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1.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480657

RESUMO

Alnustone, a nonphenolic diarylheptanoid, first isolated from Alnus pendula (Betulaceae), has recently received a great deal of attention due to its various beneficial pharmacological effects. However, its pharmacokinetic profile in vivo remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to establish a fast and sensitive quantification method of alnustone using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and evaluate the pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles of alnustone in rats. The sample was precipitated with acetonitrile with 0.5% formic acid and separated on BEH C18 Column. The mobile phase was composed of 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Alnustone and the internal standard (caffeine) were quantitatively monitored with precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 262.9→105.2 and m/z 195.2→138.0, respectively. The calibration curve for alnustone was linear from 1 to 2000 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day assay precision (RSD) ranged from 1.1-9.0 % to 3.3-8.6%, respectively and the intra- and inter-day assay accuracy (RE) was between -8.2-9.7% and -10.3-9.9%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of alnustone in rats. After single-dose intravenous administration of alnustone (5 mg/kg), the mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) value was 7066.36 ± 820.62 ng/mL, and the mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-t) value was 6009.79 ± 567.30 ng/mL∙h. Our results demonstrated that the residence time of alnustone in vivo was not long and it eliminated quickly from the rat plasma. Meanwhile, the drug is mainly distributed in tissues with large blood flow, and the lung and liver might be the target organs for alnustone efficacy. The study will provide information for further application of alnustone.

2.
Opt Express ; 27(16): 22994-23008, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510584

RESUMO

Lipid droplets have gained strong interest in recent years to comprehend how they function and coordinate with other parts of the cell. However, it remains challenging to study the regulation of lipid droplets in live preadipocytes using conventional microscopic techniques. In this paper, we study the effects of fatty acid stimulation and cell starvation on lipid droplets using optical diffraction tomography and Raman spectroscopy by measuring size, refractive index, volume, dry mass and degree of unsaturation. The increase of fatty acids causes an increase in the number and dry mass of lipid droplets. During starvation, the number of lipid droplets increases drastically, which are released to mitochondria to release energy. Studying lipid droplets under different chemical stimulations could help us understand the regulation of lipid droplets for metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes.

3.
Schizophr Res ; 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387828

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the relationship between autistic and schizotypal traits in the non-clinical population. We first conducted a meta-analysis to quantify the correlation between self-reported autistic traits and the three dimensions of schizotypal traits (positive, negative and disorganization). The strongest correlation was found between autistic traits and negative schizotypal traits (r = 0.536, 95% CI [0.481, 0.586]), followed by the disorganization (r = 0.355, 95% CI [0.304, 0.404]) and positive (r = 0.256, 95% CI [0.208, 0.302]) dimensions. To visualize the partial correlations between dimensional behavioural traits, we constructed a network model based on a large sample of college students (N = 2469). Negative schizotypal traits were strongly correlated with autistic social/communicative deficits, whereas positive schizotypal traits were inversely correlated with autistic-like traits, lending support to the psychosis-autism diametrical model. Disentangling the overlapping and diametrical structure of autism and schizophrenia may help to elucidate the aetiology of these two neurodevelopmental disorders.

4.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 58-63, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395206

RESUMO

Coenurosis is a serious parasitic disease of herbivorous animals caused by the metacestode of Taenia multiceps (Coenurus cerebralis). Accordingly, a significant amount of research is currently dedicated to the development of appropriate antigens for use in rapid and accurate coenurosis diagnosis kits. In the present study, antigen B (AgB) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx) from T. multiceps were cloned and expressed using a prokaryotic system, molecular characterization of Tm-AgB was determined by bioinformatical analyses. The serological diagnostic potentials of rTm-AgB and rTm-TPx were evaluated by indirect ELISA and compared with those of previously reported rTm-AnxB2, rTm-HSP70, and rTm-GST. The results showed that Tm-AgB is a specific lipoprotein of cestodes with good thermal stability. The ELISA assay showed that rTm-AgB exhibited a sensitivity of 95.8% and a specificity of 87.5%, indicating its strong potential for serological diagnosis of T. multiceps.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/genética , Antígenos de Helmintos/metabolismo , Peroxirredoxinas/genética , Peroxirredoxinas/metabolismo , Taenia/enzimologia , Teníase/diagnóstico , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos , Taenia/metabolismo , Teníase/parasitologia
5.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 295-300, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383316

