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1.
Oncol Rep ; 47(2)2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850964

RESUMO

Following the publication of this paper, it was drawn to the Editors' attention by a concerned reader that the western blotting data in Figs. 3 and 6 were strikingly similar to data appearing in different form in other articles by different authors at different research institutes. Owing to the fact that the contentious data in the above article were already under consideration for publication, or had already been published, elsewhere prior to its submission to Oncology Reports, the Editor has decided that this paper should be retracted from the Journal. After having been in contact with the authors, they agreed with the decision to retract the paper. The Editor apologizes to the readership for any inconvenience caused. [the original article was published in Oncology Reports 34: 1003­1010, 2015; DOI: 10.3892/or.2015.4030].

2.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol ; : 1-10, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854363

RESUMO

Relatively little is known about allantois and urachal development in early humans.Serial sagittal histological sections from eight human embryos and fetuses were examined to determine allantois development.At gestational age 6-7 weeks, the primitive allantois consists of an enlarged tube located between the umbilical cord and abdominal cavity, whereas the urachus is not yet developed. At 8 weeks, the allantois gradually withdraws from the distal to the proximal end of the umbilical cord, and both the proximal allantois and the rectum (hindgut) start to develop into the cloaca. At 10 weeks, the allantois was located mostly in the abdominal cavity.The urachus forms from the distal end of the allantois and develops into a closed fibrous cord between the base of the urinary bladder and the umbilicus. The urogenital sinus forms from the proximal end of the allantois.

4.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 158, 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circular RNA (circRNA), a subclass of non-coding RNA, plays a critical role in cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis. It has been suggested that circRNA acts as a microRNA sponge or a scaffold to interact with protein complexes; however, its full range of functions remains elusive. Recently, some circRNAs have been found to have coding potential. METHODS: To investigate the role of circRNAs in gastric cancer (GC), parallel sequencing was performed using five paired GC samples. Differentially expressed circAXIN1 was proposed to encode a novel protein. FLAG-tagged circRNA overexpression plasmid construction, immunoblotting, mass spectrometry, and luciferase reporter analyses were applied to confirm the coding potential of circAXIN1. Gain- and loss-of-function studies were conducted to study the oncogenic role of circAXIN1 and AXIN1-295aa on the proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis of GC cells in vitro and in vivo. The competitive interaction between AXIN1-295aa and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) was investigated by immunoprecipitation analyses. Wnt signaling activity was observed using a Top/Fopflash assay, real-time quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence staining, and chromatin immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: CircAXIN1 is highly expressed in GC tissues compared with its expression in paired adjacent normal gastric tissues. CircAXIN1 encodes a 295 amino acid (aa) novel protein, which was named AXIN1-295aa. CircAXIN1 overexpression enhances the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of GC cells, while the knockdown of circAXIN1 inhibits the malignant behaviors of GC cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, AXIN1-295aa competitively interacts with APC, leading to dysfunction of the "destruction complex" of the Wnt pathway. Released ß-catenin translocates to the nucleus and binds to the TCF consensus site on the promoter, inducing downstream gene expression. CONCLUSION: CircAXIN1 encodes a novel protein, AXIN1-295aa. AXIN1-295aa functions as an oncogenic protein, activating the Wnt signaling pathway to promote GC tumorigenesis and progression, suggesting a potential therapeutic target for GC.

5.
Front Surg ; 8: 736680, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778358

RESUMO

Background: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has been widely performed to treat cervical generative diseases. Cage subsidence is a complication after ACDF. Although it is known that segmental kyphosis, acceleration of adjacent segmental disease, and restenosis may occur due to cages subsidence; however detailed research comparing zero-profile cages (ROI-C) and conventional plate and cage construct (CPC) on cage subsidence has been lacking. Objective: The objectives of this study was to compare the rate of postoperative cage subsidence between zero profile anchored spacer (ROI-C) and conventional cage and plate construct (CPC) and investigate the risk factors associated with cage subsidence following ACDF. Methods: Seventy-four patients with ACDF who received either ROI-C or CPC treatment from October 2013 to August 2018 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Clinical and radiological outcomes and the incidence of cage subsidence at final follow up-were compared between groups. All patients were further categorized into the cage subsidence (CS) and non-cage subsidence (NCS) groups for subgroup analysis. Results: The overall subsidence rate was higher in the ROI-C group than in the CPC group (66.67 vs. 38.46%, P = 0.006). The incidence of cage subsidence was significantly different between groups for multiple-segment surgeries (75 vs. 34.6%, P = 0.003), but not for single-segment surgeries (54.55 vs. 42.30%, P = 0.563). Male sex, operation in multiple segments, using an ROI-C, and over-distraction increased the risk of subsidence. Clinical outcomes and fusion rates were not affected by cage subsidence. Conclusion: ROI-C use resulted in a higher subsidence rate than CPC use in multi-segment ACDF procedures. The male sex, the use of ROI-C, operation in multiple segments, and over-distraction were the most significant factors associated with an increase in the risk of cage subsidence.

