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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960842

RESUMO

Reversible single-crystal-to-single-crystal photocyclization-cycloreversion reaction of a stilbene-based coordination network exhibits a conspicuous fluorescence change. The controllable fluorescence and high fatigue resistance feature of this bistable material make it a single-crystalline device for applications in rewritable optical memory storage systems.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 387: 122011, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927354

RESUMO

Nowadays, designing highly active photocatalysts for pollutant degradation under visible light still remains a challenging problem. Herein, a novel benzothiadiazole functionalized Co-doped MOF-based photocatalyst with electron deficient unit was first synthesized via a feasible step-by-step assembly strategy. Benzothiadiazole, as typical electron deficient group, could effectively promote the separation and transfer of photoinduced charge carriers. The implantation of Co ion could be served as an effective mediator to further facilitate the charge transfer through a Co3+/Co2+ redox pathway. Interestingly, the as-synthesized Co-MIL-53-NH-BT exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic degradation capacity for BPA and OFX under visible light irradiation, with removal efficiency as high as 99.9 % and 99.8 % within 120 min. TOC analysis suggested that majority of contaminants had been degraded into CO2 and H2O. The important parameters influencing the photocatalytic activity were investigated, and the kinetics study was also conducted. The possible degradation pathways and the possible photocatalytic mechanism were proposed. More importantly, the as-synthesized Co-MIL-53-NH-BT showed good reusability, stability as well as universal applicability. To sum up, current work not only developed an efficient and visible-light active photocatalyst for treating organic-contaminated wastewater, but also afforded some novel insight into the utilization of benzothiadiazole in MOF-based photocatalyst towards improving photocatalytic activity.

3.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(1): 13-17, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the recovery influence of CO2 pneumoperitoneum pressure for transabdominal preperitoneal hernioplasty (TAPP). STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: General Department II, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, China, from August 2016 to October 2018. METHODOLOGY: Eighty cases were enrolled prospectively and divided into three groups in chronological order. A 14 mmHg CO2 pressure was used for negative control group while the pressure was controlled at 12 mmHg for observation group and 10 mmHg for intervention group. General information included the patients' age, gender, type of hernia, hernia defect size, dissection of inguinal area, type of patch, time of operation, and frequency of swelling of perineum. Postoperative recovery was compared among the three groups at 24 hours and 1 month after surgery, including pain scores, foreign body sensation, local complications, urinary retention, swelling of the perineum, sex life and mobility. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients were included in the final analysis. There were no differences among the three groups in patients' age, gender, type of hernia, hernia defect size, dissection of inguinal area and type of patch. However, the time of operation of intervention group increased (p=0.015) and incidence of swelling of perineum decreased than other two groups (p<0.05). After 24 hours, there were no significant differences in pain, foreign body sensation, local complications and urinary retention. Perineal swelling remission rate of intervention group was better than other two groups (p<0.05). After one month, three groups had no differences in the all terms of pain, foreign body sensation, sexual life and perineal swelling residual rate. CONCLUSION: Low pneumoperitoneum pressure can relieve swelling of perineum perioperatively and improve recovery of TAPP.

4.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125378, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765898

RESUMO

Nowadays, the visible-light-driven photocatalysis via advanced photocatalyst for PS activation have promising applications in wastewater treatment. Herein, for the first time, two novel MOFs@COFs hybrid materials (denoted as MIL-101-NH2@TpMA and UiO-66-NH2@TpMA) with nitrogen-rich building blocks were fabricated via a feasible step-by-step assembly method, and then employed as efficient photocatalytic platform coupling with sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes for the degradation of BPA under visible light irradiation. Detailed analyses revealed that the hybridization of MOFs and COFs could greatly boost visible light absorption, while the heterojunction formed at the interface could effectively facilitate the separation and transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. More importantly, the developed solar/MOFs@COFs/PS system exhibited the excellent degradation ability toward BPA, and an incredible degradation efficiency of 99% was eventually achieved. Possible mechanism for photocatalytic degradation of BPA was also proposed. Furthermore, the prepared composites with great reusability and stability possessed a broad potential for highly effective degradation of various organic contaminants. In short, this work not only demonstrated the combination of MOFs and COFs with C3N4 active unit was a feasible strategy for improving photocatalytic activities in the degradation of organic contaminants, but also provided some novel inspirations for constructing high-efficient photocatalysts with heterostructure.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113543, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753634

