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1.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 10, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531069

RESUMO

We published rapid advice guidelines and updated guidelines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) management on February 6, 2020, and September 4, 2020, respectively. These two guidelines vary widely in their developmental background, type of evidence, grade of recommendation and so on. We shared our experience for the development of these two guidelines to help clinical practitioners better understand and implement guidelines and to help guideline developers facilitate communication and discussion for guideline development during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pandemias , Padrões de Referência
2.
J Evid Based Med ; 14(1): 65-74, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615709

RESUMO

It has been over 20 years since the introduction of evidence-based medicine (EBM) into the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The development of evidence-based TCM research has profoundly influenced the process of clinical research and decision-making, impelling researchers to pay attention to raise evidence quality, accumulate data, and explore appropriate evaluation methods adaptive to TCM original theories and knowledge. In this paper, the authors aim to summarize and review the existing work and seek promising research interests in this field, expecting to inspire more thoughts leading to breakthroughs in the near future.

3.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(1): 19, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CPGs are not uniformly successful in improving care and several instances of implementation failure have been reported. Performing a comprehensive assessment of the barriers and enablers is key to developing an informed implementation strategy. Our objective was to investigate determinants of guideline implementation and explore associations of self-reported adherence to guidelines with characteristics of participants in China. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey, using multi-stage stratified typical sampling based on China's economic regional divisions (the East, the Middle, the West and the Northeast). 2-5 provinces were selected from each region. 2-3 cities were selected in each province, and secondary and tertiary hospitals from each city were included. We developed a questionnaire underpinned by recommended methods for the design and conduct of self-administered surveys and based on conceptual framework of guideline use, in-depth related literature analysis, guideline development manuals, related behavior change theory. Finally, multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression to produce adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: The questionnaire consisted of four sections: knowledge of methodology for developing guidelines; barriers to accessing guideline; barriers to guideline implementation; and methods for improving guideline implementation. There were 1732 participants (87.3% response rate) from 51 hospitals. Of these, 77.2% reported to have used guidelines frequently or very frequently. The key barriers to guideline use were lack of education or training (46.2%), and overly simplistic wording or overly broad scope of recommendations (43.8%). Level of adherence to guidelines was associated with geographical regions (the northeast P < 0.001; the west P = 0.02; the middle P < 0.001 compared with the east), hospital grades (P = 0.028), length of practitioners' practice (P = 0.006), education background (Ph.D., P = 0.027; Master, P = 0.002), evidence-based medicine skills acquired in work unit (P = 0.012), and medical specialty of practitioner (General Practice, P = 0.006; Surgery, P = 0.043). CONCLUSION: Despite general acknowledgement of the importance of guidelines, the use of guidelines was not as frequent as might have been expected. To optimize the likelihood of adherence to guidelines, guideline implementation should follow an actively developed dissemination plan incorporating features associated with adherence in our study.

4.
Pharmacol Res ; 165: 105425, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453371

RESUMO

High heterogeneity has been reported among epidemiological studies exploring the relationship between metformin and the risk of gastric cancer. Immortal time bias might be one of the vital factors causing heterogeneity because of its widespread existence in pharmacological observational studies and it could severely exaggerate the drug's effectiveness. Immortal time bias could occur in an observational study if exposure status is determined based on a measurement or event that occurs after baseline. In this study, we aimed to assess whether immortal time bias is responsible for the false assumption that metformin reduces the risk of gastric cancer. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases for relevant studies from the inception to August 9, 2020. The strength of the relationship was assessed using pooled relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Statistical analyses were carried out using a random-effects model. Pooled RR from 6 cohort studies with immortal time bias found a clear 33% reduced risk associated with metformin use (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.59, 0.77; P < 0.001; I2 = 48.5%). However, pooled RR from 8 cohort studies without immortal time bias indicated no association between the use of metformin and gastric cancer risk (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.85, 1.05; P = 0.317; I2 = 64.5%). From a univariate meta-regression model, the presence of immortal time bias was associated with a significant reduction of 29% in the effect estimate of metformin on gastric cancer risk (ratio of RR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58, 0.86; P = 0.002). This meta-analysis indicates that metformin use has no protective effect on gastric cancer risk. The relationship between metformin use and gastric cancer risk has been exaggerated as a result of the presence of immortal time bias. Further studies are required to confirm the results by controlling for immortal time bias based on appropriate study designs and statistical methods.

