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1.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 380(2214): 20210124, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802277

RESUMO

Prolonged school closure has been adopted worldwide to control COVID-19. Indeed, UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization figures show that two-thirds of an academic year was lost on average worldwide due to COVID-19 school closures. Such pre-emptive implementation was predicated on the premise that school children are a core group for COVID-19 transmission. Using surveillance data from the Chinese cities of Shenzhen and Anqing together, we inferred that compared with the elderly aged 60 and over, children aged 18 and under and adults aged 19-59 were 75% and 32% less susceptible to infection, respectively. Using transmission models parametrized with synthetic contact matrices for 177 jurisdictions around the world, we showed that the lower susceptibility of school children substantially limited the effectiveness of school closure in reducing COVID-19 transmissibility. Our results, together with recent findings that clinical severity of COVID-19 in children is lower, suggest that school closure may not be ideal as a sustained, primary intervention for controlling COVID-19. This article is part of the theme issue 'Data science approach to infectious disease surveillance'.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Criança , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 318, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: How best to prioritise COVID-19 vaccination within and between countries has been a public health and an ethical challenge for decision-makers globally. We reviewed epidemiological and economic modelling evidence on population priority groups to minimise COVID-19 mortality, transmission, and morbidity outcomes. METHODS: We searched the National Institute of Health iSearch COVID-19 Portfolio (a database of peer-reviewed and pre-print articles), Econlit, the Centre for Economic Policy Research, and the National Bureau of Economic Research for mathematical modelling studies evaluating the impact of prioritising COVID-19 vaccination to population target groups. The first search was conducted on March 3, 2021, and an updated search on the LMIC literature was conducted from March 3, 2021, to September 24, 2021. We narratively synthesised the main study conclusions on prioritisation and the conditions under which the conclusions changed. RESULTS: The initial search identified 1820 studies and 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. The updated search on LMIC literature identified 7 more studies. 43 studies in total were narratively synthesised. 74% of studies described outcomes in high-income countries (single and multi-country). We found that for countries seeking to minimise deaths, prioritising vaccination of senior adults was the optimal strategy and for countries seeking to minimise cases the young were prioritised. There were several exceptions to the main conclusion, notably that reductions in deaths could be increased if groups at high risk of both transmission and death could be further identified. Findings were also sensitive to the level of vaccine coverage. CONCLUSION: The evidence supports WHO SAGE recommendations on COVID-19 vaccine prioritisation. There is, however, an evidence gap on optimal prioritisation for low- and middle-income countries, studies that included an economic evaluation, and studies that explore prioritisation strategies if the aim is to reduce overall health burden including morbidity.

3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(12)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has altered health sector capacity in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Cost data to inform evidence-based priority setting are urgently needed. Consequently, in this paper, we calculate the full economic health sector costs of COVID-19 clinical management in 79 LMICs under different epidemiological scenarios. METHODS: We used country-specific epidemiological projections from a dynamic transmission model to determine number of cases, hospitalisations and deaths over 1 year under four mitigation scenarios. We defined the health sector response for three base LMICs through guidelines and expert opinion. We calculated costs through local resource use and price data and extrapolated costs across 79 LMICs. Lastly, we compared cost estimates against gross domestic product (GDP) and total annual health expenditure in 76 LMICs. RESULTS: COVID-19 clinical management costs vary greatly by country, ranging between <0.1%-12% of GDP and 0.4%-223% of total annual health expenditure (excluding out-of-pocket payments). Without mitigation policies, COVID-19 clinical management costs per capita range from US$43.39 to US$75.57; in 22 of 76 LMICs, these costs would surpass total annual health expenditure. In a scenario of stringent social distancing, costs per capita fall to US$1.10-US$1.32. CONCLUSIONS: We present the first dataset of COVID-19 clinical management costs across LMICs. These costs can be used to inform decision-making on priority setting. Our results show that COVID-19 clinical management costs in LMICs are substantial, even in scenarios of moderate social distancing. Low-income countries are particularly vulnerable and some will struggle to cope with almost any epidemiological scenario. The choices facing LMICs are likely to remain stark and emergency financial support will be needed.