RESUMO

Aquaculture can affect the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and mercury (Hg) in fish by altering their diet. Here, planktivorous (silver carp and bighead carp), omnivorous and carnivorous fish with different dietary strategies were selected from two reservoirs, one with on-going aquaculture (WJD) and another without aquaculture (HF) in Southwest China. We compared the total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) contents and PUFA profiles of fish and their potential diets in these two reservoirs. THg and MeHg contents in omnivorous and carnivorous fish were lower from the WJD Reservoir, which is related to the lower THg and MeHg contents in the artificial fish food. THg and MeHg contents in silver carp from the WJD Reservoir were lower than those from the HF Reservoir, while they were similar in bighead carps from the two reservoirs. The Hg variation in planktivorous fish were inconsistent with that in plankton. THg contents in phyto- and zooplankton from the HF Reservoir were higher than those from the WJD Reservoir, yet their MeHg contents were similar. Artificial fish food which contained higher total PUFA eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), significantly increased the total PUFA and EPA + DHA contents in carnivorous fish, but had less effect on that in omnivorous fish from the WJD Reservoir. Eutrophication caused by aquaculture reduced total PUFA and EPA + DHA contents of plankton in WJD, yet did not reduce those in planktivorous fish. The impacts of aquaculture on Hg and PUFA accumulated in fish were varied among different fish species, and the mechanism needs further exploration.

6.
Mol Ther ; 28(1): 279-292, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636038

RESUMO

Inflammation is associated with retinal diseases. Our recent data demonstrate that immunoproteasome catalytic subunit ß2i contributes to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced retinopathy in mice. Here, we investigated the role of another catalytic subunit ß5i in regulating retinopathy and its underlying mechanisms. We induced a murine model of retinopathy by infusing Ang II (3,000 ng/kg/min) for 3 weeks into wild-type (WT) mice, ß5i-knockout (KO) mice, or WT mice injected with either adenovirus-expressing ß5i (Ad-ß5i) or angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-associated protein (Ad-ATRAP), which inhibits AT1R. The ß5i expression and chymotrypsin-like activity were most significantly elevated in Ang II-infused retinas and serum from patients with hypertensive retinopathy. Moreover, Ang II infusion-induced retinopathy was markedly attenuated in ß5i-KO mice but aggravated in Ad-ß5i-injected mice. Accordingly, ß5i KO markedly restored Ang II-induced downregulation of ATRAP and activation of AT1R downstream mediators, which was further enhanced in Ad-ß5i-injected mice. Interestingly, overexpression of ATRAP significantly abrogated Ang II-induced retinopathy in Ad-ß5i-injected mice. This study found that ß5i promoted Ang II-induced retinopathy by promoting ATRAP degradation and activation of AT1R-mediated signals.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 384: 121348, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623998

RESUMO

Aflatoxins have been a hot topic in the field related into public health and ecosystem protection, and great effort has been made in developing of adsorptive materials for effective probing the target aflatoxins. Conventional materials, like metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) showed promising application in separation science. However, the cumbersome separation process, competitive adsorption are also major challenges. Regarding this, a novel magnetic micro-composite denoted as Fe3O4@UiO-66-NH2@MON with core-shell structure was constructed. The core of Fe3O4 microspheres was coated with MOFs crystals, and then microporous organic network (MON) was introduced onto the surface of Fe3O4@UiO-66-NH2 through a sonogashira coupling reaction. It exhibited good magnetic separation ability, which effectively simplified the pre-treatment steps. The proposed method possessed excellent selectivity and sensitivity, with detection limits in the range of 0.15-0.87 µg L-1 combination with HPLC analysis. More importantly, the MON coating significantly improved the hydro-stability of whole adsorbents, thus enhancing the adsorption efficiency and favoring the practical application of the materials. The developed Fe3O4@UiO-66-NH2@MON-based solid extraction method has been well-applied for real sample analysis, with the recovery of 87.3%-101.8%. We believe the newly-constructed hybrid nano-adsorbents hold great potential in further application in various analytical methods for different target analytes.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135394, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796286

RESUMO

As a commonly used nitrification inhibitor, nitrapyrin can significantly improve the utilization of nitrogen in soils. However, the effectiveness of the traditional dosage form of nitrapyrin is reduced by soil adsorption. In this study, nitrapyrin was encapsulated into a melamine-formaldehyde resin microcapsule with good dispersion and release behavior using an in situ polymerization method. The nitrapyrin microcapsules were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and particle-size analysis. The results indicated that the microcapsules had a spherical-shell structure, a uniform morphology with nanoscale micropores on the surface, and a decent nitrapyrin loading content (67.19%). Tests revealed that the release behavior of the nitrapyrin microcapsules was outstanding and conformed to the double-release kinetic model. These results of this study indicate that the nitrapyrin microcapsules can be applied as nitrification inhibitors with beneficial environmental effects and high efficacy.

