin signaling proteins [(insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), phosphorylated (p)-IRS-1, PI3K, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), Akt and p-Akt)] and inflammatory factors (NF-κB, IL-6 and IL-1ß) in the epididymis white adipose tissue (eWAT). The results revealed that treatment with UA-H decreased eWAT weight, the ratio of eWAT weight/body weight, fasted insulin and triglyceride levels, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and adipose tissue insulin resistance index in ageing rats, indicating the amelioration of systemic and adipose tissue IR, compared with the aged group. Mechanistically, UA-H administration upregulated p-protein kinase B, the ratio of p-Akt to protein kinase B and total and cellular membrane GLUT4 protein levels in eWAT of ageing rats. Conversely, UA inhibited the increase in NF-κB expression and proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1ß. However, these alterations were not observed in the rats of the aged group. Taken together, the findings of the present study indicated that UA may ameliorate adipose IR, which is associated with activation of the Akt-GLUT4 signaling pathway and inhibition of inflammation in ageing rats. These data provide a basis for the development of effective and safe drugs or functional substances, such as UA, for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754318

RESUMO

Stroke is a complicated disease with an increasing incidence and a very high mortality rate. A classical Chinese herbal medicine, Dengzhan Shengmai (DZSM), has shown to have therapeutic effects on stroke; however, its chemical basis and molecular mechanism are still unclear. In this study, a systems biology approach was applicable to elucidate the underlying mechanism of action of DZSM on stroke. All the compounds were obtained from databases, and pendant-related targets were obtained from various data platforms, including the TCM Systematic Pharmacology (TCMSP) database, TCM Integrated Database (TCMIP), High Throughput Experimental Reference Database (HERB), Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), SwissTargetPredicition, and SymMap, The Human Gene Database (GENECARD) and Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) were used for stroke disease target data, followed by network pharmacology analysis to predict the potential effect of DZSM on stroke. Animal experiments were intended to validate the underlying mechanisms. A total of 846 chemical components were compiled for the targets of DZSM drug, and quercetin, kaempferol, and Wuweizisu C are the highest chemical components compiled from DZSM. Overlapping with 375 disease-specific targets and 149 core targets, the core targets include TNF, IL-6, ALB, and AKT1, which are shown to regulate the disease process from an anti-inflammatory perspective. 198 enrichment messages were obtained by KEGG enrichment analysis, and we believe that the role of the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, TNF signaling pathway, and IL-17 signaling pathway is more important. Based on rat experiments, we also demonstrated that DZSM could effectively modulate the inflammation level of brain infarct tissues and effectively alleviate behavioral characteristics. Grouped together, our study suggests that the combination of network pharmacology prediction and experimental validation can provide a useful tool to describe the molecular mechanisms of DZSM in Chinese medicine (TCM).

3.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 6024352, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754409

RESUMO

Circle of Willis (CoW) is the most critical collateral pathway that supports the redistribution of blood supply in the brain. The variation of CoW is closely correlated with cerebral hemodynamic and cerebral vessel-related diseases. But what is responsible for CoW variation remains unclear. Moreover, the visual evaluation for CoW variation is highly time-consuming. In the present study, based on the computer tomography angiography (CTA) dataset from 255 patients, the correlation between the CoW variations with age, gender, and cerebral or cervical artery stenosis was investigated. A multitask convolutional neural network (CNN) was used to segment cerebral arteries automatically. The results showed the prevalence of variation of the anterior communicating artery (Aco) was higher in the normal senior group than in the normal young group and in females than in males. The changes in the prevalence of variations of individual segments were not demonstrated in the population with stenosis of the afferent and efferent arteries, so the critical factors for variation are related to genetic or physiological factors rather than pathological lesions. Using the multitask CNN model, complete cerebral and cervical arteries could be segmented and reconstructed in 120 seconds, and an average Dice coefficient of 78.2% was achieved. The segmentation accuracy for precommunicating part of anterior cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery, the posterior communicating arteries, and Aco in CoW was 100%, 99.2%, 94%, and 69%, respectively. Artificial intelligence (AI) can be considered as an adjunct tool for detecting the CoW, particularly related to reducing workload and improving the accuracy of the visual evaluation. The study will serve as a basis for the following research to determine an individual's risk of stroke with the aid of AI.