4.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 281, 2021 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Model-based estimates of measles burden and the impact of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) are crucial for global health priority setting. Recently, evidence from systematic reviews and database analyses have improved our understanding of key determinants of MCV impact. We explore how representations of these determinants affect model-based estimation of vaccination impact in ten countries with the highest measles burden. METHODS: Using Dynamic Measles Immunisation Calculation Engine (DynaMICE), we modelled the effect of evidence updates for five determinants of MCV impact: case-fatality risk, contact patterns, age-dependent vaccine efficacy, the delivery of supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) to zero-dose children, and the basic reproduction number. We assessed the incremental vaccination impact of the first (MCV1) and second (MCV2) doses of routine immunisation and SIAs, using metrics of total vaccine-averted cases, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) over 2000-2050. We also conducted a scenario capturing the effect of COVID-19 related disruptions on measles burden and vaccination impact. RESULTS: Incorporated with the updated data sources, DynaMICE projected 253 million measles cases, 3.8 million deaths and 233 million DALYs incurred over 2000-2050 in the ten high-burden countries when MCV1, MCV2, and SIA doses were implemented. Compared to no vaccination, MCV1 contributed to 66% reduction in cumulative measles cases, while MCV2 and SIAs reduced this further to 90%. Among the updated determinants, shifting from fixed to linearly-varying vaccine efficacy by age and from static to time-varying case-fatality risks had the biggest effect on MCV impact. While varying the basic reproduction number showed a limited effect, updates on the other four determinants together resulted in an overall reduction of vaccination impact by 0.58%, 26.2%, and 26.7% for cases, deaths, and DALYs averted, respectively. COVID-19 related disruptions to measles vaccination are not likely to change the influence of these determinants on MCV impact, but may lead to a 3% increase in cases over 2000-2050. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating updated evidence particularly on vaccine efficacy and case-fatality risk reduces estimates of vaccination impact moderately, but its overall impact remains considerable. High MCV coverage through both routine immunisation and SIAs remains essential for achieving and maintaining low incidence in high measles burden settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sarampo , Criança , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
5.
Value Health ; 24(12): 1828-1834, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838281

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is a serious challenge to the success and sustainability of our healthcare systems. There has been increasing policy attention given to antimicrobial resistance in the last few years, and increased amounts of funding have been channeled into funding for research and development of antimicrobial agents. Nevertheless, manufacturers doubt whether there will be a market for new antimicrobial technologies sufficient to enable them to recoup their investment. Health technology assessment (HTA) has a critical role in creating confidence that if valuable technologies can be developed they will be reimbursed at a level that captures their true value. We identify 3 deficiencies of current HTA processes for appraising antimicrobial agents: a methods-centric approach rather than problem-centric approach for dealing with new challenges, a lack of tools for thinking about changing patterns of infection, and the absence of an approach to epidemiological risks. We argue that, to play their role more effectively, HTA agencies need to broaden their methodological tool kit, design and communicate their analysis to a wider set of users, and incorporate long-term policy goals, such as containing resistance, as part of their evaluation criteria alongside immediate health gains.

6.
Vaccine ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoeal infections are one of the leading causes of child's mortality and morbidity. Vaccines against Shigella, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), norovirus and invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella are in clinical development, however, their full value in terms of short and long-term health and socio-economic burden needs to be evaluated and communicated, to rationalise investment in vaccine development, and deployment. While estimates of mortality of enteric infections exist, the long-term morbidity estimates are scarce and have not been systematically collected. METHODS: The World Health Organization (WHO) has convened a Burden of Enteric Diseases Morbidity Working Group (BoED MWG) who identified key workstreams needed to characterise the morbidity burden of enteric infections. The group also identified four criteria for the prioritisation of pathogens of which impact on long-term morbidity needs to be assessed. RESULTS: The BoED MWG suggested to identify and analyse the individual level data from historical datasets to estimate the impact of enteric infections and confounders on long-term morbidity, including growth faltering and cognitive impairment in children (workstream 1); to conduct a systematic review of evidence on the association of aetiology specific diarrhoea with short- and long- term impact on growth, including stunting, and possibly cognitive impairment in children, while accounting for potential confounders (workstream 2); and to conduct a systematic review of evidence on the association of aetiology specific diarrhoea with short- and long- term impact on health outcomes in adults. The experts prioritised four pathogens for this work: Campylobacter jejuni, ETEC (LT or ST), norovirus (G1 or G2), and Shigella (dysenteriae, flexneri, sonnei). CONCLUSIONS: The proposed work will contribute to improving the understanding of the impact of enteric pathogens on long-term morbidity. The timing of this work is critical as all four pathogens have vaccine candidates in the clinical pipeline and decisions about investments in development, manufacturing or vaccine procurement and use are expected to be made soon.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2049, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deaths due to vaccine preventable diseases cause a notable proportion of mortality worldwide. To quantify the importance of vaccination, it is necessary to estimate the burden averted through vaccination. The Vaccine Impact Modelling Consortium (VIMC) was established to estimate the health impact of vaccination. METHODS: We describe the methods implemented by the VIMC to estimate impact by calendar year, birth year and year of vaccination (YoV). The calendar and birth year methods estimate impact in a particular year and over the lifetime of a particular birth cohort, respectively. The YoV method estimates the impact of a particular year's vaccination activities through the use of impact ratios which have no stratification and stratification by activity type and/or birth cohort. Furthermore, we detail an impact extrapolation (IE) method for use between coverage scenarios. We compare the methods, focusing on YoV for hepatitis B, measles and yellow fever. RESULTS: We find that the YoV methods estimate similar impact with routine vaccinations but have greater yearly variation when campaigns occur with the birth cohort stratification. The IE performs well for the YoV methods, providing a time-efficient mechanism for updates to impact estimates. CONCLUSIONS: These methods provide a robust set of approaches to quantify vaccination impact; however it is vital that the area of impact estimation continues to develop in order to capture the full effect of immunisation.