6.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mediastinoscopy was originally applied for lymph node biopsy and mediastinal tumor resection. Improved video imaging with spreadable working channels enabled mediastinoscopy for inspection and tissue biopsy in the superior mediastinum but it is rarely used in minimally invasive esophageal cancer surgery. In this prospective trial, the practicability and security of spreadable video-assisted mediastinoscopic combined with laparoscopic transhiatal esophagectomy (VAME) with video-assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy (VATE) were compared. METHODS: A total of 200 eligible patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were randomly divided into VAME or VATE groups. Early postoperative outcomes and lymph node dissection between the two groups were compared. RESULTS: The operation time was significantly shorter (164.3 ± 47.0 min vs. 265.4 ± 47.2 min, P < 0.001), the number of dissected lymph nodes was less (15.8 ± 4.5 vs. 20.3 ± 6.5, P < 0.001), and the intraoperative blood loss was also significantly reduced (94.7 ± 56.7 mL vs. 184.4 ± 65.2 mL, P < 0.001) in the VAME compared to the VATE group, respectively. The incidence of pneumonia was lower (7% vs. 29%; P < 0.001) and the length of hospital stay was shorter in the VAME group compared to the VATE group (18.0 ± 7.6 days vs. 23.2 ± 7.2, P < 0.001, respectively). The chyle leak incidence appeared to be lower in the VAME group but statistical significance was not reached (1% vs. 4%; P = 0.369). There were no differences in the incidence of anastomotic leakages and recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis between the groups. No 30-day mortality occurred in any of the cases. CONCLUSION: VAME appears to be a practicable and secure method for esophagectomy but needs further proof of concept. Clinical registration number: Registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1900022797.

7.
J Integr Neurosci ; 20(3): 635-644, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645096

RESUMO

A reduction in sucrose preference is a key characteristic of depressive-like behaviors after spinal cord injury as judged by the sucrose preference test, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Male rats were divided into three groups: control, sham and spinal cord injury groups. The spinal cord injury rats received a severe mid-thoracic contusion. The Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score was used to assess motor function. The sucrose preference test and forced swim test were used to evaluate depressive-like behaviors. Serum corticosterone levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor levels were examined by Western blot to evaluate the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was assessed by testing hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin receptor kinase B levels by Western blot and doublecortin levels by immunohistochemistry. Data showed that spinal cord injury impaired motor function. The spinal cord injury rats exhibited decreased sucrose preference on day six, which continued to decrease until day twelve, followed by a plateau phase. Additionally, the immobility time of the spinal cord injury rats was increased on day thirty-four. Moreover, serum corticosterone levels in the spinal cord injury group peaked on day seven, was decreased by day twenty-one and was increased again on day thirty-five. Serum corticosterone levels were significantly negatively correlated with sucrose preference and positively correlated with immobility time. Finally, hippocampal doublecortin levels on days twenty-one and thirty-five were lower in the spinal cord injury group than in the other groups. These results suggest that hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the inhibition of adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be part of the underlying mechanism responsible for depressive-like behaviors after spinal cord injury.

8.
Regen Med ; 16(10): 949-962, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585967

RESUMO

The stem cell origin theory of endometriosis (EMS) is a significant area of new research but the sources of this have yet to be adequately summarized. Existing treatments for EMS are commonly associated with a high recurrence rate; consequently, there is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic measures for the future treatment of this disease from the view of stem cells and gene therapy. Recently, we described the evidence for the potential sources of EMS stem cells and other key molecules participating in the establishment of lesions, and predict the miRNAs that target these key genes via bioinformatics analysis for further research. This review highlights the origin of EMS stem cells and potential therapy targets.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Biologia Computacional , Endometriose/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco
9.
Stem Cell Res ; 56: 102510, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438162

RESUMO

Here we described two human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients through forced expression of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC. The hiPSC lines displayed morphology, gene expression patterns, and pluripotential differentiation potentials similar to those of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The hiPSC lines from idiopathic ASD patients might be useful to unveil the underlying mechanism of idiopathic ASD and finding its therapeutics.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares
10.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 43(11): 1813-1821, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417852