5.
Nurs Open ; 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377613

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the effectiveness of decision aids in the treatment, prevention and screening of breast cancer patients. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The review protocol was registered in the CRD Prospero database(CRD42020173028). A literature search was carried out in five databases: PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of science data in January 2020. We used The Cochrane risk bias assessment tool to evaluate the literature quality of included trials and the Review Manager 5.2 software to analyse data. RESULTS: We included 22 studies. Compared with the conventional methods, decision aids reduced treatment decision conflicts and had no significant effect on screening decision conflicts (WMD=-2.25, 95% CI = - 2.64,-1.87, p < .0001; WMD=-1.37, 95% CI = - 3.57,0.83, p = .22). Three were no statistical differences in participants' anxiety, decision regret, knowledge, informed choice and decision-making satisfaction between the two groups.

6.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 41, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887670

RESUMO

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting more than seventeen million people around the world. Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for clinicians caring for patients are needed. In the early stage, we have issued "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)"; now there are many direct evidences emerged and may change some of previous recommendations and it is ripe for develop an evidence-based guideline. We formed a working group of clinical experts and methodologists. The steering group members proposed 29 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 covering the following areas: chemoprophylaxis, diagnosis, treatments, and discharge management. We searched the literature for direct evidence on the management of COVID-19, and assessed its certainty generated recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of ungraded consensus-based statement. Finally, we issued 34 statements. Among them, 6 were strong recommendations for, 14 were weak recommendations for, 3 were weak recommendations against and 11 were ungraded consensus-based statement. They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis (including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents), diagnosis (including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest x-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections), treatments (including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, qingfei paidu decoction, lianhua qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)), and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge). We also created two figures of these recommendations for the implementation purpose. We hope these recommendations can help support healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Quimioprevenção/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Alta do Paciente/normas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 540187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982751

RESUMO

Objective: The quality and rationality of many recently registered clinical studies related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) needs to be assessed. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the current status of COVID-19 related registered clinical trial. Methods: We did an electronic search of COVID-19 related clinical studies registered between December 1, 2019 and February 21, 2020 (updated to May 28, 2020) from the ClinicalTrials.gov, and collected registration information, study details, recruitment status, characteristics of the subjects, and relevant information about the trial implementation process. Results: A total of 1,706 studies were included 10.0% of which (n=171) were from France, 943 (55.3%) used an interventional design, and 600 (35.2%) used an observational design. Most of studies (73.6%) aimed to recruit fewer than 500 people. Interferon was the main prevention program, and antiviral drugs were the main treatment program. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine (230/943, 24.4%) were widely studied. Some registered clinical trials are incomplete in content, and 37.4% of the 1,706 studies may have had insufficient sample size. Conclusion: The quality of COVID-19 related studies needs to be improved by strengthening the registration process and improving the quality of clinical study protocols so that these clinical studies can provide high-quality clinical evidence related to COVID-19.