4.
Cancer Cell Int ; 21(1): 604, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to comprehensively investigate the optimal cumulative cisplatin dose during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CC-CCD) for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (CA-LANPC) with different tumor responses after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: Patients with CA-LANPC who underwent NAC followed by cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Evaluation of tumor response in patients was conducted by Response Evaluation Criteria for Solid Tumor (RECIST) 1.1 after two to four cycles NAC. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for prognosis. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was conducted to classify participates and predict disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-two patients with favorable response after NAC were included. The median CC-CCD was 163 mg/m2 (IQR, 145-194 mg/m2), and 160 mg/m2 was selected as the cutoff point to group patients into low and high CC-CCD groups (< 160 vs. ≥ 160 mg/m2). There was significant improvement in 5-year DFS (91.2% vs. 72.6%; P = 0.003) for patients receiving high CC-CCD compared to those receiving low CC-CCD. Multivariate analysis revealed that CC-CCD, T stage, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA were independent prognostic factors for DFS (P < 0.05 for all). Patients were further categorized into two prognostic groups by RPA: the low-risk group (T1-3 disease with regardless of EBV DNA, and T4 disease with EBV DNA < 4000 copy/mL), and the high-risk group (T4 disease with EBV DNA ≥ 4000 copy/mL). Significant 5-year DFS improvement was observed for the high-risk group (P = 0.004) with high CC-CCD. However, DFS improvement was relatively insignificant in the low-risk group (P = 0.073). CONCLUSIONS: CC-CCD was a positive prognostic factor for responders after NAC in CA-LANPC. Furthermore, CC-CCD ≥ 160 mg/m2 could significantly improve DFS in the high-risk group with CA-LANPC, but the benefit of high CC-CCD in the low-risk group needs further study.

5.
Radiother Oncol ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838885

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantify and predict the survival benefits of cumulative cisplatin dose during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CC-CCD) in children and adolescents with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (CA-LANPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with CA-LANPC who received first-line neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) between September 2007 and April 2018 were evaluated. Recursive partitioning analyses (RPAs) helped identify the ideal thresholds of CC-CCD on disease-free survival (DFS). We then developed a web-based predictive model to quantify the survival benefit of CC-CCD for CA-LANPC. RESULTS: In total, 139 patients were eligible for the analysis. The median CC-CCD was 162 mg/m2 (IQR, 138-194 mg/m2). The optimum cut-off point of CC-CCD was 160 mg/m2 for DFS. Hence, we selected 160 mg/m2 as the cut-off to classify CA-LANPC into either high or low CC-CCD groups for survival analysis. The 5-year DFS rates were 91.6% in the high (≥160 mg/m2) CC-CCD group and 77.8% in the low (<160 mg/m2) CC-CCD group (P=0.011). Multivariate analysis indicated CC-CCD (HR, 0.34; 95%CI, 0.13-0.87; P=0.024), T stage (HR, 3.72; 95%CI, 1.35-10.22; P=0.011), and EBV DNA (HR, 3.00; 95%CI, 1.00-8.97; P=0.049) were independent prognostic factors and were incorporated into the prognostic model. N stage was also included due to its clinical importance. The predictive model was demonstrably accurate (C-index, 0.741) when predicting 5-year DFS rates. CONCLUSIONS: We built a predictive model to quantify the survival benefit of CC-CCD for CA-LANPC treated with NAC plus CCRT. This tool may improve individual treatment consultations and facilitate evidence-based decision-making.

