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1.
Helicobacter ; : e12786, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogens capable of impacting gastrointestinal tract tumor development are located in the oral cavity, but whether these oral bacteria are able to colonize the gastric mucosa in gastric cancer (GC) patients and whether Helicobacter pylori infection can influence this process remains to be established. METHODS: Microbial 16S rDNA deep sequencing was conducted to characterize bacteria present in paired gastric mucosa and tongue coating samples in 27 patients with superficial gastritis (SG) and 11 GC patients. RESULTS: While the overall composition of the gastric mucosa and tongue coating microbiomes differed substantially, certain bacteria were present in both of these communities. The co-occurrence of bacteria between the tongue coating and gastric mucosa differed significantly between SG and GC patients. Of the 15 most abundant shared oral bacteria genera (the core shared oral bacteria), which were associated with differences in microbiota composition between these tongue coating and gastric mucosa, three were enriched in the gastric mucosa of GC patients relative to SG patients, whereas, 12 were depleted in GC patient samples. Furthermore, the prevalence and relative abundance of these core shared oral bacteria in the gastric mucosa were also linked to H. pylori infection status, and the core shared oral bacteria were also associated with the overall composition of the gastric mucosal microbiome. CONCLUSIONS: Helicobacter pylori infections are linked to the co-occurrence of bacteria in the oral microbiome and the gastric mucosal microbiome. Ectopic colonization of oral microbes may be a primary driver of H. pylori-induced gastric microbial dysbiosis in patients with GC.

2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6610726, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33613823

RESUMO

Exposure to total body irradiation (TBI) causes dose- and tissue-specific lethality. However, there are few effective and nontoxic radiation countermeasures for the radiation injury. In the current study, mice were pretreated with a traditional antimicrobial agent, FZD, before TBI; the protective effects of FZD on radiation injury were evaluated by using parameters such as the spleen index and thymus index, immunohistochemical staining of intestinal tissue, and frequency of micronuclei in polychromatophilic erythrocytes of bone marrow. The intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6 was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Our results indicated that FZD administration significantly improved the survival of lethal dose-irradiated mice, decreased the number of micronuclei, upregulated the number of leukocytes and immune organ indices, and restored intestinal integrity in mice after TBI. TUNEL and western blot showed that FZD protected intestinal tissue by downregulating radiation-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Meanwhile, FZD protected IEC-6 cells from radiation-induced cell death by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy. To sum up, FZD protected against radiation-induced cell death both in vitro and in vivo through antiapoptosis and antiautophagy mechanisms.

3.
Food Chem ; 349: 129133, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561795

RESUMO

The strategy of taste-guided assisted by solvent extraction, solid-phase extraction and semipreparative HPLC were applied to isolate the main nonvolatile bitter components from mechanized Huangjiu. The potential fraction was identified by amino acid analysis and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-MS/MS. Bitter pyroglutamate peptide Pyr-LFNPSTNPWHSP (PGP) was successfully identified from Huangjiu for the first time. Quantitative analysis showed that PGP contents ranged from below the limit of quantitation to 32.97 mg/L, among mechanized Huangjiu had higher contents than manual and commercial Huangjiu. The formation of PGP mainly occurred in the primary fermentation and it was stable in Huangjiu. Moreover, the PGP content of the Huangjiu brewed using raw wheat Qu was 112.6% higher than that using cooked wheat Qu, but presented subtle change with the increase of raw wheat Qu. The results revealed that PGP contributed the bitterness to Huangjiu, which may offer a possibility to reduce the bitterness of Huangjiu.

4.
Food Res Int ; 139: 109955, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509507

RESUMO

The study quantitatively profiled 83 low-molecular-weight metabolites in the categories of alcohols, aldehydes, amino acids, esters, fatty acids, organic acids, and reducing sugars produced during the advanced brewing process of Chinese rice wine, using multiply chromatography and mass spectrum. In the primary fermentation, vigorous metabolisms were demonstrated by the production of ethanol at the level of 14% by volume, and the consumption of reducing sugars from the maximum level of 100 g/L to 20 g/L. Meantime, more than 70% of the contents of organic acids, fatty acids, higher alcohols, and aldehydes were formed. The metabolisms slowed down in the secondary fermentation, whereas 60% of the contents of amino acids and esters were accumulated in this stage. The nutrients, such as amino acids, organic acids, and reducing sugars reached 10 g/L, 5 g/L, and 3 g/L at the end of brewing, respectively. In terms of flavor and taste attributes to the brewed rice wine, the organoleptic activity value (i.e. the ratio of content to threshold value) was above 1 for 17 compounds, including six organic acids, namely acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, and tartaric acid, four amino acids, namely cysteine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and lysine, three higher alcohols namely isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, and phenethyl alcohol, three esters, namely ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, and ethyl hexanoate, and an aldehyde, namely benzaldehyde.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296135