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare fetal and adult morphologies of the orbital muscle (OM) and to describe the detailed topographical anatomy in adults. METHODS: Using unilateral orbits from 15 near-term fetuses and 21 elderly cadavers, semiserial horizontal or sagittal paraffin sections were prepared at intervals of 20-100 µm. In addition to routine histology, we performed immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin. RESULTS: At near term, the OM consistently extended widely from the zygomatic bone or the greater wing of the sphenoid to the maxilla or ethmoid. Thus, it was a large sheet covering the future inferior orbital fissure. In contrast, the adult OM was a thin and small muscle bundle connecting (1) the greater wing of the sphenoid to the maxilla (11/19 cadavers), (2) the lesser wing of the sphenoid to the maxilla (5/19) or the greater wing (3/19). The small OM was likely to be restricted within the greater wing (5/19 cadavers) or the maxilla (3/19). Two of these five types of OM coexisted in eight orbits. OM attachment to the lesser wing was not seen in fetuses, whereas ethmoid attachment was absent in adults. CONCLUSIONS: The lesser wing attachment of the OM seemed to establish after birth. A growing common origin of the three recti was likely involved in "stealing" the near-term OM attachment from the ethmoid. The strong immunoreactivity of remnant-like OM in the elderly suggests that OM contraction is still likely to occur against the increased flow through a thin vein. However, the contraction might have no clinical significance.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prediction of immunotherapy response and outcome in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is challenging due to intratumoral heterogeneity and lack of robust biomarkers. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the methodological quality of radiomic studies for predicting immunotherapy response or outcome in patients with NSCLC. METHODS: We systematically searched for eligible studies in the PubMed and Web of Science datasets up to April 1, 2021. The methodological quality of included studies was evaluated using the phase classification criteria for image mining studies and the radiomics quality scoring (RQS) tool. A meta-analysis of studies regarding the prediction of immunotherapy response and outcome in patients with NSCLC was performed. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were identified with sample sizes ranging from 30 to 228. Seven studies were classified as phase II, and the remaining as discovery science (n = 2), phase 0 (n = 4), phase I (n = 1), and phase III (n = 1). The mean RQS score of all studies was 29.6%, varying from 0 to 68.1%. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio for predicting immunotherapy response in NSCLC using radiomics was 14.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.66-25.95). In addition, radiomics could divide patients into high- and low-risk group with significantly different overall survival (pooled hazard ratio [HR]: 1.96, 95%CI 1.61-2.40, p < 0.001) and progression-free survival (pooled HR: 2.39, 95%CI 1.69-3.38, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Radiomics has potential to noninvasively predict immunotherapy response and outcome in patients with NSCLC. However, it has not yet been implemented as a clinical decision-making tool. Further external validation and evaluation within clinical pathway can facilitate personalized treatment for patients with NSCLC.

12.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34430998

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically investigate the effect of imaging features at different DCE-MRI phases to optimise a radiomics model based on DCE-MRI for the prediction of tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) levels in breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively collected 133 patients with pathologically proven breast cancer, including 73 patients with low TIL levels and 60 patients with high TIL levels. The volumes of breast cancer lesions were manually delineated on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and each phase of DCE-MRI, followed by 6250 quantitative feature extractions. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method was used to select predictive feature sets for the classifiers. Four models were developed for predicting TILs: (1) single enhanced phase radiomics models; (2) fusion enhanced multi-phase radiomics models; (3) fusion multi-sequence radiomics models; and (4) a combined radiomics-based clinical model. RESULTS: Image features extracted from the delayed phase MRI, especially DCE_Phase 6 (DCE_P6), demonstrated dominant predictive performances over features from other phases. The fusion multi-sequence radiomics model and combined radiomics-based clinical model achieved the highest predictive performances with areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.934 and 0.950, respectively; however, the differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The DCE-MRI radiomics model, especially image features extracted from the delayed phases, can help improve the performance in predicting TILs. The radiomics nomogram is effective in predicting TILs in breast cancer. KEY POINTS: • Radiomics features extracted from DCE-MRI, especially delayed phase images, help predict TIL levels in breast cancer. • We developed a nomogram based on MRI to predict TILs in breast cancer that achieved the highest AUC of 0.950.