7.
Opt Express ; 29(16): 24919-24927, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614836

RESUMO

A secure fiber-optic communication system based on Internet-accessible multipath transmission of ciphertext fragment (MTCF) technology is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. By performing algorithm encryption on the transmitted data before randomly assigning them to multiple channels corresponding to different wavelengths or Internet protocols (IPs), the secure and long-distance transmission can be realized. A field trial experiment over 125 km between Beijing and Xiongan has been successfully undertaken, and the results show that the maximum throughput can reach 60 Mb/s, which demonstrates the feasibility of the scheme. We also established a theoretical model to analyze the security performance of the proposed system. As far as we know, this is the first time that MTCF, an optical physical layer and application layer integrated security technology, has been enjoyed the capacity to access the public network, which provides an exciting opportunity to advance our knowledge of long-distance secure communication.

8.
Opt Express ; 29(18): 28725-28740, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614996

RESUMO

Microwave photonic filters (MPFs) with only one ultra-narrow passband are able to provide high frequency selectivity and wide spectral range, and they are of great importance in radio-frequency (RF) signal processing. However, currently all MPFs are limited by trade-offs between key parameters such as spectral resolution and range, tunability, and stability. Here, we report the first demonstration of a single passband MPF with unprecedented performance including ultrahigh spectral resolution of 650 kHz, 0-40 GHz spectral range, and high stability of center frequency drifting within ±50 kHz. This record performance is accomplished by breaking the amplitude equality of a phase-modulated signal via a Brillouin dynamic grating (BDG) which has an ultra-narrow reflection spectrum of sub-MHz. The results point to new ways of creating high performance microwave photonic systems, such as satellite and mobile communications, radars, and remote-sensing systems.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adding neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is the main strategy in treatment of children and adolescents with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (CA-LANPC). Yet, an optimal number of NAC cycles remains unknown. We aimed to optimize the NAC cycle and potentially contribute to clinical decision making for the individual treatment of CA-LANPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Utilizing an NPC-specific database through an acknowledged big-data information system at our center, we identified 143 CA-LANPC treated with NAC followed by CCRT between September 2007 through April 2018. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was performed to categorize the patients and predict disease-free survival (DFS). The clinical benefits of NAC cycles (two cycles vs three cycles) were assessed in each risk group. RESULTS: Independent factors derived from multivariable analysis to predict DFS were T stage (T1-3 vs T4) and plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA (< 4000 vs ≥ 4000 copies/mL) for risk stratification. Consequently, 87 (61%) participants were classified as low-risk group (T1-3 with low or high EBV DNA, and T4 with low EBV DNA) and the other 56 patients (39%) were classified as a high-risk group (T4 with high EBV DNA) through RPA, and corresponding 5-year DFS rates of 91.9% and 71.2%, respectively (p = 0.001). Among the high-risk group, patients receiving three cycles of NAC had statistically significant improvement in 5-year DFS over those who received two cycles of NAC (86.7% vs 59.1%; p = 0.020), while the survival benefit of three cycles NAC for low-risk groups were not observed (94.7% vs 89.7%; p = 0.652). CONCLUSIONS: We found three cycles of NAC with CCRT was a positive prognostic indicator for improved DFS for the high-risk group among CA-LANPC. However, whether low-risk patients could benefit from three cycles NAC needs further study.

10.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 5203-5208, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512003