8.
Mil. med. res. (Lond.) ; 7(41): 1-33, Sept. 04, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1129883

RESUMO

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting more than seventeen million people around the world. Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for clinicians caring for patients are needed. In the early stage, we have issued "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)"; now there are many direct evidences emerged and may change some of previous recommendations and it is ripe for develop an evidence-based guideline. We formed a working group of clinical experts and methodologists. The steering group members proposed 29 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 covering the following areas: chemoprophylaxis, diagnosis, treatments, and discharge management. We searched the literature for direct evidence on the management of COVID-19, and assessed its certainty generated recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of ungraded consensus-based statement. Finally, we issued 34 statements. Among them, 6 were strong recommendations for, 14 were weak recommendations for, 3 were weak recommendations against and 11 were ungraded consensus-based statement. They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis (including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents), diagnosis (including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest x-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections), treatments (including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, qingfei paidu decoction, lianhua qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)), and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge). We also created two figures of these recommendations for the implementation purpose. We hope these recommendations can help support healthcare workers caring for COVID19 patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Plasma/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Receptores de Interleucina-6/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos
9.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 160, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines have become increasingly widely used to guide quality improvement of clinical practice. Qualitative research may be a useful way to improve the quality and implementation of guidelines. The methodology for qualitative evidence used in guidelines development is worthy of further research. METHODS: A comprehensive search was made of WHO, NICE, SIGN, NGC, RNAO, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang, CBM, and VIP from January 1, 2011 to February 25, 2020. Guidelines which met IOM criteria and were focused on clinical questions using qualitative research or qualitative evidence, were included. Four authors extracted significant information and entered this onto data extraction forms. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool was used to evaluate the guidelines' quality. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and R version 3.3.2. RESULTS: Sixty four guidelines were identified. The overall quality of the guidelines was high (almost over 60%). Domain 1 (Scope and Purpose) was ranked the highest with a median score of 83% (IQ 78-83). Domain 2 (Stakeholder involvement) and Domain 5 (Applicability) were ranked the lowest with median scores of 67% (IQ 67-78) and 67% (IQ 63-73) respectively. 20% guidelines used qualitative research to identify clinical questions. 86% guidelines used qualitative evidence to support recommendations (mainly based on primary studies, a few on qualitative evidence synthesis). 19% guidelines applied qualitative evidence when considering facilitators and barriers to recommendations' implementation. 52% guideline developers evaluated the quality of the primary qualitative research study using the CASP tool or NICE checklist for qualitative studies. No guidelines evaluated the quality of qualitative evidence synthesis to formulate recommendations. 17% guidelines presented the level of qualitative research using the grade criteria of evidence and recommendation in different forms such as I, III, IV, very low. 28% guidelines described the grades of the recommendations supported by qualitative and quantitative evidence. No guidelines described the grade of recommendations only supported by qualitative evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the included guidelines were high-quality. Qualitative evidence was mainly used to identify clinical questions, support recommendations, and consider facilitators and barriers to implementation of recommendations'. However, more attention needs to be paid to the methodology. For example, no experts proficient in qualitative research were involved in guideline development groups, no assessment of the quality of qualitative evidence synthesis was included and there was lack of details reported on the level of qualitative evidence or grade of recommendations.

10.
Front Psychol ; 11: 1501, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32595580

RESUMO

Objective: Our aim was to explore the presumed infection routes and psychological impact of COVID-19 on staff in administrative and logistics departments (ALDs). Methods: We gathered data from all 18 staff members with COVID-19 in ALDs in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, China. The baseline, job before diagnosis, presumed infection environment, use of protective equipment, and psychological status before and after diagnosis were collected and analyzed. A total of 18 uninfected staff members working alongside them in the same environment and 18 random matched infected doctors and nurses formed two control groups; the psychological impact of these three groups was then compared. Results: Of the 18 members of staff, 88.89% were infected due to the working environment (hospital), and nine had face-to-face conversations with doctors and nurses in their daily work. Many staff members did not take any protective measures in their routine work. Before they were diagnosed, 12 staff members were aware of the seriousness of the epidemic, and most of the staff maintained a neutral attitude to the COVID-19 outbreak. A total of 77.78% of the staff experienced psychological stress or emotional changes after diagnosis, which were mainly caused by family health and disease related issues. Most of them managed their emotions by self-control and video calls with their families. There was no significant difference in psychological impact among the three groups, but uninfected staff members were fully aware of the seriousness of the epidemic. Conclusions: Effective protective measures should be taken for staff members in ALDs. Psychological interventions are very important to help infected staff members in ALDs cope with psychological distress.

11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574333

RESUMO

Recently WHO has characterized COVID-19 as a pandemic. Diagnosing the disease accurately and decreasing misdiagnoses and missed diagnoses is very important for management. Therefore, we have analyzed the seven versions of China's national guidelines to examine how the diagnostic criteria roadmap has developed and evolved, in order to share our experience worldwide. In this article, we present the developments from the first to seventh versions, involving changes of case classification, changes to "suspected case," changes in "confirmed case," changes in clinical classifications, changes in "severe case," and unchanged criteria. We have also discussed the reasons and implications for these changes and are looking forward to providing suggestions for worldwide understanding and management of this pandemic. A nucleic acid test is currently accepted as the gold standard method to confirm diagnosis. In addition, imaging examination and epidemiological history should also be considered as auxiliary diagnosis methods.