13.
Chin J Integr Med ; 27(12): 883-890, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect and safety of Kangfuyan Capsules () for treating pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in a multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. METHODS: Totally, 240 PID patients with CPP were randomized into 2 groups using a computer generated random number at a 1:1 ratio from 10 hospitals in China between September 2014 and November 2015. Patients received either oral Kangfuyan Capsules or Gongyanping Capsules (, control); the regimen for both groups comprised 4 capsules (3 times daily) for 12 weeks, with follow-up visit 4 weeks after treatment. The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, clinical responses, remarkable cure rates for each symptom, and quality of life scores were assessed at baseline, and after 1, 2, and 3 months. Adverse events were also recorded. RESULTS: The VAS scores were significantly lower (P<0.05), whereas the clinical responses, remarkable cure rates for lower abdominal pain, uterine tenderness, adnexal mass, and adnexal tenderness, and Health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) scores were higher in the Kangfuyan group than in the control group at 3 months (P<0.05). Common treatment-related adverse events included high hepatic enzyme levels, reduced hemoglobin levels, and elevated platelet counts, although all the adverse events were either mild or moderate in severity. CONCLUSION: Compared with Gongyanping therapy, Kangfuyan therapy yielded markedly better analgesia effects for CPP caused by PID, with obvious long-term efficacy and good safety. (Registration No. ChiCTR190022732).

14.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(3)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318907

RESUMO

Autophagy is a process of degradation and catabolism in cells. By removing damaged or dysfunctional organelles, autophagy interacts with the ubiquitin­proteasome degradation system to jointly regulate cell function and energy homeostasis. Since autophagy plays a key role in physiology, disorders of the autophagy mechanism are associated with various diseases. Therefore, thorough understanding of the autophagy regulatory mechanism are crucially important in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. To date, ion channels may affect the development and treatment of diseases by regulating autophagy, especially calcium­permeable ion channels, in the process of digestive system diseases. However, the mechanism by which calcium ions and their channels regulate autophagy is still poorly understood, thus emphasizing the need for further research in this field. The present review intends to discuss the association, mechanism and application of calcium ions, their channels and autophagy in the occurrence and development of digestive system diseases.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Íons/metabolismo , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/fisiologia , Ubiquitina/metabolismo
15.
J Int Adv Otol ; 17(4): 330-334, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the characteristics of patients with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) by comparing audiologic test findings between groups with and without tinnitus. METHODS: This study involved patients with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) who presented to the otolaryngology clinic between January 2016 and April 2019. Tests including 3 pure-tone audiometry (PTA) tests at intervals greater than 1 week, and auditory brainstem response (ABR) were evaluated and patients were screened for tinnitus. The tinnitus patients had otoacoustic emission. Comparison was done between the tinnitus group and the group without tinnitus. RESULTS: Of the 730 subjects with NIHL, 389 had tinnitus. PTA showed significantly higher thresholds at 2 kHz to 8 kHz in the tinnitus group. Although ABR tests tended to show more prolonged I, III, and V latency in the tinnitus group, the differences were not statistically significant. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) showed more abnormalities at 3 kHz, and 4 kHz than at 1 kHz and 2 kHz. Transient otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) showed abnormal findings in both ears. CONCLUSION: In NIHL, hearing loss was more severe in patients with, than without tinnitus. DPOAE showed more abnormalities at 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz than at 1 kHz and 2 kHz, and TEOAE was abnormal at all frequencies.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Audição , Zumbido , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Limiar Auditivo , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Humanos , Emissões Otoacústicas Espontâneas , Zumbido/diagnóstico , Zumbido/epidemiologia , Zumbido/etiologia
16.
Histol Histopathol ; : 18364, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312829

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate defensive functional cells in intestinal septa during recanalization in the embryonic period, and to access immune responses in septa arising from type I intestinal atresia and normal intestinal walls. Tissue samples were of septa located in the intestinal wall at a distance <15cm from the ligament of Treitz, and normal intestine walls obtained from seven neonates who underwent surgery. Following serial tissue sectioning, the samples were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin (HE), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and immunohistochemical staining to determine the morphological features and markers of functional cells and immune responses in the septa and normal intestinal walls. Quantitative analysis was conducted to compare differences between them. Compared with normal intestinal wall, the mucosal layer of septa arising from type I intestinal atresia had fewer misaligned villi and no classic epithelial crypts. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the mucosal layer of septa arising from type I intestinal atresia had fewer Paneth cells and goblet cells and lower amounts of lysozyme and MUC2, than normal intestinal walls. The concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interlukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α, as well as macrophage inflammatory protein 3α (MIP-3α) and its receptor, CCR6, were higher in the mucosal layer of septa arising from type I intestinal atresia than in normal intestinal walls. Moreover, the numbers of mature dendritic cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes were higher in the mucosal layer of septa than in normal intestinal walls. The defensive activity of septa arising from type I intestinal atresia is weaker than that of normal intestinal walls. This weaker activity may correlate with increases in mature dendritic cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes, as well overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines.