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for hypotension in patients undergoing laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair. Methods: The clinical data of patients who underwent laparoscopic repair of a hiatal hernia in the Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital of Capital Medical University between February 2018 and January 2021 were retrospectively collected, and their perioperative data were obtained by querying the electronic medical record system. The patients were divided into two groups-a hypotension group and a normal group-based on the occurrence of intraoperative hypotension, which was defined as a mean arterial pressure <65 mmHg and lasting ≥1 minute during the operation. The variables with a P value ≤0.1 in univariate regression analysis and clinically considered relevant variables were included in multivariate regression analysis in order to screen the risk factors for hypotension in these patients. Results: A total of 114 patients were included in the analysis. The incidence of hypotension was 54.4%. Old age was identified as the only risk factor for hypotension during hiatal hernia surgery. Conclusion: Old age is the only risk factor for intraoperative hypotension in patients undergoing laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common primary renal malignancy in children. Autophagy plays dual roles in the promotion and suppression of various cancers. OBJECTIVE: The goal of our study was to develop a novel autophagy-related gene (ARG) prognostic nomogram for WT. METHODS: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used. We screened the expression profiles of ARGs in 136 WT patients. The differentially expressed prognostic ARGs were evaluated by multivariate Cox regression analysis and survival analysis. A novel prognostic nomogram based on the ARGs and clinical characteristics was established using multivariate Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: First, 69 differentially expressed ARGs were identified in WT patients. Then, multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to determine 4 key prognostic ARGs (CC3CL1, ERBB2, HIF-α and CXCR4) in WT. According to their ARG expression levels, the patients were clustered into high- and low-risk groups. Next, survival analysis indicated that high-risk patients had significantly poorer overall survival than low-risk patients. The results of functional enrichment analysis suggested that autophagy may play a tumor-suppressive role in the initiation of WT. Finally, a prognostic nomogram with a Harrell's concordance index (C-index) of 0.841 was used to predict the survival probability of WT patients by integrating clinical characteristics and the 4-ARG signature. The calibration curve indicated its excellent predictive performance. CONCLUSION: In summary, the ARG signature could be a promising biomarker for monitoring the outcomes of WT. We established a novel nomogram based on the ARG signature, which accurately predicts the overall survival of WT patients.

12.
Can J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine sex differences in Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) payments from 1992 to 2018. DESIGN: Population-based observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Ophthalmologists submitting claims to OHIP from 1992 to 2018. METHODS: Physician billing data over 27 years (1992-2018) were analyzed for yearly number of ophthalmologists, OHIP payments, distinct patients, and patient visits. RESULTS: Yearly median OHIP payments to female ophthalmologists were less than to male ophthalmologists with a gap ratio of 0.55 in 1992 to 0.73 in 2018. Stratifying by full-time equivalent (FTE), there was little difference in median payments between males and females for 1 FTE. Median female-to-male payments ratio varied from 0.80 to 1.16 for <1 FTE and 1.14 to 0.84 for >1 FTE from 1992 to 2018. Among female ophthalmologists, 72.7% and 52.9% were <1 FTE and 11.4% and 19.2% were >1 FTE in 1992 and 2018, respectively. In comparison, for male ophthalmologists, 35.7% and 45.6% were <1 FTE and 43.4% and 45.6% were >1 FTE in 1992 and 2018, respectively. Overall, male ophthalmologists had more patients and patient visits than female ophthalmologists, but there was little difference between male and female ophthalmologists for 1 and >1 FTE. The results for <1 FTE varied by year. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, female ophthalmologists have lower OHIP payments compared with males, but there was little difference for those stratified to 1 FTE. This overall payments difference by sex is largely explained by the higher proportion of <1 FTE females, lower proportion of >1 FTE females, and higher payments for >1 FTE males.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402029

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to develop 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction models for the contemporary Chinese populations based on the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS) and to compare its performance with models based on Framingham's general cardiovascular risk profile and the Prediction for Atherosclerotic CVD Risk in China (China-PAR) project. Subjects were randomly classified into the training (n = 15,000) and validation (n = 12,721) sets. During an average of 12.0 years' follow-up, 3,732 CVD events occurred. A 10-year sex-specific CVD risk prediction model including age, systolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medication, smoking, and diabetes was developed. Compared with the Framingham and China-PAR models, the GBCS model had a better discrimination in both women (c-statistic 0.72, 95% CI 0.71-0.73) and men (c-statistic 0.68, 95% CI 0.67-0.70), and the risk predicted was closer to the actual risk. This prediction model would be useful for identifying individuals at higher risks of CVD in contemporary Chinese populations.