8.
medRxiv ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845459

RESUMO

England has experienced a heavy burden of COVID-19, with high infection levels observed throughout the summer months of 2021. Alongside the emergence of evidence suggesting that COVID-19 vaccine protection wanes over time, booster vaccinations began for individuals aged 50 and above in September 2021. Using a model fitted to 18 months of epidemiological data, we project potential dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in England to September 2022. We consider key uncertainties including behavioural change, waning vaccine protection, strategies for vaccination, and the reintroduction of public health and social measures. We project the current wave of transmission will peak in Autumn 2021, with low levels of transmission in early 2022. The extent to which SARS-CoV-2 transmission resurges in 2022 depends largely on assumptions around waning vaccine protection and booster vaccinations. Widespread booster vaccinations or the reimposition of mild public health and social measures such as work-from-home policies could largely mitigate the wave of COVID-19 transmission projected to occur in England in Spring/Summer 2022.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis and meningitis are amongst the leading causes of neonatal deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Neonatal sepsis caused around 400000 deaths globally in 2015, half occurring in Africa. Despite this, there are few published data on the acute costs of neonatal sepsis or meningitis, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, and none in SSA. METHODS: We collected data on neonates admitted to two hospitals between April 16, 2020 and April 1, 2021. In South Africa cases were microbiologically confirmed either by culture or PCR. In Mozambique clinically suspected and microbiologically confirmed cases were included. Data were collected on healthcare resource use and length-of-stay. A caregivers questionnaire gathered data on expenditure and caregiving. We used unit costs of healthcare resources in local currencies to estimate average healthcare provider cost per patient and average costs per household. Results were converted to 2019 international dollars (I$). RESULTS: We enrolled 11 neonates in Mozambique, 18 neonates in South Africa. Mean length-of-stay was 10 days (median=9; IQR=4-14)) and 16 days (median=15; IQR=13-18). In Mozambique we estimated mean household costs of I$49.62 (median=10.19, IQR=5.10-95.12) and hospitalisation costs of I$307.58 (median=275.12; IQR=149.43-386.12). In South Africa these costs were I$52.31 (median=30.82; IQR=19.25-73.08) and I$684.06 (median=653.62; IQR=543.33-827.53), respectively. On average, parents in Mozambique spent an extra 52 hours (median=38.5; IQR=19-86) on caregiving, and in South Africa an extra 76 (median=3.5; IQR=0-120). CONCLUSION: We found substantial costs associated with acute neonatal bacterial (all-cause) sepsis and meningitis in SSA. Our estimates will inform cost-effectiveness analyses of interventions to prevent invasive bacterial infections in neonates.