9.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(2): 1268-1275, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851780

RESUMO

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic destruction of the bile ducts. A major unanswered question regarding the pathogenesis of PBC is the precise mechanisms of small bile duct injury. Emperipolesis is one of cell-in-cell structures that is a potential histological hallmark associated with chronic hepatitis B. This study aimed to clarify the pathogenesis and characteristics of emperipolesis in PBC liver injury. Sixty-six PBC patients, diagnosed by liver biopsy combined with laboratory test, were divided into early-stage PBC (stages I and II, n = 39) and late-stage PBC (stages III and IV, n = 27). Emperipolesis was measured in liver sections stained with haematoxylin-eosin. The expressions of CK19, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, Ki67 and apoptosis of BECs were evaluated by immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence double labelling. Emperipolesis was observed in 62.1% of patients with PBC, and BECs were predominantly host cells. The number of infiltrating CD3+ and CD8+ T cells correlated with the advancement of emperipolesis (R2  = 0.318, P < .001; R2  = 0.060, P < .05). The cell numbers of TUNEL-positive BECs and double staining for CK19 and Ki67 showed a significant positive correlation with emperipolesis degree (R2  = 0.236, P < .001; R2  = 0.267, P < .001). We conclude that emperipolesis mediated by CD8+ T cells appears to be relevant to apoptosis of BEC and thus may aggravate the further injury of interlobular bile ducts.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(50): 46671-46677, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738039

RESUMO

The quasi-solid-state electrolytes (QSSEs) with an inorganic skeleton, a solid-liquid composite material combining their respective merits, exhibit high ionic conductivity and mechanical strength. However, most quasi-solid electrolytes prepared by immobilizing ionic liquid (IL) or organic liquid electrolyte in inorganic scaffold generally have poor interface compatibility and low lithium ion migration number, which limits its application. Herein, we design and prepare a ZIF-8-based QSSE (ZIF-8 QSSE) in which the ZIF-8 has a special cage structure and interaction with the guest electrolyte to form a composite electrolyte with good ionic conductivity about 1.05 × 10-4 S cm-1 and a higher lithium-ion transference number of about 0.52. With the ZIF-8 QSSE, a protype lithium battery coupled with LiCoO2 cathode shows good electrochemical performances with an initial discharge capacity of 135 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1 and a remaining capacity of 119 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles, only 0.119% capacity degradation per cycle. It is worth noting that the ZIF-8-based QSSEs have good thermal stability up to 350 °C that does not show thermal runaway, which is significantly higher than that of a conventional organic liquid battery system.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627272

RESUMO

Aberrant expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on tumor cells impedes antitumor immunity and instigates immune evasion. The remarkable efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade has been confirmed in various solid tumors. However, the correlation between PD-L1 expression and host immunological landscape remains of considerable controversy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, PD-L1 expression and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) infiltration levels were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tumor sections of 138 NSCLC patients. The expression level of PD-L1 was positively correlated with the abundance of CD8 + TILs (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, no constitutive expression of PD-L1 was observed in the majority of six NSCLC cell lines detected by Western blot; but exposure to interferon-γ (IFN-γ), a primary cytokine secreted by activated CD8+ T cells, prominently increased PD-L1 expression. Notably, a significantly positive association was determined within PD-L1, CD8 and IFN-γ gene expression by qRT-PCR, which was corroborated by RNA-sequencing from TCGA lung cancer dataset. These findings demonstrate that PD-L1 expression indicates an adaptive immune resistance mechanism adopted by tumor cells in the aversion of immunogenic destruction by CD8+ TILs. Both higher expression of PD-L1 and infiltration of CD8+ TILs were correlated with superior prognosis (p = 0.044 for PD-L1; p = 0.002 for CD8). Moreover, Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that the combination of PD-L1 and CD8 were independent prognostic factors, which was more accurate in prediction of prognosis in NSCLC than individually. Finally, we found that IFN-γ induced the upregulation of PD-L1 in NSCLC cells, mainly through the JAK/STAT1 signaling pathway. In conclusion, PD-L1 expression is mainly induced by activated CD8+ TILs via IFN-γ in the immune milieu and indicates pre-existing adaptive immune response in NSCLC.