14.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 41(4): 556-563, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of Bushenantai (BSAT) granule() on angiogenesis-related factors [E2, P, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] at the maternal-fetal interface of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) mice, and to evaluate the role of BSAT in promoting angiogenesis at the maternal-fetal interface by influencing the expression of sex hormones, and VEGF. METHODS: A mouse model with normal pregnancy and another with Clark's classic RSA were established. The RSA mice were randomly assigned to six groups: normal, model, progesterone, high-doseBSAT granule (BSAT-H), medium-dose-BSAT granule (BSAT-M), and low-dose-BSAT granule (BSAT-L) (n = 10 for each group). The embryo loss rate and the histopathological changes in the decidual tissues were measured. Serum levels of estrogen (E2), progesterone (P), and VEGF were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mRNA and protein expressions of estradiol receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), VEGF, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in the decidual tissues were identified by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The embryo loss rate in all groups that received BSAT treatment was reduced, while the number of blood vessels at decidual tissues was increased. The serum levels of E2, P and VEGF were elevated, and the mRNA and protein expressions of ER, PR, VEGF, and VEGFR2 in the decidual tissues were enhanced. CONCLUSION: BSAT can improve angiogenesis at the maternal-fetal interface and reduce the embryo loss rate, which may be associated with its ability to increase the serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, and VEGF, in addition to up-regulation of mRNA and protein expression of ER, PR, VEGF, and VEGFR2 in the decidual tissue.

16.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 2943-2951, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234524

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to examine the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of primary cardiac neoplastic lesions. Methods: A retrospective investigation was conducted on 24 cases of primary cardiac neoplastic lesions as confirmed by surgery and pathology results. All the cases in this study received MRI multi-sequence and multi-dimension scanning, including the cardiac long-axis and short-axis cine sequences, parameter sequences of the cardiac long axis and short axis (T1WI, T2WI), first-pass perfusion sequence, and delayed enhancement sequence of the cardiac long axis and short axis. The age and gender of the patients and the location, size, signal characteristics, and relationship with the neighboring tissues of all the lesions were examined. Results: Twenty-four cases of primary neoplastic lesions were examined in this study, the onset age was 11-72 years old, the median age was 53 years old, and the mean age was 46 years old. Among these cases, there were 8 cases including males and 16 cases including females, 19 cases were benign lesions; including 11 cases of myxoma, 4 cases of hemangioma, 1 case of paraganglioma, 1 case of PEcoma, 1 case of hamartoma, and 1 case of lipoma. The malignant lesions included 3 sarcomas and 2 lymphomas in 5 patients. Conclusion: MRI imaging provides a great value in the preoperative classification of primary cardiac neoplastic lesions.

17.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether fish consumption is associated with all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke mortality remains inconclusive. We examined the association of fish consumption with all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke mortality in older men and women in south China. METHODS: A total of 18,215 participants including men and women without CVD at baseline (2003-2006) from Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS) were included and followed up till December 2017. Deaths were identified through record linkage with the Death Registry. Information on fish consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 11.4 (standard deviation = 2.1) years, 2,697 deaths occurred, including 917 total CVD, 397 IHD and 374 stroke deaths. After adjusting for potential confounders, compared with fish consumption of 0-3 servings/week (i.e., 0-21 g/day, one serving = 50 g), consumption of 4-6 servings/week (29-43 g/day) showed significantly lower risks of all-cause and CVD mortality (hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85 (0.76, 0.95) and 0.77 (0.64, 0.93), respectively), but the reduced risk of IHD mortality (HR (95% CI): 0.80 (0.60, 1.07)) was not significant. Consumption of 7-10 servings/week or higher showed no association with all-cause, CVD, IHD, and stroke mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate fish consumption of 4-6 servings/week (29-43 g/day) was associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality risk. Our findings support the current general advice on regular fish consumption also in middle-aged and older adults.