11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(11)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725040

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Ethiopia, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. Our study objective was to assess similarities and differences in vaccine-impact projections through comparative modelling analysis by independently estimating the potential health impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. METHODS: Using two widely published models (Harvard and Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modelling and Economics (PRIME)) to estimate HPV vaccination impact, we simulated a vaccination scenario of 90% annual coverage among 10 cohorts of 9-year-old girls from 2021 to 2030 in Ethiopia, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. We estimated potential health impact in terms of cervical cancer cases, deaths and disability-adjusted life years averted among vaccinated cohorts from the time of vaccination until 2100. We harmonised the two models by standardising input data to comparatively estimate HPV vaccination impact. RESULTS: Prior to harmonising model assumptions, the range between PRIME and Harvard models for number of cervical cancer cases averted by HPV vaccination was: 262 000 to 2 70 000 in Ethiopia; 1 640 000 to 1 970 000 in India; 330 000 to 3 36 000 in Nigeria and 111 000 to 1 33 000 in Pakistan. When harmonising model assumptions, alignment on HPV type distribution significantly narrowed differences in vaccine-impact estimates. CONCLUSION: Despite model differences, the Harvard and PRIME models yielded similar vaccine-impact estimates. The main differences in estimates are due to variation in interpretation around data on cervical cancer attribution to HPV-16/18. As countries make progress towards WHO targets for cervical cancer elimination, continued explorations of underlying differences in model inputs, assumptions and results when examining cervical cancer prevention policy will be critical.

12.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 9: 100221, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642675

RESUMO

Since 2005, the world has faced several public health emergencies of international concern arising from infectious disease outbreaks. Of these, the COVID-19 pandemic has had by far the greatest health and economic consequences. During these emergencies, responses taken by one country often have an impact on other countries. The implication is that coordination between countries is likely to achieve better outcomes, individually and collectively, than each country independently pursuing its own self-interest. During the COVID-19 pandemic, gaps in multilateral cooperation on research and information sharing, vaccine development and deployment, and travel policies have hampered the speed and equity of global recovery. In this Health Policy article, we explore how multilateral collaboration between countries is crucial to successful responses to public health emergencies linked to infectious disease outbreaks. Responding to future global infectious disease threats and other health emergencies will require the creation of stronger mechanisms for multilateral collaboration before they arise. A change to the governance of multilateral institutions is a logical next step, with a focus on providing equal ownership and leadership opportunities to all member countries. Europe can be an example and advocate for stronger and better governed multilateral institutions.

13.
Value Health ; 24(10): 1391-1399, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Incremental cost-effectiveness analyses may inform the optimal choice of healthcare interventions. Nevertheless, for many vaccines, benefits fluctuate with incidence levels over time. Reevaluating a vaccine after it has successfully decreased incidences may eventually cause a disease resurgence if switching to a vaccine with lower indirect benefits. Decisions may successively alternate between vaccines alongside repeated rises and falls in incidence and when indirect effects from historic use are ignored. Our suggested proposal aims to prevent suboptimal decision making. METHODS: We used a conceptual model of demand to illustrate alternating decisions between vaccines because of time-varying levels of indirect effects. Similar to the concept of subsidies, we propose internalizing the indirect effects achievable with vaccines. In a case study over 60 years, we simulated a hypothetical 10-year reevaluation of 2 oncogenic human papillomavirus vaccines, of which only 1 protects additionally against anogenital warts. RESULTS: Our case study showed that the vaccine with additional warts protection is initially valued higher than the vaccine without additional warts protection. After 10 years, this differential decreases because of declines in warts incidence, which supports switching to the nonwarts vaccine that causes a warts resurgence eventually. Instead, pricing the indirect effects separately supports continuing with the warts vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Ignoring how the observed incidences depend on the indirect effects achieved with a particular vaccine may lead to repeated changes in vaccines at successive reevaluations, with unintended resurgences, economic inefficiencies, and eroding vaccine confidence. We propose internalizing indirect effects to prevent vaccines falling victim to their own success.