RESUMO

Tembusu virus (TMUV), a member of the genus flavivirus, primarily causes egg-drop syndrome in ducks and is associated with low disease mortality but high morbidity. The commercially available live vaccines for treating TMUV currently include the main WF100, HB, and FX2010-180P strains, and efficient treatment and/or preventative measures are still urgently needed. Capsid-targeted viral inactivation (CTVI) is a conceptually powerful new antiviral strategy that is based on two proteins from the capsid protein of a virus and a crucial effector molecule. The effector molecule can destroy the viral DNA/RNA or interfere with the proper folding of key viral proteins, while the capsid protein mainly plays a role in viral integration and assembly; the fusion proteins are incorporated into virions during packaging. This study aimed to explore the potential use of this strategy in duck TMUV. Our results revealed that these fusion proteins can be expressed in susceptible BHK21 cells without cytotoxicity and possess excellent Ca2+-dependent nuclease activity, and their expression is also detectable in DF-1 cells. Compared to those in the negative controls (BHK21 and BHK21/pcDNA3.1(+) cells), the numbers of viral RNA copies in TMUV-infected BHK21/Cap-SNase and BHK21/Cap-Linker-SNase cells were reduced by 48 h, and the effect of Cap-Linker-SNase was superior to that of Cap-SNase. As anticipated, these results suggest that these fusion proteins contribute to viral resistance to treatment. Thus, CTVI might be applicable for TMUV inhibition as a novel antiviral therapeutic candidate during viral infection.

6.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385410

RESUMO

MicroRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs) post-transcriptionally down-regulate target genes. We investigated Fusarium graminearum (Fg) milRNA expression during fungal vegetative growth and infection of wheat. Small RNA sequencing identified 36 milRNAs from Fg, one of which, Fgmil-2, had >100 transcripts per million in conidia, mycelia and infected wheat, with the highest expression in conidia and the lowest expression in colonized wheat tissue. Fgmil-2 displays perfect homology to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of an FgbioH1 messenger RNA that is involved in biotin biosynthesis. Poly(A) polymerase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends combined with sequencing analysis demonstrated that cleavage at a specific site by FgDicer2 in the 3'-UTR of FgbioH1 transcripts generated the Fgmil-2 precursor with a typical hairpin structure. Deletion of FgbioH1 or FgDicer2 genes abolished Fgmil-2 biogenesis. FgbioH1 had an inversely correlated pattern of expression to that of Fgmil-2 and FgDicer2. Deletion of FgbioH1 also showed that it is required for mycelial growth, virulence, mycotoxin biosynthesis and expression of biotin-dependent carboxylase genes. This study reveals in Fg a novel mode of inversely correlated post-transcriptional regulation in which Fgmil-2 originates from its own target transcript, FgbioH, to govern biotin biosynthesis.

7.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 396, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the final phase of China's national programme to eliminate malaria by 2020, it is vitally important to monitor the resistance of malaria vectors for developing effective vector control strategies. In 2017 Shanghai declared that it had eliminated malaria; however, the insecticide resistance status of the primary malaria vector Anopheles sinensis remains unknown. METHODS: We examined the pyrethroid and organophosphate resistance of An. sinensis via a bioassay of two populations from the Chongming District of Shanghai. The voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) and acetylcholinesterase 1 (ace-1) genes were partially sequenced to examine the association between resistance phenotype and target site genotype. In addition, the geographical distribution, polymorphism and genotype frequencies of insecticide resistance genes were examined using samples collected during routine mosquito surveillance in 2016 and 2017 from Chongming, Songjiang, Jiading and Qingpu Districts. RESULTS: In Chongming District, the An. sinensis population near Dongtan National Nature Reserve showed resistance to pyrethroids, sensitivity to organophosphate, no knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in the VGSC gene, and a low frequency (1.71%) of the ace-1 119S allele. An An. sinensis population near the Chongming central area (CM-Xinhe population) showed high resistance to pyrethroids and organophosphates and high frequencies of kdr 1014F and 1014C (80.73%) and ace-1 119S (85.98%) alleles. A significant association was detected between the homozygous kdr mutation 1014F/1014F and pyrethroid resistance in the CM-Xinhe population, indicating that the kdr mutation is probably recessive. Eight kdr genotypes with 1014F and 1014C substitutions were detected in the four surveyed districts of Shanghai. TTT and GGC/AGC were the dominant kdr allele and ace-1 genotype, respectively, and were prevalent in most Shanghai An. sinensis populations. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our assessment of insecticide resistance gene mutations in Shanghai, we identified a kdr mutation-free population in Chongming Dongtan. However, high frequencies of target-site mutations of insecticide resistance genes were observed in most areas of Shanghai. Bioassays of An. sinensis populations in the central Chongming District indicated the high insecticide resistance status of An. sinensis populations in Shanghai. We accordingly recommend a restriction on insecticide usage and development of effective integrated pest/vector management interventions to support disease control efforts.