RESUMO

Fabricating proton exchange membranes (PEMs) with high ionic conductivity and ideal mechanical robustness through regulation of the membrane microstructures achieved by molecular-level hybridization remains essential but challenging for the further development of high-performance PEM fuel cells. In this work, by precisely hybridizing nano-scaled bismuth oxide clusters into Nafion, we have fabricated the high-performance hybrid membrane, Nafion-Bi 12 -3%, which showed a proton conductivity of 386 mS cm -1 at 80 ºC  in aqueous solution with low methanol permeability, and conserves the ideal mechanical and chemical stabilities as PEMs. MD simulation was employed to clarify the structural properties and the assembly mechanisms of the hybrid membrane on the molecular level. The maximum current density and power density of Nafion-Bi 12 -3% for direct methanol fuel cells reached to 432.7 mA cm -2 and 110.2 mW cm -2 , respectively. This work provides new insights into the design of versatile functional polymer electrolyte membranes through polyoxometalate hybridization.

6.
Gerontology ; : 1-8, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With a rapidly aging population, the need for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is increasing. The commonly used sedation anesthesia in ERCP is a combination of propofol and fentanyl, even though fentanyl may cause some adverse reactions such as respiratory depression. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oxycodone combined with propofol versus fentanyl combined with propofol for sedation anesthesia during ERCP. METHODS: A total of 193 patients aged from 65 to 80 years undergoing ERCP were enrolled and randomized into two groups: an "oxycodone combined with propofol" group (group OP, n = 97) and a "fentanyl combined with propofol" group (group FP, n = 96). The rate of perioperative adverse events as well as the recovery time, patients' satisfaction, and endoscopists' satisfaction were noted. RESULTS: There was no difference in the frequency of hypotension or bradycardia between the two groups, but there were more episodes of desaturation (SpO2 <90% for >10 s in 8.3%), postoperative nausea (7.3%), and vomiting (5.2%) in group FP than in group OP. Patients' satisfaction in group FP was lower than that in group OP. The recovery time was longer in group FP than in group OP. CONCLUSIONS: Oxycodone combined with propofol was effective in ERCP, with a low incidence of perioperative adverse events.

7.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-19, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226273

RESUMO

Traditional fermented soybean food has emerged as an important part of people's dietary structure because of the unique flavors and improved health benefit. During fermentation, the nutrients in soybean undergo a series of biochemical reactions catalyzed naturally by microorganism secreted enzymes. Thereafter, many functional and bioactive substances such as bioactive peptides, unsaturated fatty acids, free soy isoflavones, vitamins and minerals are produced, making fermented soy products more advantageous in nutrition and health. This review comprehensively discusses the historical evolution, distribution, traditional fermentation processing, main sources and characteristics of fermented strains, flavor components, nutritional properties, and biological activities of four traditional fermented soybean foods including douchi, sufu, dajiang, and soy sauce. In the end, we introduce four major challenges encountered by traditional fermented soybean foods including high salt content, formation of biogenic amine, the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and mycotoxins, and quality inconsistency. We conclude that the establishment of scientific quality standard and innovated fermentation processing is the potential solutions to combat the issues and improve the safety of traditional fermented soybean products.