14.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003815, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines appear to be safe and efficacious, but only high-income countries have the resources to procure sufficient vaccine doses for most of their eligible populations. The World Health Organization has published guidelines for vaccine prioritisation, but most vaccine impact projections have focused on high-income countries, and few incorporate economic considerations. To address this evidence gap, we projected the health and economic impact of different vaccination scenarios in Sindh Province, Pakistan (population: 48 million). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We fitted a compartmental transmission model to COVID-19 cases and deaths in Sindh from 30 April to 15 September 2020. We then projected cases, deaths, and hospitalisation outcomes over 10 years under different vaccine scenarios. Finally, we combined these projections with a detailed economic model to estimate incremental costs (from healthcare and partial societal perspectives), disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for each scenario. We project that 1 year of vaccine distribution, at delivery rates consistent with COVAX projections, using an infection-blocking vaccine at $3/dose with 70% efficacy and 2.5-year duration of protection is likely to avert around 0.9 (95% credible interval (CrI): 0.9, 1.0) million cases, 10.1 (95% CrI: 10.1, 10.3) thousand deaths, and 70.1 (95% CrI: 69.9, 70.6) thousand DALYs, with an ICER of $27.9 per DALY averted from the health system perspective. Under a broad range of alternative scenarios, we find that initially prioritising the older (65+) population generally prevents more deaths. However, unprioritised distribution has almost the same cost-effectiveness when considering all outcomes, and both prioritised and unprioritised programmes can be cost-effective for low per-dose costs. High vaccine prices ($10/dose), however, may not be cost-effective, depending on the specifics of vaccine performance, distribution programme, and future pandemic trends. The principal drivers of the health outcomes are the fitted values for the overall transmission scaling parameter and disease natural history parameters from other studies, particularly age-specific probabilities of infection and symptomatic disease, as well as social contact rates. Other parameters are investigated in sensitivity analyses. This study is limited by model approximations, available data, and future uncertainty. Because the model is a single-population compartmental model, detailed impacts of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as household isolation cannot be practically represented or evaluated in combination with vaccine programmes. Similarly, the model cannot consider prioritising groups like healthcare or other essential workers. The model is only fitted to the reported case and death data, which are incomplete and not disaggregated by, e.g., age. Finally, because the future impact and implementation cost of NPIs are uncertain, how these would interact with vaccination remains an open question. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination can have a considerable health impact and is likely to be cost-effective if more optimistic vaccine scenarios apply. Preventing severe disease is an important contributor to this impact. However, the advantage of prioritising older, high-risk populations is smaller in generally younger populations. This reduction is especially true in populations with more past transmission, and if the vaccine is likely to further impede transmission rather than just disease. Those conditions are typical of many low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Vacinação/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Análise Custo-Benefício/tendências , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde/métodos , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Vacinação/tendências
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 136-143, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, while published data are scarce. This study determined HPV prevalence and risk factors in MSM in Vietnam to inform HPV prevention strategies in this key population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 799 MSM aged 16-50 years was conducted in Vietnam in 2017-2018. Information was collected on risk behaviours, and knowledge of HPV and anal cancer; rectal swabs were taken to detect anal HPV infection. An in-house polymerase chain reaction and Genoflow HPV array test kit were used for HPV detection and genotyping. RESULTS: The median age of the study participants was 25 years (range 18-52). Overall prevalence of any HPV and HPV16/18 infection was 32.3% and 11.0%, respectively. A higher prevalence of high-risk HPV infection to all 14 types tested was found in Ho Chi Minh City (30.9%) than in Hanoi (18.4%). High-risk HPV infection was associated with inconsistent condom use and history of engaging in sex under the influence of drugs (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 2.27; 95% CI, 1.48-10.67), as well as having multiple sexual partners (aOR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02). CONCLUSIONS: High-risk anal HPV infections in Vietnamese MSM were significantly associated with risky sexual behaviours. A targeted HPV vaccination strategy would have substantial benefit for MSM in Vietnam.

17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 722927, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513790

RESUMO

Economic evidence is increasingly being used for informing health policies. However, the underlining principles of health economic analyses are not always fully understood by non-health economists, and inappropriate types of analyses, as well as inconsistent methodologies, may be being used for informing health policy decisions. In addition, there is a lack of open access information and methodological guidance targeted to public health professionals, particularly those based in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive and accessible introduction to economic evaluations for public health professionals with a focus on LMIC settings. We cover the main principles underlining the most common types of full economic evaluations used in healthcare decision making in the context of priority setting (namely cost-effectiveness/cost-utility analyses, cost-benefit analyses), and outline their key features, strengths and weaknesses. It is envisioned that this will help those conducting such analyses, as well as stakeholders that need to interpret their output, gain a greater understanding of these methods and help them select/distinguish between the different approaches. In particular, we highlight the need for greater awareness of the methods used to place a monetary value on the health benefits of interventions, and the potential for such estimates to be misinterpreted. Specifically, the economic benefits reported are typically an approximation, summarising the health benefits experienced by a population monetarily in terms of individual preferences or potential productivity gains, rather than actual realisable or fiscal monetary benefits to payers or society.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Política de Saúde , Análise Custo-Benefício , Saúde Pública , Alocação de Recursos
18.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(10): e1402-e1410, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The odds ratio (OR) comparing pathogen presence in diarrhoeal cases versus asymptomatic controls is a measure for diarrhoeal disease cause that has been integrated into burden of disease estimates across diverse populations. This study aimed to estimate the OR describing the association between pathogen detection in stool and diarrhoea for 15 common enteropathogens by age group and child mortality setting. METHODS: We did a systematic review to identify case-control and cohort studies published from Jan 1, 1990, to July 9, 2019, which examined at least one enteropathogen of interest and the outcome diarrhoea. The analytical dataset included data extracted from published articles and supplemented with data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study and the Malnutrition and Enteric Disease study. Random effects meta-analysis models were fit for each enteropathogen, stratified by age group and child mortality level, and adjusted for pathogen detection method and study design to produce summary ORs describing the association between pathogen detection in stool and diarrhoea. FINDINGS: 1964 records were screened and 130 studies (over 88 079 cases or diarrhoea samples and 135 755 controls or non-diarrhoea samples) were available for analysis. Heterogeneity (I2) in unadjusted models was substantial, ranging from 27·6% to 86·6% across pathogens. In stratified and adjusted models, summary ORs varied by age group and setting, ranging from 0·4 (95% CI 0·2-0·6) for Giardia lamblia to 54·1 (95% CI 7·4-393·5) for Vibrio cholerae. INTERPRETATION: Incorporating effect estimates from diverse data sources into diarrhoeal disease cause and burden of disease models is needed to produce more representative estimates. FUNDING: WHO, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Desnutrição , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Humanos
19.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(606)2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380772