13.
Hepatology ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600834

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common cause of chronic liver disease. Clinical trials use the NASH Clinical Research Network (CRN) system for semiquantitative histological assessment of disease severity. Interobserver variability may hamper histological assessment, and diagnostic consensus is not always achieved. We evaluate a novel second harmonic generation/two-photon excitation fluorescence (SHG/TPEF) imaging-based tool to provide an automated quantitative assessment of histological features pertinent to NASH. Images were acquired by SHG/TPEF from 219 nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/NASH liver biopsy samples from seven centers in Asia and Europe. These were used to develop and validate qFIBS, a computational algorithm that quantifies key histological features of NASH. qFIBS was developed based on in silico analysis of selected signature parameters for four cardinal histopathological features, that is, fibrosis (qFibrosis), inflammation (qInflammation), hepatocyte ballooning (qBallooning), and steatosis (qSteatosis), treating each as a continuous rather than categorical variable. Automated qFIBS analysis outputs showed strong correlation with each respective component of the NASH CRN scoring (P < 0.001) (qFibrosis [r = 0.776], qInflammation [r = 0.557], qBallooning [r = 0.533], and qSteatosis [r = 0.802]) and high area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values (qFibrosis [0.870-0.951; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.787-1.000; P < 0.001], qInflammation [0.820-0.838; 95% CI, 0.726-0.933; P < 0.001 ), qBallooning [0.813-0.844; 95% CI, 0.708-0.957; P < 0.001], and qSteatosis [0.939-0.986; 95% CI, 0.867-1.000; P < 0.001]) and was able to distinguish differing grades/stages of histological disease. Performance of qFIBS was best when assessing degree of steatosis and fibrosis but performed less well when distinguishing severe inflammation and higher ballooning grades. Conclusion: qFIBS is an automated tool that accurately quantifies the critical components of NASH histological assessment. It offers a tool that could potentially aid reproducibility and standardization of liver biopsy assessments required for NASH therapeutic clinical trials.

14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(37): 5702-5710, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent and debilitating gastrointestinal condition. Research has reported persistent, low-grade mucosal inflammation and significant overlaps between patients with IBS and those with dyspepsia, suggesting a possible pathogenic role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in IBS. This study therefore aimed to provide the first systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between H. pylori infection and IBS. AIM: To investigate the association between H. pylori infection and IBS. METHODS: Using the keywords "H. pylori OR Helicobacter OR Helicobacter pylori OR infection" AND "irritable bowel syndrome OR IBS", a preliminary search of PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, Google Scholar and WanFang databases yielded 2924 papers published in English between 1 January 1960 and 1 June 2018. Attempts were also made to search grey literature. RESULTS: A total of 13 clinical studies were systematically reviewed and nine studies were included in the final meta-analysis. Random-effects meta-analysis found a slight increased likelihood of H. pylori infection in patients with IBS, albeit this was not statistically significant (pooled odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 0.90-2.40, P = 0.123). It must also be acknowledged that all of the available studies reported only crude odd ratios. H. pylori eradication therapy also does not appear to improve IBS symptoms. Although publication bias was not observed in the funnel plot, there was a high degree of heterogeneity amongst the studies included in the meta-analysis (I 2 = 87.38%). CONCLUSION: Overall, current evidence does not support an association between IBS and H. pylori infection. Further rigorous and detailed studies with larger sample sizes and after H. pylori eradication therapy are warranted.