12.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 24, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many healthcare workers were infected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) early in the epidemic posing a big challenge for epidemic control. Hence, this study aims to explore perceived infection routes, influencing factors, psychosocial changes, and management procedures for COVID-19 infected healthcare workers. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, single hospital-based study. We recruited all 105 confirmed COVID-19 healthcare workers in the Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from February 15 to 29, 2020. All participants completed a validated questionnaire. Electronic consent was obtained from all participants. Perceived causes of infection, infection prevention, control knowledge and behaviour, psychological changes, symptoms and treatment were measured. RESULTS: Finally, 103 professional staff with COVID-19 finished the questionnaire and was included (response rate: 98.1%). Of them, 87 cases (84.5%) thought they were infected in working environment in hospital, one (1.0%) thought their infection was due to the laboratory environment, and 5 (4.9%) thought they were infected in daily life or community environment. Swab of throat collection and physical examination were the procedures perceived as most likely causing their infection by nurses and doctors respectively. Forty-three (41.8%) thought their infection was related to protective equipment, utilization of common equipment (masks and gloves). The top three first symptoms displayed before diagnosis were fever (41.8%), lethargy (33.0%) and muscle aches (30.1%). After diagnosis, 88.3% staff experienced psychological stress or emotional changes during their isolation period, only 11.7% had almost no emotional changes. Arbidol (Umifenovir; an anti-influza drug; 69.2%) was the drug most commonly used to target infection in mild and moderate symptoms. CONCLUSION: The main perceived mode of transmission was not maintaining protection when working at a close distance and having intimate contact with infected cases. Positive psychological intervention is necessary.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
13.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 98, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435187

RESUMO

Background: The effects of acupuncture on Alzheimer's disease (AD) outcomes remain controversial. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of AD. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data were searched to identify relevant randomized controlled trials from inception to January 19, 2019. Data were extracted and evaluated by two authors independently. The data analysis was conducted using R (version 3.6.0) and RStudio (version 1.2.1335) software. Results: Thirty trials involving 2,045 patients were included. Acupuncture plus drug therapy may have been more beneficial for general cognitive function in AD patients than drug therapy alone (short-term treatment: MD, mean difference = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.77; p < 0.01; medium-term treatment: MD = 4.41, 95% CI: 1.83, 7.00; p < 0.01). People who received acupuncture plus drug therapy attained higher ADL (Activities of Daily Living) scores than patients who received drug therapy alone for medium-term treatment duration (MD = -2.14; 95% CI: -3.69, -0.59; p < 0.01). However, there is no statistically significant difference in subgroup effect on MMSE (Mini-mental Status Examination) and ADLs (p > 0.05) when comparing acupuncture treatment with drug therapy (such as Donepezil hydrochloride, Nimodipine, or Yizhijiannao), or acupuncture plus drug therapy (such as Donepezil hydrochloride, Dangguishaoyaosan, or Jiannaosan) with drug therapy alone. There was also no significant difference in general cognitive function, ADLs, or incidence of adverse events between acupuncture treatment and drug therapy (p > 0.05). Conclusions: This review indicates that acupuncture plus drug therapy may have a more beneficial effect for AD patients than drug therapy alone on general cognitive function in the short and medium term and on ADLs in the medium term. Acupuncture alone may not have superior effects compared with drug therapy on global cognitive function, ADLs, and incidence of adverse events. Duration of treatment may not modify the effect of acupuncture in comparison with drug therapy. Additional large-scale and high-quality clinical trials are needed.

14.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 17, 2020 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245396

RESUMO

On 6 February 2020, our team had published a rapid advice guideline for diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection, and this guideline provided our experience and make well reference for fighting against this pandemic worldwide. However, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new disease, our awareness and knowledge are gradually increasing based on the ongoing research findings and clinical practice experience; hence, the strategies of diagnosis and treatment are also continually updated. In this letter, we answered one comment on our guideline and provided the newest diagnostic criteria of "suspected case" and "confirmed case" according to the latest Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines for COVID-19 (seventh version) that issued by the National Health Committee of the People's Republic of China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Pandemias
15.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 311, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269526

RESUMO

Objective: To systematically evaluate the quality of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for medically treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and to compare the context of recommendations in order to provide references for clinical application. Methods: We searched databases of National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC), Guidelines International Network (GIN), National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) and World Health Organization (WHO), PubMed, Embase, CNKI, VIP, WanFang Data, CBM, and Medlive from their establishment to October 13, 2019, to collect evidence-based guidelines and/or consensus on BPH. Method quality of included guidelines was assessed according to the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument, and differences and similarities among recommendations were compared. Results: A total of 22 guidelines were included, of which eight were updated versions. According to the AGREE II instrument, the median score of scope and purpose, stakeholder involvement, rigor of formulate, clarity of presentation, applicability, and editorial independence was 71.5%, 41%, 25%, 64%, 18%, and 28%, respectively. Based on recommendations for medical treatment, almost all guidelines recommended α1-blockers and 5α-reductase inhibitors, and most guidelines also recommended muscarinic receptor antagonists. In terms of drug combination therapy, most guidelines recommended "α1 blockers and 5α-reductase inhibitors", and some guidelines also recommended "α1 blockers and muscarinic receptor antagonists". Conclusion: The recommendations from different guidelines were basically similar, only showing conflicts in some areas. The quality of included guidelines remains to be unified, and their context can provide valuable implications for development or improvement.