18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(14): 18376-18391, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated association of a score incorporating relative grip strength (RGS) and timed up and go (TUG) test with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in older Chinese. METHODS: Both RGS and TUG scores were classified into tertiles (0~2 points) and summed to yield RGS-TUG score, ranging from 0 to 4 points, with higher points indicating better physical function. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to analyze association of RGS-TUG score with incident T2DM. RESULTS: 3,892 participants without T2DM were followed up for an average of 3.6 years with 240 developing T2DM. After adjustment, those with the lowest RGS-TUG score, versus the highest, had higher fasting glucose, two-hour post-load glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, with ß (95% confidence interval (CI)) being 0.21 (0.08, 0.33), 1.06 (0.69, 1.43) and 0.16 (0.06, 0.27), respectively. In participants with BMI of ≥25 kg/m2, those with the lowest RGS-TUG score showed a higher risk of T2DM (adjusted hazard ratio 3.01, 95% CI 1.04-8.69). No association was found for BMI of 18.5~<25 kg/m2 (P for interaction < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study showing lower RGS-TUG score was associated with increased glycemia and incident T2DM in older people with overweight/obesity. The underlying mechanisms warrant further investigation.

19.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 3503-3515, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233591

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases the risk of fetal heart malformations, though little is known about the mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced heart malformations. Thus, we aimed to reveal the global landscape of miRNAs and mRNAs in GDM-exposed fetoplacental arterial endothelial cells (dAECs) and establish regulatory networks for exploring the pathophysiological mechanism of fetal heart malformations in maternal hyperglycemia. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets were used, and identification of differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and genes (DEGs) in GDM was based on a previous sequencing analysis of dAECs. A miRNA-mRNA network containing 20 DEMs and 65 DEGs was established using DEMs altered in opposite directions to DEGs. In an in vivo study, we established a streptozotocin-induced pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) mouse model and found the fetal cardiac wall thickness in different regions to be dramatically increased in the PGDM grouValidation of DEMs and DEGs in the fetal heart showed significantly upregulated expression of let-7e-5p, miR-139-5p and miR-195-5p and downregulated expression of SGOL1, RRM2, RGS5, CDK1 and CENPA. In summary, we reveal the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network related to fetal cardiac development disorders in offspring, which may shed light on the potential molecular mechanisms of fetal cardiac development disorders during maternal hyperglycemia.

20.
Can J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174215

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In 2004, government-funded routine eye exams were discontinued for individuals aged 20-64 years in Ontario. We assessed whether this policy change reduced the rate of new glaucoma diagnoses. DESIGN: Cohort-based time-series analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Ontarians aged 20+ years in 2000-2014. METHODS: Province-wide physician billing data were analyzed using segmented regression analysis. New glaucoma diagnoses were defined as the first glaucoma diagnostic billing code submitted by an ophthalmologist or optometrist among Ontarians who did not visit an ophthalmologist or an optometrist in the year prior to the study year. RESULTS: Post- versus pre-2004, the rate of new glaucoma billings was reduced in all age groups: -2.7‰ (p < 0.0001) in the age group 20-39 years, -8.2‰ (p < 0.0001) in the age group 40-64 years (p < 0.0001), and -2.1‰ (p = 0.0003) in the age group 65+ years. This corresponds to a decreased number of individuals with a new glaucoma billing after 2004 versus before 2004: -8,800 (p < 0.001) in the age group 20-39 years, -32,234 (p < 0.0001) in the age group 40-64 years, and -3,255 (p = 0.0012) in the age group 65+ years. Reduced rates of new glaucoma diagnostic billings were seen in males, females and rural and urban residents among policy-affected and policy-unaffected age groups. Ontarians living in the wealthiest neighbourhood areas also had a significantly reduced rate after versus before 2004: -2.7‰ (p < 0.0001) for the age group 20-39 years, -9.0‰ (p < 0.0001) for the age group 40-64 years, and -2.3‰ (p < 0.001) for the age group 65+ years. CONCLUSIONS: Discontinuation of government-funding for routine eye exams was associated with a significantly reduced rate of new glaucoma diagnostic billings irrespective of sociodemographics. More research is needed to understand the reduced glaucoma billings in unaffected seniors and those living in the wealthiest neighbourhood areas.

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