8.
Parasite ; 26: 53, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448999

RESUMO

To study the presence of Giardia duodenalis in Xinjiang, northwest China, we collected 801 fecal specimens from seven large-scale pig farms and screened them using PCR targeting the SSU rRNA gene. Twenty-one (2.6%) of the specimens from five farms were G. duodenalis-positive, with a significant difference in prevalence among different farms (0-8.7%) (p < 0.01). Giardia duodenalis prevalence was highest in fattening pigs (5.4%, 7/129), followed by sows (3.2%, 7/222), post-weaning piglets (1.8%, 5/281), and pre-weaning piglets (1.2%, 2/169), but there was no significant difference in prevalence among the age groups (p > 0.05). Sequence analysis of the SSU rRNA gene revealed that the 21 G. duodenalis strains belonged to three assemblages: A (n = 2), B (n = 16), and E (n = 3). Assemblage B was the predominant assemblage and was widely distributed in all G. duodenalis-positive farms and age groups. All G. duodenalis-positive specimens were further assayed at the ß-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes, and two tpi, four gdh, and two bg sequences were identified. These data indicate that pigs may be a zoonotic risk and can potentially spread G. duodenalis infection from animals to humans.

9.
Acta Trop ; 198: 105077, 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310730

RESUMO

The geographical distribution of snail (i.e., the intermediate host of schistosomiasis) is consistent with that of endemic areas. The suitable snail habitus requires necessary environmental conditions for snail population. The high-resolution remote sensing provides an important tool for the spatio-temporal analysis of disease monitoring and prediction. This study conducted a typical schistosomiasis epidemic area in the marshland and lake regions along the Yangtze River, Yueyang City, Hunan Province of China. And three types of environmental factors, i.e., NDVI, soil moisture, and shortest distance to water body, associated with the geographical distribution of snail population, were extracted from the high-resolution remoting sensing data. The predicted distribution of snail habitus from the high-resolution environmental factors were compared with the data of annual program of snail survey. The results have shown that the application of high-resolution remote sensing can improve the accuracy of the modeled and predicted the potential risk areas of schistosomiasis, and may become an important tool for the ongoing national schistosomiasis control program.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e16193, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335671

RESUMO

MicroRNA-191 (miR-191) has been identified as being upregulated in several types of cancers, and plays the role of oncogene. The expression of miR-191 has been found to be upregulated in prostate cancer tissues as well as cell lines. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of miR-191 expression with clinicopathologic factors and prognosis in prostate cancer.Prostate cancer tissue samples and adjacent normal prostate tissue samples were collected from 146 patients who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy between April 2013 and March 2018. Student two-tailed t-test was used for comparisons of 2 independent groups. The relationships between miR-191 expression and different clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated using the Chi-squared test. Kaplan-Meier survival plots and log-rank tests were used to assess the differences in overall survival of the different subgroups of prostate cancer patients.miR-191 expression was significantly higher in prostate cancer tissues compared with normal adjacent prostate tissues (P < .001). miR-191 expression was observed to be significantly correlated with Gleason score (P < .001), pelvic lymph node metastasis (P = .006), bone metastases (P < .001), and T stage (P = .005). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with higher levels of miR-191 had significantly poorer survival than those with lower expression of this miRNA in prostate cancer patients (log rank test, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that miR-191 expression (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.311, 95% confidence interval, [CI]: 1.666-9.006; P = .027) was independently associated with the overall survival of prostate cancer patients.Our results demonstrated that miR-191 might serve as an independent prognostic indicator for prostate cancer patients.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , China , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Prostatectomia/métodos , Prostatectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Análise de Sobrevida , Regulação para Cima/genética
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(11): 2390-2396, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359668