RESUMO

Vaccines against bacterial pathogens can protect recipients from becoming infected with potentially antibiotic-resistant pathogens. However, by altering the selective balance between antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, vaccines may also suppress-or spread-antibiotic resistance among unvaccinated individuals. Predicting the outcome of vaccination requires knowing what drives selection for drug-resistant bacterial pathogens and what maintains the circulation of both antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. To address this question, we used mathematical modeling and data from 2007 on penicillin consumption and penicillin nonsusceptibility in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) invasive isolates from 27 European countries. We show that the frequency of penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae can be explained by between-host diversity in antibiotic use, heritable diversity in pneumococcal carriage duration, or frequency-dependent selection brought about by within-host competition between antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-sensitive S. pneumoniae strains. We used our calibrated models to predict the impact of non-serotype-specific pneumococcal vaccination upon the prevalence of S. pneumoniae carriage, incidence of disease, and frequency of S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistance. We found that the relative strength and directionality of competition between drug-resistant and drug-sensitive pneumococcal strains was the most important determinant of whether vaccination would promote, inhibit, or have little effect upon the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Last, we show that country-specific differences in pathogen transmission substantially altered the predicted impact of vaccination, highlighting that policies for managing antibiotic resistance with vaccines must be tailored to a specific pathogen and setting.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nasofaringe , Infecções Pneumocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vacinação
20.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 198, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the delivery of immunisation services globally. Many countries have postponed vaccination campaigns out of concern about infection risks to the staff delivering vaccination, the children being vaccinated, and their families. The World Health Organization recommends considering both the benefit of preventive campaigns and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when making decisions about campaigns during COVID-19 outbreaks, but there has been little quantification of the risks. METHODS: We modelled excess SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators, vaccinees, and their caregivers resulting from vaccination campaigns delivered during a COVID-19 epidemic. Our model used population age structure and contact patterns from three exemplar countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Brazil). It combined an existing compartmental transmission model of an underlying COVID-19 epidemic with a Reed-Frost model of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators and vaccinees. We explored how excess risk depends on key parameters governing SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, and aspects of campaign delivery such as campaign duration, number of vaccinations, and effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) and symptomatic screening. RESULTS: Infection risks differ considerably depending on the circumstances in which vaccination campaigns are conducted. A campaign conducted at the peak of a SARS-CoV-2 epidemic with high prevalence and without special infection mitigation measures could increase absolute infection risk by 32 to 45% for vaccinators and 0.3 to 0.5% for vaccinees and caregivers. However, these risks could be reduced to 3.6 to 5.3% and 0.1 to 0.2% respectively by use of PPE that reduces transmission by 90% (as might be achieved with N95 respirators or high-quality surgical masks) and symptomatic screening. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection risks to vaccinators, vaccinees, and caregivers during vaccination campaigns can be greatly reduced by adequate PPE, symptomatic screening, and appropriate campaign timing. Our results support the use of adequate risk mitigation measures for vaccination campaigns held during SARS-CoV-2 epidemics, rather than cancelling them entirely.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação , Brasil , Burkina Faso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual
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