8.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 416, 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apathy is one of the most common symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, correlations of apathy with demographic variables, cognitive functions, neuropsychiatric symptoms, activity of daily living and olfactory functions in AD patients are still lacking comprehensive investigations. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Total 124 typical AD patients were consecutively recruited from April 2014 to April 2017. In 124 AD patients, 47 cases (37.9%) were male and 77 cases were female; patients' age were 43-93 years with an average of 68 years. Patients were divided into AD with apathy (AD-A) and AD with no apathy (AD-NA) groups according to the score of Modified Apathy Evaluation Scale, then were evaluated cognitive functions, neuropsychiatric symptoms and activity of daily living, and tested olfactory functions. Above variables were compared between AD-A and AD-NA groups. Further correlation analyses and linear regression analysis were performed between apathy and above variables. RESULTS: Compared with AD-NA group, global cognitive level, verbal memory, verbal fluency and activity of daily living were significantly compromised in AD-A group (P < 0.002); depression and agitation were severely displayed in AD-A group (P < 0.002). Apathy was negatively correlated with global cognitive function, verbal memory, verbal fluency and activity of daily living (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference of olfactory functions between the two groups (P > 0.002), and correlations between apathy and olfactory threshold, olfactory identification and global olfactory function were significant (P < 0.05) but quite weak (|r| < 0.3). Further linear regression analysis showed that only verbal fluency and instrumental activities of daily living were independently associated with apathy. CONCLUSIONS: Independent correlations among apathy, verbal fluency and instrumental activities of daily living in AD patients might be related to the common brain area involved in their pathogeneses.

9.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 566446, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195544

RESUMO

Pseudorabies (PR), also known as Aujeszky's disease, is an acute infectious disease of pigs, resulting in significant economic losses to the pig industry in many countries. Since 2011, PR outbreaks have occurred in many Bartha-K61-vaccinated pig farms in China. The emerging pseudorabies virus (PRV) variants possess higher pathogenicity in pigs and mice than the strains isolated before. Here, a recombinant PRV (rPRVTJ-NLuc) stably expressing the NanoLuc (NLuc) luciferase fusion with the red fluorescent protein (DsRed) was constructed to trace viral replication and spread in mice. Moreover, both DsRed and NLuc luciferases were stably expressed in the infected cells, and there was no significant difference between wild-type and recombinant viruses in both growth kinetics and pathogenicity. Seven-week-old BALB/c mice were infected with 103 50% tissue culture infective dose rPRVTJ-NLuc and subjected to daily imaging. The mice infected with rPRVTJ-NLuc displayed robust bioluminescence that started 4 days postinfection (dpi), bioluminescence signal increased over time, peaked at 5 dpi, remained detectable for at least 6 dpi, and disappeared at 7 dpi, meanwhile, the increased flux accompanied by the spread of the virus from the injection site to the superior respiratory tract. However, the signal was also observed in the spinal cord, trigeminal ganglion, and partial region of the brain from separated tissues, not in living mice. Our results depicted a new approach to rapidly access the replication and pathogenicity of emerging PRVs in mice.

10.
Adv Mater ; : e2004900, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150623

RESUMO

Single-atom FeN4 sites at the edges of carbon substrates are considered more active for oxygen electrocatalysis than those in plane; however, the conventional high-temperature pyrolysis process does not allow for precisely engineering the location of the active site down to atomic level. Enlightened by theoretical prediction, herein, a self-sacrificed templating approach is developed to obtain edge-enriched FeN4 sites integrated in the highly graphitic nanosheet architecture. The in situ formed Fe clusters are intentionally introduced to catalyze the growth of graphitic carbon, induce porous structure formation, and most importantly, facilitate the preferential anchoring of FeN4 to its close approximation. Due to these attributes, the as-resulted catalyst (denoted as Fe/N-G-SAC) demonstrates unprecedented catalytic activity and stability for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) by showing an impressive half-wave potential of 0.89 V for the ORR and a small overpotential of 370 mV at 10 mA cm-2 for the OER. Moreover, the Fe/N-G-SAC cathode displays encouraging performance in a rechargeable Zn-air battery prototype with a low charge-discharge voltage gap of 0.78 V and long-term cyclability for over 240 cycles, outperforming the noble metal benchmarks.