RESUMO

To systematically review the efficacy and safety of Tongmai Yangxin Pills in treatment for angina pectoris of coronary heart disease. CNKI, WanFang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, EMbase and the Cochrane Library databases were retrieved online to collect randomized controlled trials(RCTs) of Tongmai Yangxin Pills for angina pectoris of coronary heart disease since the establishment to November 2018. Two investigators screened out literatures independently, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. The risk assessment of included references was made according to criteria recommended by Cochrane Handbook 5.3. Meta-analysis was then performed by RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 9 RCTs were included. The results of Meta-analysis showed that compared with the single application of chemotherapy, the combined administration with Tongmai Yangxin Pills and Western medicine could significantly improve the clinical efficacy of angina(RR=1.22, 95%CI[1.13, 1.31]), the improvement rate of electrocardiogram(RR=1.31, 95%CI[1.21, 1.42]), and the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) syndrome(RR=1.17, 95%CI[1.02, 1.35]). Only one study reported adverse events, while 5 studies reported no adverse event. According to current evidences, in the treatment of angina pectoris of coronary heart disease, Tongmai Yangxin Pills has a better clinical efficacy in the treatment of angina pectoris of coronary heart disease in terms of the improvement rate of electrocardiogram and the clinical efficacy of TCM syndrome. Due to the limited quality and quantity of the included studies, more high-quality studies are required to verify the above conclusions.

12.
Med Res Rev ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361345

RESUMO

Telomere and telomerase play important roles in abnormal cell proliferation, metastasis, stem cell maintenance, and immortalization in various cancers. Therefore, designing of drugs targeting telomerase and telomere is of great significance. Over the past two decades, considerable knowledge regarding telomere and telomerase has been accumulated, which provides theoretical support for the design of therapeutic strategies such as telomere elongation. Therefore, the development of telomere-based therapies such as nucleoside analogs, non-nucleoside small molecules, antisense technology, ribozymes, and dominant negative human telomerase reverse transcriptase are being prioritized for eradicating a majority of tumors. While the benefits of telomere-based therapies are obvious, there is a need to address the limitations of various therapeutic strategies to improve the possibility of clinical applications. In this study, current knowledge of telomere and telomerase is discussed, and therapeutic strategies based on recent research are reviewed.

13.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 39(1): 43, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307548

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the key factors providing protective immunity against lung tumors and clinical trials have proven that DC function is reduced in lung cancer patients. It is evident that the immunoregulatory network may play a key role in the failure of the immune response to terminate tumors. Lung tumors likely employ numerous strategies to suppress DC-based anti-tumor immunity. Here, we summarize the recent advances in our understanding on lung tumor-induced immunosuppression in DCs, which affects the initiation and development of T-cell responses. We also describe which existing measures to restore DC function may be useful for clinical treatment of lung tumors. Furthering our knowledge of how lung cancer cells alter DC function to generate a tumor-supportive environment will be essential in order to guide the design of new immunotherapy strategies for clinical use.

14.
Aging Cell ; 18(5): e12990, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264342

RESUMO

Paraquat (PQ) promotes cell senescence in brain tissue, which contributes to Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, PQ induces heart failure and oxidative damage, but it remains unknown whether and how PQ induces cardiac aging. Here, we demonstrate that PQ induces phenotypes associated with senescence of cardiomyocyte cell lines and results in cardiac aging-associated phenotypes including cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in vivo. Moreover, PQ inhibits the activation of Forkhead box O3 (FoxO3), an important longevity factor, both in vitro and in vivo. We found that PQ-induced senescence phenotypes, including proliferation inhibition, apoptosis, senescence-associated ß-galactosidase activity, and p16INK4a expression, were significantly enhanced by FoxO3 deficiency in cardiomyocytes. Notably, PQ-induced cardiac remolding, apoptosis, oxidative damage, and p16INK4a expression in hearts were exacerbated by FoxO3 deficiency. In addition, both in vitro deficiency and in vivo deficiency of FoxO3 greatly suppressed the activation of antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) in the presence of PQ, which was accompanied by attenuation in cardiac function. The direct in vivo binding of FoxO3 to the promoters of the Cat and Sod2 genes in the heart was verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Functionally, overexpression of Cat or Sod2 alleviated the PQ-induced senescence phenotypes in FoxO3-deficient cardiomyocyte cell lines. Overexpression of FoxO3 and CAT in hearts greatly suppressed the PQ-induced heart injury and phenotypes associated with aging. Collectively, these results suggest that FoxO3 protects the heart against an aging-associated decline in cardiac function in mice exposed to PQ, at least in part by upregulating the expression of antioxidant enzymes and suppressing oxidative stress.