17.
Front Physiol ; 12: 567650, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194334

RESUMO

Neurotransmitters are special molecules that serve as messengers in chemical synapses between neurons, cells, or receptors, including catecholamines, serotonin, dopamine, and other neurotransmitters, which play an important role in both human physiology and pathology. Compelling evidence has indicated that neurotransmitters have an important physiological role in various digestive diseases. They act as ligands in combination with central or peripheral receptors, and transmits signals through chemical synapses, which are involved in regulating the physiological and pathological processes of the digestive tract organs. For instance, neurotransmitters regulate blood circulation and affect intestinal movement, nutrient absorption, the gastrointestinal innate immune system, and the microbiome. In this review, we will focus on the role of neurotransmitters in the pathogenesis of digestive tract diseases to provide novel therapeutic targets for new drug development in digestive diseases.

18.
J Anat ; 239(6): 1300-1317, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268732

RESUMO

The developing sphenoid is regarded as a median cartilage mass (basisphenoid [BS]) with three cartilaginous processes (orbitosphenoid [OS], ala temporalis [AT], and alar process [AP]). The relationships of this initial configuration with the adult morphology are difficult to determine because of extensive membranous ossification along the cartilaginous elements. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the anatomical connections between each element of the fetal sphenoid and adult morphology. Sagittal sections from 25 embryos and fetuses of gestational age 6-34 weeks and crown-rump length 12-295 mm were therefore examined and compared with horizontal and frontal sections from the other 25 late-term fetuses (217-340 mm). The OS was identified as a set of three mutually attached cartilage bars in early fetuses. At all stages, the OS-post was continuous with the anterolateral part of the BS. The BS included the notochord and Rathke's pouch remnant in embryos and early fetuses. The dorsum sellae was absent from embryos, but it protruded from the BS in early fetuses before a fossa for the hypophysis became evident. Although not higher than the hypophysis at midterm, the dorsum sellae elongated superiorly after gestational age 25 weeks. In early fetuses, the AP was located on the side immediately anterior to the otic capsule. The AT developed on the side immediately posterior to the extraocular rectus muscles. At late term, the greater wing was formed by membranous bones from the AT and AP. The AT and AP formed a complex bridge between the BS and the greater wing. A small cartilage, future medial pterygoid process (PTmed) was located inferior to the AT in early fetuses. At midterm, one endochondral bone and multiple membranous bones formed the PTmed. The lateral pterygoid process (PTlat) was formed by a single membranous bone plate. Therefore, we connected fetal elements and the adult morphology as follows. (1) Derivative of the OS makes not only the lesser wing but also the anterior margin of the body of the sphenoid. (2) Derivatives of the BS are the body of the sphenoid including the sella turcica and the dorsum sellae. (3) Most of the greater wing including the foramen rotundum and the foramen oval originate from the AT and AP and multiple membranous bones. (4) The PTmed originate from endochondral bones and multiple membranous bones, while the PTlat derive from a single membranous bone.

20.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 219: 112201, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962112

RESUMO

In this project, we studied the thermal and chemical method for the synthesis of carbon dots (CDs)/Hematite (α-Fe2O3) quantum dots and the preparation of hydroxypropyl cellulose cross-linked chitosan (HPCCS) and ulvan (UN) was performed by chemical method. Carbon dots/α-Fe2O3 quantum dots with size distribution of 3-5 nm were completely encapsulated in the HPCCS/UN NPs to obtain composites, which indicated unique characteristics with respect to antimicrobial, pH-responsive and optical properties. The CDs-HQDs/HPCCS/UN nanocomposites exhibited a single-excitation (440 nm), dual-emission fluorescence property (505 nm and 628 nm for green and red light from CDs-HQDs and HPCCS/UN NPs). The nanocomposites played as a pH-responsive drug delivery process to release ulvan at a fast rate in pH 7.4 buffer solution but at a slow rate in low pH solutions. The CDs-HQDs/HPCCS/UN nanocomposites gained the highest photocatalytic activity for degrading 4-chlorophenol (4-CPh) as a pollutant (>98% during 70 min under sunlight irradiation). Moreover, the nanocomposites indicated great inhibitory influences towards bacterial and fungal.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Celulose/análogos & derivados , Quitosana/química , Nanocompostos/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Luz Solar , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Carbono/química , Catálise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Celulose/química , Clorofenóis/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/efeitos da radiação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Férricos/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanocompostos/toxicidade , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
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