15.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23066, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complicated and polygenic inheritance disease, and its prevalence increases worldwide. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified a significant association of single nucleotide polymorphism with asthma in the Japanese population. This study aimed to examine the association of GWAS-supported noncoding area loci, namely rs404860, rs3117098, and rs7775228, with asthma in Chinese Zhuang population. METHODS: A case-control study involving 223 individuals, comprising 123 patients with asthma and 100 healthy controls, was conducted. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/ligase detection reaction assay. The association between gene polymorphisms and asthma risk was calculated by logistic regression analysis using different genetic models through comparisons of alleles (A vs a), homozygote genotypes (AA vs aa), heterozygote genotypes (Aa vs aa), dominant models (AA+Aa vs aa), and recessive models (AA vs. Aa+aa). RESULTS: The distribution of the genotype frequency of rs3117098 was statistically different between the case and control groups. For rs3117098, significant associations were observed through comparisons of alleles (OR: 1.832, 95% CI: 1.048-3.204, P = .034) and dominant models (OR: 2.065, 95% CI: 1.001-4.260, P = .050). The statistical analysis showed no significant difference for loci rs404860 and rs7775228 between patients with asthma and controls. CONCLUSION: rs3117098 may be the risk factor for asthma in Chinese Zhuang population.

16.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(9): 678, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515489

RESUMO

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) may play a critical role in smoking-related chronic airway inflammation. However, the mechanism by which NETs induced by cigarette smoke initiate the adaptive immunity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not fully understood. In this study, we explored the effects of NETs induced by cigarette smoke on the myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and Th1 and Th17 cells. Additionally, we observed the inhibitory effect of erythromycin on NETs induced by cigarette smoke. We found that elevated NET levels in the sputum of COPD patients were correlated with the circulating Th1 response, mDC activation and airflow limitation. NETs induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) could activate monocyte-derived mDCs and promote Th1 and Th17 differentiation in vitro. Erythromycin effectively inhibited NET formation induced by CSE. In vivo, erythromycin decreased NETs in the airway and ameliorated emphysema with Th1 and Th17 cell down-regulation and CD40+ and CD86+ mDCs suppression in mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. These findings provide direct evidence that NETs promote the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 and play a role in the adaptive immunity of smoking-related chronic lung inflammation. Erythromycin is a potential therapeutic strategy for NETs inhibition in COPD.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(40): 36409-36419, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525949

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now one of the leading causes of cancer incidence and mortality. Although nanomaterial-based drug delivery has been used for the treatment of colorectal cancer, inferior targeting ability of existing nanocarriers leads to inefficient treatment and side effects. Moreover, the majority of intravenously administered nanomaterials aggregate into the reticuloendothelial system, leaving a certain hidden risk to human health. All those problems gave great demands for further construction of well-performed and biocompatible nanomaterials for in vivo theranostics. In the present work, from a biomimetic point of view, Lactobacillus reuteri biofilm (LRM) was coated on the surface of trackable zinc gallogermanate (ZGGO) near-infrared persistent luminescence mesoporous silica to create the bacteria bioinspired nanoparticles (ZGGO@SiO2@LRM), which hold the inherent capability of withstanding the digestion of gastric acid and targeted release 5-FU to colorectum. Through the background-free persistent luminescence bioimaging of ZGGO, the coating of LRM facilitated the localization of ZGGO@SiO2@LRM to the tumor area of colorectum for more than 24 h after intragastric administration. Furthermore, ZGGO@SiO2@LRM hardly entered the blood, which avoided possible damage to immune organs such as the liver and spleen. In vivo chemotherapy experiment demonstrated the number of tumors per mouse in ZGGO@SiO2@LRM group decreased by one-half compared with the 5-FU group (P < 0.001). To sum up, this LRM bioinspired nanoparticles could tolerate the digestion of gastric acid, avoid aggregation by the immune system, favor gut-oriented drug delivery, and targeted release oral 5-FU into colorectum for more than 24 h, which may give new application prospects for targeted delivery of oral drugs into the colorectum.

18.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(12): 2026-2034, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487086

RESUMO

The microfibrils served as the structural elements in polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber, which played an important role in the quality of the PAN precursor fibers. Their morphologies were examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The microfibrils existed in all of PAN fibers and arranged evenly in the cross-sections. Furthermore, the pores existed between the microfibrils. The unoriented microfibrillar network was already formed in nascent fiber during coagulated process. Although the microfibrillar network was elongated and the microfibrils oriented along the fiber longitudinal direction during the spinning process, the interconnected microfibrillar network was still existed in the fiber transverse section. Furthermore, the transverse connection of the microfibrils was reinforced and the small microfibrils were tended to aggregate into the large fibrils. For mechanical performance of PAN fibers, their tensile strength increased to 708 MPa and the elongation at break decreased to 15.5%. PAN fibers exhibited ductile rupture during the mechanical test and the microfibrils served as reinforcing elements.