15.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(26): 3408-3425, 2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different histological growth patterns (HGPs) of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) liver metastasis are associated with patients' prognosis and response to antiangiogenic therapy. However, the relationship between HGPs of liver metastasis and clinicopathological and genomic characteristics of primary cancer has not been well established. AIM: To assess whether certain clinicopathological and genomic features of primary CRC could predict the HGPs of liver metastasis. METHODS: A total of 29 patients with paired resections of both primary CRC and liver metastasis were divided into two groups: A (15 cases with desmoplastic liver metastasis) and B (14 cases with replacement liver metastasis). Clinical information was obtained from patients' charts. Mismatch repair proteins, BRAFV600E, and PD-L1 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Five cases were selected randomly from each group for whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis. RESULTS: In the primary tumor, expanding growth pattern, low tumor budding score (TBS), and Crohn's disease-like response (CDR) were associated with desmoplastic liver metastasis and better overall survival, whereas infiltrating growth pattern alone of primary carcinoma could predict the replacement liver metastasis and worse overall survival (P < 0.05). On WES analysis, primary carcinoma with desmoplastic liver metastasis showed mutations in APC (4/5); TP53 (3/5); KRAS, PIK3CA, and FAT4 (2/5); BRCA-1, BRCA2, BRAF, and DNAH5 (1/5), whereas primary carcinoma with replacement liver metastasis showed mutations in APC and TP53 (3/5); KRAS, FAT4, DNH5, SMAD, ERBB2, ERBB3, LRP1, and SDK1 (1/5). CONCLUSION: The HGPs, TBS, and CDR of primary CRC as well as the presence of specific genetic mutations such as those in PIK3CA could be used to predict the HGPs of liver metastasis, response to therapy, and patients' prognosis.

16.
Int Heart J ; 60(4): 822-829, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257338

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an independent risk factor for intracranial hemorrhage in patients receiving recombinant-tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) thrombolytic therapy. Research showed that patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) could benefit from multimode computed-tomography- (CT-) guided intravenous thrombolysis over 4.5 hours. The medical data of patients with AIS in our center were retrospectively reviewed, and the data of the multimode CT-guided thrombolytic therapy or nonthrombolytic therapy within different time windows (3-9 hours) were evaluated. 134 AIS cases were selected successfully and divided into three groups: patients with AF treated by rt-PA (AF rt-PA), patients with AF not treated by rt-PA (AF non-rt-PA), and patients without AF treated by rt-PA (non-AF rt-PA). After correcting for the baseline NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), sex, age, and hypertension data, the comparison results showed that the NIHSS improved significantly at hospital discharge for rt-PA-treated patients (n = 47) compared to non-rt-PA-treated patients with AIS (n = 31) with AF (P = 0.0156). The NIHSS evaluation at 90 days of follow-up also improved in rt-PA-treated patients (P = 0.0157). The NIHSS at hospital discharge was higher in AF rt-PA-treated patients compared to non-AF rt-PA-treated patients (P = 0.0167) after correction; the difference was not statistically significant at 90 days of follow-up (P = 0.091). Our research showed that the neural function improved after 3-9 hours of thrombolytic therapy with rt-PA in patients with AIS and AF. If there is no thrombolytic taboo, the patients could benefit from the thrombolytic therapy, although the onset time window has been extended to 9 hours.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105102, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330123