16.
J Nurs Manag ; 28(4): 976-997, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173922

RESUMO

AIM: To appraise the quality of current nursing clinical practice guidelines (N-CPGs) in China and explore the methodology for N-CPGs development. BACKGROUND: Implementation of quality improvement projects based on N-CPGs has becoming an hot topic for nursing with proliferation in the number of N-CPGs in China in recent years. The methodology for developing N-CPGs is worthy of exploration. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP and CBM and relevant representative guidelines repositories from inception to July 31, 2019. Two authors independently selected eligible guidelines and performed data extraction. Four appraisers independently assessed the quality of the N-CPGs using the AGREE II tool. RESULTS: 20 N-CPGs were eventually included in this review. After AGREE II appraisal, the final domain scores ranged between 0.00 and 83.33%. When comparing the total domain scores, "Scope and purpose" and "Clarity of presentation" scored highest with a total of 63.89 (59.37-69.79) (%, median, interquartile range (IQR)), and 63.89 (58.33-75.70) (%), respectively. "Editorial independence" obtained the lowest ranking with a total score of 0 (0-81.25) (%). The total scores of "Stakeholder involvement", "Rigour of development", "applicability" and "editorial independence" were lower than 50%. CONCLUSION: The quality of N-CPGs in China is not very high and the process of guideline development still needs to improve. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: N-CPGs are important documents used to guide nursing quality improvement. High quality N-CPGs are beneficial for nursing management.

17.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 4, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029004