19.
World J Pediatr ; 15(5): 454-464, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare neurological degenerative disorder caused by the mutations of MLC1 or GLIALCAM with autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant inheritance and a different prognosis, characterized by macrocephaly, delayed motor and cognitive development, and bilateral abnormal signals in cerebral white matter (WM) with or without cysts on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aimed to reveal the clinical and genetic features of MLC patients with GLIALCAM mutations and to explore the brain pathological characteristics and prognosis of mouse models with different modes of inheritance. METHODS: Clinical information and peripheral venous blood were collected from six families. Genetic analysis was performed by Sanger sequencing of GLIALCAM. GlialcamArg92Trp/+ and GlialcamLys68Met/Thr132Asn mouse models were generated based on mutations from patients (c.274C>T(p.Arg92Trp) (c.203A>T(p.Lys68Met), and c.395C>A (p.Thr132Asn))). Brain pathologies of the mouse models at different time points were analyzed. RESULTS: Six patients were clinically diagnosed with MLC. Of the six patients, five (Pt1-Pt5) presented with a heterozygous mutation in GLIALCAM (c.274C>T(p.Arg92Trp) or c.275G>C(p.Arg92Pro)) and were diagnosed with MLC2B; the remaining patient (Pt6) with two compound heterozygous mutations in GLIALCAM (c.203A>T (p.Lys68Met) and c.395C>A (p.Thr132Asn)) was diagnosed with MLC2A. The mutation c.275C>G (p.Arg92Pro) has not been reported before. Clinical manifestations of the patient with MLC2A (Pt6) progressed with regression, whereas the course of the five MLC2B patients remained stable or improved. The GlialcamArg92Trp/+ and GlialcamLys68Met/ Thr132Asn mouse models showed vacuolization in the anterior commissural WM at 1 month of age and vacuolization in the cerebellar WM at 3 and 6 months, respectively. At 9 months, the vacuolization of the GlialcamLys68Met/ Thr132Asn mouse model was heavier than that of the GlialcamArg92Trp/+ mouse model. Decreased expression of Glialcam in GlialcamArg92Trp/+ and GlialcamLys68Met/ Thr132Asn mice may contribute to the vacuolization. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and genetic characterization of patients with MLC and GLIALCAM mutations revealed a novel mutation, expanding the spectrum of GLIALCAM mutations. The first Glialcam mouse model with autosomal recessive inheritance and a new Glialcam mouse model with autosomal dominant inheritance were generated. The two mouse models with different modes of inheritance showed different degrees of brain pathological features, which were consistent with the patients' phenotype and further confirmed the pathogenicity of the corresponding mutations.

20.
Microvasc Res ; 126: 103907, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330150

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The conjunctival microcirculation is a readily-accessible vascular bed for quantitative haemodynamic assessment and has been studied previously using a digital charge-coupled device (CCD). Smartphone video imaging of the conjunctiva, and haemodynamic parameter quantification, represents a novel approach. We report the feasibility of smartphone video acquisition and subsequent haemodynamic measure quantification via semi-automated means. METHODS: Using an Apple iPhone 6 s and a Topcon SL-D4 slit-lamp biomicroscope, we obtained videos of the conjunctival microcirculation in 4 fields of view per patient, for 17 low cardiovascular risk patients. After image registration and processing, we quantified the diameter, mean axial velocity, mean blood volume flow, and wall shear rate for each vessel studied. Vessels were grouped into quartiles based on their diameter i.e. group 1 (<11 µm), 2 (11-16 µm), 3 (16-22 µm) and 4 (>22 µm). RESULTS: From the 17 healthy controls (mean QRISK3 6.6%), we obtained quantifiable haemodynamics from 626 vessel segments. The mean diameter of microvessels, across all sites, was 21.1µm (range 5.8-58 µm). Mean axial velocity was 0.50mm/s (range 0.11-1mm/s) and there was a modestly positive correlation (r 0.322) seen with increasing diameter, best appreciated when comparing group 4 to the remaining groups (p < .0001). Blood volume flow (mean 145.61pl/s, range 7.05-1178.81pl/s) was strongly correlated with increasing diameter (r 0.943, p < .0001) and wall shear rate (mean 157.31 s-1, range 37.37-841.66 s-1) negatively correlated with increasing diameter (r - 0.703, p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: We, for the first time, report the successful assessment and quantification of the conjunctival microcirculatory haemodynamics using a smartphone-based system.

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