11.
Lupus ; : 961203320974081, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and summarize the available literature regarding the association between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and sexual dysfunction (SD) in both sexes. METHODS: We retrieved relevant studies from the following databases: PubMed, Embase,Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Two reviewers independently reviewed the studies in our sample, assessed their validity, and extracted relevant data. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed to distinguish sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: Our search resulted in a sample of eight eligible studies, which involved 758 patients in the SLE group and 1724 individuals in the control group. The pooled RR for the increased risk for SD compared to those in the control group was 1.80 (95%CI 1.12-2.87). Subgroup analysis by sex revealed that males (pooled RR = 2.98, 95%CI 2.41-3.68) had a higher risk of SD compared to females (pooled RR = 1.56, 95%CI 0.99-2.48). Females with SLE had significantly lower values in FSFI compared to the healthy individuals (WMD=-0.224, 95%CI -0.441 to -0.078). Age of participants and the quality of studies might influence the results. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis suggests that SLE is significantly associated with an increased risk of sexual dysfunction. It is of great urgency to implement for active interventions that aimed to treat or prevent SD among SLE patients.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 748: 141375, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113681

RESUMO

Storm runoff is important for maintaining surface water resources, while this function is significantly affected by land use and land cover changes, e.g., afforestation and reforestation. The Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) has undergone large-scale vegetation rehabilitation, especially afforestation over the past 20 years. We hypothesize that afforestation has profoundly changed the amounts and mechanisms of storm runoff generation in headwater catchments on the CLP. To test this hypothesis, rainfall, soil moisture, and streamflow were monitored in a grass catchment and an adjacent forest catchment for two consecutive years. The objective of this study was to elucidate the varied mechanisms of storm runoff generation in these two contrasting revegetated catchments. Results showed that (1) average runoff coefficient in the grassland catchment (0.042) was approximately ten times higher than that in the forestland catchment (0.004), confirming the impact of catchment afforestation on the suppression of storm runoff generation. (2) Peak rainfall intensity was the first-order control of the runoff coefficient in the grassland catchment, but not in the forestland catchment. (3) Threshold values for antecedent soil moisture (~18%) and the sum of antecedent soil moisture index and event precipitation (~210 mm) were identified in the grassland catchment, above which storm runoff significantly increased. (4) Two extraordinary high runoff coefficient events were observed in the grassland catchment, one due to high peak rainfall intensity and strong surface runoff and the other due to high rainfall amount and high antecedent soil moisture. We conclude that long-term afforestation has changed the mechanisms and patterns of storm runoff generation, and different conditions of rainfall intensity, rainfall amount and antecedent soil moisture determined the hydrological connectivity between the upper hillslope and downhill gully in the catchment. This study deepens our understanding of the mechanisms and thresholds of storm runoff generation in headwater catchments on the CLP.


Assuntos
Chuva , Movimentos da Água , Hidrologia , Poaceae , Solo
13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(19): 19083-19094, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apathy is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. However, its relation with other clinical symptoms in AD and brain structural changes in magnetic resonance imaging is unclear. RESULTS: Compared with AD with no apathy group, cognitive function and activities of daily living were significantly impaired and neuropsychiatric symptoms were obviously presented in AD with apathy group (P<0.05). The frequency of Apolipoprotein E genotypes was not significantly different (P>0.05). Correlation analyses and multiple linear analyses revealed that thickness of left temporal pole and volume of posterior corpus callosum were significantly and negatively correlated with Modified Apathy Estimation Scale score in AD patients (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Apathy with AD is positively correlated with cognitive impairment, neuropsychiatric symptoms and poor activities of daily living. Atrophy of left temporal pole and posterior corpus callosum presented by MRI is positively related with apathy of AD. METHODS: In this study, 137 AD patients were recruited and divided into AD with apathy group and AD with no apathy group according to Modified Apathy Estimation Scale score. We evaluated patients' cognitive function, neuropsychiatric symptoms and activities of daily living, detected the frequency of Apolipoprotein E genotypes and measured cortical thickness and volume by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240355, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044982