RESUMO

The geographical distribution of snail (i.e., the intermediate host of schistosomiasis) is consistent with that of endemic areas. The suitable snail habitus requires necessary environmental conditions for snail population. The high-resolution remote sensing provides an important tool for the spatio-temporal analysis of disease monitoring and prediction. This study conducted a typical schistosomiasis epidemic area in the marshland and lake regions along the Yangtze River, Yueyang City, Hunan Province of China. And three types of environmental factors, i.e., NDVI, soil moisture, and shortest distance to water body, associated with the geographical distribution of snail population, were extracted from the high-resolution remoting sensing data. The predicted distribution of snail habitus from the high-resolution environmental factors were compared with the data of annual program of snail survey. The results have shown that the application of high-resolution remote sensing can improve the accuracy of the modeled and predicted the potential risk areas of schistosomiasis, and may become an important tool for the ongoing national schistosomiasis control program.

18.
Food Funct ; 10(6): 3671-3683, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168539

RESUMO

In the present study, the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPS) on immunoregulation and gut microbiota dysbiosis in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced mice were investigated to elucidate whether the attenuation of immunosuppression is related to the modulation of the gut microbiota. The results showed that administration of LBPS could protect immune organs (enhancing immune organ indexes and alleviating immune organ damage), enhance the production of immune-related cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α and IFN-γ) and prevent the hepatotoxicity in CTX-induced mice. Additionally, LBPS treatment could promote the production of short-chain fatty acids and modulate the composition of the gut microbiota, increasing the relative abundances of Bacteroidaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Prevotellaceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae, which were positively associated with immune traits. The present results indicated that LBPS might regulate the immune response depending on the modulation of the gut microbiota, suggesting that LBPS could be developed as special ingredients for immunoregulation in association with the modulation of the gut microbiota.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243733

RESUMO

This study mainly explored the immunomodulatory mechanisms of the probiotic Bacillus cereus PAS38 (PB) on broiler spleen. A total of 120 avian white feather broilers were randomly divided into 4 groups (N = 30), as follows: control (CNTL, fed with basal diet), PB (fed with diet supplemented with probiotic B. cereus PAS38), vaccine (VAC, fed with basal diet and injected with Newcastle disease virus vaccine), and vaccine + PB group (PBVAC, fed with basal diet supplemented with B. cereus PAS38 and injected with NDV vaccine). The experiment was conducted for 42 days. Twelve spleens were collected from four different groups, weighed, and cut into histological sections, and transcriptome analysis was performed using RNA-seq. Results of the spleen and histological section relative weights showed that feeding with probiotic B. cereus PAS38 and vaccination had a similar tendency to promote spleen development. Compared with the CNTL group, 21 immune-related genes were significantly downregulated in the PB and PBVAC groups. These genes were mainly involved in attenuating inflammatory response. The upregulated antimicrobial peptide NK-lysin and guanylate-binding protein 1 expression levels indicated that this strain enhanced the body's antimicrobial capacity. B. cereus PAS38 also amplified the broilers' immune response to the vaccine, which mainly reflected on nonspecific immunity. Hence, probiotic B. cereus PAS38 can regulate and promote the immune function of broilers.

20.
J Drug Target ; : 1-10, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244351

RESUMO

In recent years, the rate of colorectal cancer has sharply increased, especially in China, where it ranks second for the number of cancer fatalities. Currently, the treatment of colorectal cancer patients involves the combination of resection surgery and treatment with postoperative anticancer drugs such as 5-FU and oxaliplatin. However, recurrence and metastasis after treatment are still the dominant reasons for the low survival rate. Colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs) are regarded as the key contributors to tumour recurrence and metastasis due to their resistance to chemotherapy drugs and their extremely high tumourigenicity. Once CSCs overcome chemotherapy treatment, they continue to survive and reinitiate proliferation to form tumours, leading to recurrence. The dominant reason for CSC resistance is that most anticancer drugs are aimed at inhibiting proliferative pathways in cancer cells that differ from those in CSCs. Therefore, studies on the characteristics of CSCs and their intracellular molecular pathways are essential for the exploration of CSC-targeted drugs. In this report, we review recent advances in the research of CSCs and, in particular, review the important intracellular molecular pathways, such as HOXA5-catenin, STRAP-NOTCH and YAP/TAZ, related to the maintenance and differentiation of stem cells to generate a theoretical basis for the exploration of CSC-targeted drugs.

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