RESUMO

In December 2019, a new type viral pneumonia cases occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province; and then named "2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)" by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 12 January 2020. For it is a never been experienced respiratory disease before and with infection ability widely and quickly, it attracted the world's attention but without treatment and control manual. For the request from frontline clinicians and public health professionals of 2019-nCoV infected pneumonia management, an evidence-based guideline urgently needs to be developed. Therefore, we drafted this guideline according to the rapid advice guidelines methodology and general rules of WHO guideline development; we also added the first-hand management data of Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University. This guideline includes the guideline methodology, epidemiological characteristics, disease screening and population prevention, diagnosis, treatment and control (including traditional Chinese Medicine), nosocomial infection prevention and control, and disease nursing of the 2019-nCoV. Moreover, we also provide a whole process of a successful treatment case of the severe 2019-nCoV infected pneumonia and experience and lessons of hospital rescue for 2019-nCoV infections. This rapid advice guideline is suitable for the first frontline doctors and nurses, managers of hospitals and healthcare sections, community residents, public health persons, relevant researchers, and all person who are interested in the 2019-nCoV.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecção Hospitalar , Controle de Infecções , Programas de Rastreamento , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Hidratação , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Epidemiologia Molecular , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD012670, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is a very common condition associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and costs. Current critical care guidelines recommend first and foremost the use of nonpharmacological strategies in both the prevention and treatment of delirium. Pharmacological interventions may augment these approaches and they are currently used widely in clinical practice to manage the symptoms of delirium. Benzodiazepines are currently used in clinical practice to treat behavioural disturbances associated with delirium but current guidelines do not recommend their use for this indication. The use of these medicines is controversial because there is uncertainty about whether they are effective for patients or have the potential to harm them. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of benzodiazepines in the treatment of delirium (excluding delirium related to withdrawal from alcohol or benzodiazepines) in any healthcare settings other than intensive care units (ICU). SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS: the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register up to 10 April 2019. ALOIS contains records of clinical trials identified from monthly searches of a number of major healthcare databases (including MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS), numerous trial registries (including national, international and pharmaceutical registries), and grey literature sources. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in healthcare settings that ranged from nursing homes and long-term care facilities to any hospital setting except for ICUs, involving adult patients with delirium excluding those with delirium related to alcohol or benzodiazepine withdrawal. Included RCTs had to assess the effect of benzodiazepines, at any dose and given by any route, compared with placebo or another drug intended to treat delirium. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. We decided whether or not to pool data on the basis of clinical heterogeneity between studies. We used GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methods to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We identified only two trials that satisfied the selection criteria. We did not pool the data because of the substantial clinical differences between the trials. In one trial, participants (n = 58) were patients in an acute palliative care unit with advanced cancer who had a mean age of 64 years. All of the participants had delirium, were treated with haloperidol, and were randomised to receive either lorazepam or placebo in combination with it. Due to very serious imprecision, all evidence was of low certainty. We were unable to determine whether there were clinically important differences in the severity of delirium (mean difference (MD) 2.10, 95% CI -0.96 to 5.16; n = 50), length of hospital admission (MD 0.00, 95% CI -3.45 to 3.45; n = 58), mortality from all causes (risk ratio (RR) 0.33, 95% CI 0.04 to 3.02; participants = 58) or any of a number of adverse events. Important effects could not be confirmed or excluded. The study authors did not report the length of the delirium episode. In the other trial, participants (n = 30) were patients in general medical wards with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) who had a mean age of 39.2 years. Investigators compared three drug treatments: all participants had delirium, and were randomised to receive lorazepam, chlorpromazine, or haloperidol. Very low-certainty evidence was identified, and we could not determine whether lorazepam differed from either of the other treatments in the effect on severity of delirium, any adverse event, or mortality from all causes. The study authors did not report the length of the delirium episode or the length of hospital admission. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is no enough evidence to determine whether benzodiazepines are effective when used to treat patients with delirium who are cared for in non-ICU settings. The available evidence does not support their routine use for this indication. Because of the scarcity of data from randomised controlled trials, further research is required to determine whether or not there is a role for benzodiazepines in the treatment of delirium in non-ICU settings.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Críticos , Delírio/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidados Paliativos , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lorazepam/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(4): 1579-1585, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary advice on malnutrition in cancer patients is unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of dietary advice in cancer patients who were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. METHODS: Seven electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary counseling intervention in cancer patients with malnutrition or at risk of malnutrition. The studies were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were critically appraised and abstracted by two researchers individually. Effect sizes were presented as weighted mean differences (WMD) or risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: Six RCTs (737 participants) were included in meta-analysis. Comparing to usual care, dietary advice given by dieticians could not reduce mortality (RR = 1.11, 95%CI = 0.95 to 1.29) and body weight (WMD = 4.28 kg, 95%CI = - 0.21 to 8.76 kg) in cancer patients who were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, but it was associated with statistically significant improvements in energy intake (WMD = 230.23kCal, 95%CI: 171.49 to 288.98), and quality of life (WMD = 37.92, 95%CI: 23.14 to 52.70). CONCLUSIONS: There remains insufficient evidence to conclude the actual effect of dietary advice given by dieticians in malnourished patients with cancer. Meta-analysis suggested that dietary advice given by dietitians may have no effect on mortality and body weight in patients with cancer who are malnourished, but it may be effective for improving QoL and energy intake. Studies with adequate participants and a clear low risk of bias are required to improve accuracy and confidence of conclusions.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/etiologia , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Aconselhamento , Dieta , Dietética/métodos , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1054, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BC) has become a major worldwide public health issue, especially non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). A flood of related clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have emerged; however, the quality and recommendations of the guidelines are controversial. We aimed to appraise the quality of the CPGs for NMIBC within the past 5 years and compare the similarities and differences between recommendations for therapies. METHODS: A systematic search to identify CPGs for NMIBC was performed using electronic databases (including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science), guideline development organizations, and professional societies from January 12, 2014 to January 12, 2019. The Appraisal of Guidelines Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument was used to evaluate the quality of the guidelines. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis was performed to assess the overall agreement among reviewers. RESULTS: Nine CPGs were included. The overall agreement among reviewers was excellent. The interquartile range (IQR) of scores for each domain were as follows: scope and purpose 69.44% (35.42, 85.42%); stakeholder involvement 41.67% (30.56, 75.00%); rigour of development 48.96% (27.08, 65.63%); clarity and presentation 80.56% (75.00, 86.11%); applicability 34.38% (22.92, 40.63%) and editorial independence 70.83% (35.42, 85.42%). The NICE, AUA, EAU and CRHA/CPAM clinical practice guidelines consistently scored well in most domains. It was generally accepted that the transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) and intravesical chemotherapy should be performed in the management of bladder cancer. The application of chemotherapy was highly controversial in high risk NMIBC. The courses of BCG maintenance were similar and included 3 years of therapy at full maintenance doses. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of NMIBC guidelines within the past 5 years varied, especially regarding stakeholders, rigour and applicability. Despite many similarities, the recommendations had some inconsistencies in the details.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Músculo Liso/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico
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