RESUMO

Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) is a rich nutritious fruit crop owing to a markedly higher content of vitamin C and minerals. To promote fruit set and to increase the yield of kiwifruit, forchlorfenuron (CPPU) has been widely applied. However, the molecular details regarding CPPU controlling kiwifruit development, especially at the fastest fruit growth stage, remain unknown. In the present study, we measured the effect of CPPU on developmental regulation in red-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis 'Hongyang'). Additionally, a cytological analysis was performed to clarify the precise changes in the cell structure of the CPPU-treated kiwifruits. Moreover, the concentration of endogenous phytohormones, including indoleacetic acid (IAA), zeatin (ZT), gibberellic acid 3 (GA3), and abscisic acid (ABA), were measured by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Furthermore, RNA-Seq was performed to dissect the complicated molecular mechanisms, with a focus on biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling compounds, such as endogenous hormones, sugars, and L-ascorbic acid. Our results demonstrated that CPPU treatment not only regulates the size and weight of a single fruit but also improves the quality in 'Hongyang' kiwifruit through the accumulation of both soluble sugar and vitamin C. It was also seen that CPPU regulates kiwifruit development by enhancing cell expansion of epidermal cells and parenchyma cells, while, promoting cell division of subepidermal cells. Additionally, CPPU significantly increased the gibberellin and cytokinin biosynthetic pathway and signaling, while repressing auxin and ABA biosynthetic pathway; thus, signaling plays an essential role in CPPU controlling kiwifruit development. Notably, transcriptomic analysis revealed that a total of 2244 genes, including 352 unannotated genes, were differentially expressed in kiwifruits because of CPPU treatment, including 127 transcription factors. These genes are mainly enriched in plant hormone signal transduction, photosynthesis, MAPK signaling pathway, starch and sucrose metabolism, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Overall, our results highlight that CPPU regulation of kiwifruit development is mainly associated with an antagonistic and/or synergistic regulatory role of endogenous phytohormones, and enhancing the energy supply. This provides new insights into the molecular details of CPPU controlling kiwifruit development at the fastest fruit growth stage, which is of agricultural importance for kiwifruit breeding and crop improvement.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989602

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the spatial patterns of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), including the spatial distribution, spatial autocorrelation, and risk probability, and to quantify the sources of PTEs, to provide guidelines for soil management. Spatial distributions and probabilities of PTEs were determined by empirical Bayesian kriging (EBK), while spatial autocorrelation was estimated by Moran's I. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was adopted for the quantitative source contributions of PTEs. More than 64.6% of Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni were derived from geogenic sources, with high regions and high-high clusters both correlated to sandstone. Thus, it can be deduced that parent materials dominated the spatial patterns of these PTEs. In addition, some hotspots were situated in urban areas, and the influence of human activities on these four PTEs should be considered. Industry-traffic discharge and parent materials both influenced As, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the spatial patterns of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn were formed by anthropogenic emissions since hotspots and high-high clusters were contiguously situated in urban areas. 58.5% of Hg originated from atmospheric deposition related to industrial emissions, and 47.2% of Cd was controlled by the application of chemical fertilizers. High levels of Hg and Cd mainly corresponded with industrial sites and cultivated land, suggesting that industrial and geoponic production played major roles in the generation of spatial patterns for Hg and Cd, respectively. Furthermore, the Cd and Hg posed a severe risk to soils, with a high probability to surpass 1.5 times the backgrounds. The EBK, Moran's I, and PMF results showed that all ten PTEs were enriched to some degree due to natural or anthropogenic factors. The results of geostatistical analysis and the receptor model can be mutually verified, indicating the reliability of these methods.

16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(23): 6230-6241, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933998

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer peritoneal metastases (OCPMs) are a pathophysiologically heterogeneous group of tumors that are rarely curable. αVß3 integrin (αVß3) is overexpressed on tumoral neovessels and frequently on ovarian cancer cells. Here, using two clinically relevant αVß3-positive OCPM mouse models, we studied the theranostic potential of an αVß3-specific radiopeptide, 64Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4 (64Cu-RaftRGD), and its intra- and intertumoral distribution in relation to the tumor microenvironment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: αVß3-expressing peritoneal and subcutaneous models of ovarian carcinoma (IGR-OV1 and NIH:OVCAR-3) were established in nude mice. 64Cu-RaftRGD was administered either intravenously or intraperitoneally. We performed intratumoral distribution (ITD) studies, PET/CT imaging and quantification, biodistribution assay and radiation dosimetry, and therapeutic efficacy and toxicity studies. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal administration was an efficient route for targeting 64Cu-RaftRGD to OCPMs with excellent tumor penetration. Using the fluorescence surrogate, Cy5.5-RaftRGD, in our unique high-resolution multifluorescence analysis, we found that the ITD of 64Cu-RaftRGD was spatially distinct from, but complementary to, that of hypoxia. 64Cu-RaftRGD-based PET enabled clear visualization of multiple OCPM deposits and ascites and biodistribution analysis demonstrated an inverse correlation between tumor uptake and tumor size (1.2-17.2 mm). 64Cu-RaftRGD at a radiotherapeutic dose (148 MBq/0.357 nmol) showed antitumor activities by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis, with negligible toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results demonstrate the all-in-one potential of 64Cu-RaftRGD for imaging guided radiotherapy of OCPM by targeting both tumoral neovessels and cancerous cells. On the basis of the ITD finding, we propose that pairing αVß3- and hypoxia-targeted radiotherapies could improve therapeutic efficacy by overcoming the heterogeneity of ITD encountered with single-agent treatments.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(37): 41269-41276, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805853

RESUMO

Pyrolytic transition metal nitrogen-carbon (M-N/C) materials are considered as the most promising alternatives for platinum-based catalysts toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). As the proton-coupled electron transfer step in ORR has been proven to be a rate-determining step in the M-N/C catalysts, we envisaged that building a protophilic surface might be helpful to enhance the ORR activity. Herein, a polyaniline decoration strategy was put forward and realized to confer the Fe-N/C catalyst with a surface protophilic environment. A 20 mV positive shift in half-wave potential was observed owing to the enriched interfacial proton concentration, corresponding to a tripled turnover frequency under acidic conditions (from 0.46 to 1.28 e·s-1·sites-1). Our work blazed a new path toward the design of M-N/C ORR catalysts, commencing via the ORR kinetics.

19.
Int J Med Robot ; 16(6): 1-14, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical robotics has enabled a significant advancement in the field of modern spine surgery, especially in pedicle screw fixation. A plethora of studies focused on the accuracy of pedicle fixation in robotic-assisted (RA) technology. However, it is not clear whether RA techniques can improve patients' clinical outcomes. METHODS: We retrieved relevant studies that compare the differences between RA and freehand (FH) techniques in spine surgeries from the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. The perioperative outcomes of this technology were measured with parameters including radiation exposure, operative time, the length of hospital stay, complication rates and revision rates. Two reviewers independently reviewed the studies in our sample, assessed their validity and extracted relevant data. RESULTS: Our search resulted in a sample of 23 eligible studies, which involved 1247 patients (5042 pedicle screws) in the RA group and 1273 patients (4830 pedicle screws) in the FH group. With regard to the radiation exposure, the fluoroscopy time was less in surgeries assisted by Mazor robots (standard mean difference [SMD] = -0.96, 95% CI = -1.60 to -0.31) but more in Tianji robots (SMD = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.17 to 1.66) and ROSA robots (SMD = 2.57, 95% CI = 2.01 to 3.13). For radiation dose, a decrease was observed in Tianji robots (SMD = -1.59, 95% CI = -2.13 to -1.05). In the lumbar subgroup, the use of robots increased the operative time (SMD = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.19 to 0.86). In the degenerative diseases (DG) group, there was a significant decrease in the length of hospital stay when robots were introduced (SMD = -0.30, 95% CI = -0.48 to -0.12). While in the DF (deformity) and DG group, a significant increase was found (SMD = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.32). The complication (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.26 to 0.66) and the revision rates (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.24 to 0.60) showed a significant decrease in the RA group compared to the conventional FH group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that RA spine surgeries would result in fewer complications, a lower revision rate and shorter length of hospital stay. As the technology continues to evolve, we may expect more applications of robotic systems in spine surgeries.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21314, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral ulcers (OU) is a common oral mucosal disease manifested with obvious pain; in some studies, the efficacy of acupuncture in OU has been confirmed, but the systematic reviews and meta-analyses for them are lacking. Our aim is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of OU. METHODS: Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi RCTs and non-RCTs will be identified by systematic searching from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal database, and Wanfang Data (since inception of the databases to present). In addition, ongoing trials will be retrieved from the Chinese Clinical Trial Register, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Clinical Trials, and The Clinical Trials Register. Grey literature will be also taken into consideration, including academic dissertation, minutes of the meeting from Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal database, and Wanfang Data. There are no language restrictions. RESULTS: Ethical approval is not required because this study is based on published papers. After peer-review, the study will be disseminated in scientific journals and conferences. CONCLUSION: This systematic review will provide evidence for the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for Oral ulcers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020144911.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Úlceras Orais/terapia , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
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