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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e022274, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668395

RESUMO

The majority of embolic strokes in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation are caused by thrombi in the left atrial appendage. It is projected that strokes related to atrial fibrillation will markedly increase in the future unless effective mitigation strategies are implemented. Systemic anticoagulation has been known to be highly effective in reducing stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, bleeding complications and nonadherence are barriers to effective anticoagulation therapy. Surgical and percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion devices are nonpharmacologic strategies to mitigate the challenges of drug therapy. We present a contemporary review of left atrial appendage occlusion for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. A thorough review of the history of surgical and percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion devices, recent trials, and US Food and Drug Administration milestones of current left atrial appendage occlusion devices are discussed.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e021367, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533035

RESUMO

Background Well-conducted meta-analyses are considered to be at the top of the evidence-based hierarchy pyramid, with an expansion of these publications within the cardiovascular research arena. There are limited data evaluating the trends and quality of such publications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the methodological rigor and temporal trends of cardiovascular medicine-related meta-analyses published in the highest impact journals. Methods and Results Using the Medline database, we retrieved cardiovascular medicine-related systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in The New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, The British Medical Journal, Annals of Internal Medicine, Circulation, European Heart Journal, and Journal of American College of Cardiology between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2018. Among 6406 original investigations published during the study period, meta-analyses represented 422 (6.6%) articles, with an annual decline in the proportion of published meta-analyses (8.7% in 2012 versus 4.6% in 2018, Ptrend=0.002). A substantial number of studies failed to incorporate elements of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses or Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines (51.9%) and only a minority of studies (10.4%) were registered in PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews). Fewer manuscripts failed to incorporate the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses or Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology elements over time (60.2% in 2012 versus 40.0% in 2018, Ptrend<0.001) whereas the number of meta-analyses registered at PROSPERO has increased (2.4% in 2013 versus 17.5% in 2018, Ptrend<0.001). Conclusions The proportion of cardiovascular medicine-related meta-analyses published in the highest impact journals has declined over time. Although there is an increasing trend in compliance with quality-based guidelines, the overall compliance remains low.

4.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(17): 1926-1936, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between hospital endovascular lower extremity revascularization (eLER) volume and outcomes after eLER for critical limb ischemia (CLI). BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data on the relationship between hospital procedural volume and outcomes of eLER for CLI. METHODS: The authors queried the Nationwide Readmission Database (2013-2015) for hospitalized patients who underwent eLER for CLI. Hospitals were divided into tertiles according to annual eLER volume: low volume (<100 eLER procedures), moderate volume (100-550 eLER procedures), and high volume (>550 eLER procedures). Stepwise multivariable regression models were used. The main outcomes were in-hospital mortality and 30-day readmission with major adverse limb events, defined as the composite of amputation, acute limb ischemia, or repeat revascularization. RESULTS: Among 145,785 hospitalizations for eLER for CLI, 5,199 (3.6%) were at low-volume eLER hospitals, 27,857 (19.1%) at moderate-volume eLER hospitals, and 112,728 (77.3%) at high-volume eLER hospitals. On multivariable analysis, there was no difference with regard to in-hospital mortality among moderate-volume hospitals (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.60-1.01) and high-volume hospitals (adjusted OR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.64-1.05) compared with low-volume hospitals. There was lower risk of in-hospital major amputation (adjusted OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70-0.96) and minor amputation at high- versus low-volume hospitals. The length of hospital stay was shorter and discharges to nursing facilities were fewer among moderate- and high-volume hospitals compared with low-volume hospitals. Compared with low-volume hospitals, eLER for CLI at high-volume hospitals had a lower risk for 30-day readmission with major adverse limb events (adjusted OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70-0.99), while there was no difference among moderate-volume hospitals (adjusted OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.77-1.10). CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide observational analysis suggests that annual eLER volume does not influence in-hospital mortality after eLER for CLI. However, high eLER volume (>550 eLER procedures) was associated with better rates of limb preservation after eLER for CLI.

6.
Cardiology ; : 1-10, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521081

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a not too uncommon clinical situation and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. After initial treatment, a number of clinical decisions must be made weighing the risks of ischemic events and future bleeding. In particular, healthcare providers must carefully balance the effectiveness of antiplatelet therapy in the secondary prevention of coronary events, primarily future spontaneous myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis, against the risk of major, most commonly gastrointestinal bleeding. The first question is whether a dual antiplatelet therapy strategy is required or if a single antiplatelet agent will suffice. Then, if a single antiplatelet agent is adequate, which agent should be continued. Although there is some guidance to answer some of these questions, there are inadequate evidence-based data for others. Below, we review the various considerations and summarize our approach and rationale to manage patients who had gastrointestinal bleeding after PCI.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(19): e021973, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558289

RESUMO

Background Elderly patients have a higher burden of comorbidities that influence clinical outcomes. We aimed to compare in-hospital outcomes in patients ≥80 years old to younger patients, and to determine the factors associated with increased risk of major adverse events (MAE) after left atrial appendage closure. Methods and Results The National Inpatient Sample was used to identify discharges after left atrial appendage closure between October 2015 and December 2018. The primary outcome was in-hospital MAE defined as the composite of postprocedural bleeding, vascular and cardiac complications, acute kidney injury, stroke, and death. A total of 6779 hospitalizations were identified, of which, 2371 (35%) were ≥80 years old and 4408 (65%) were <80 years old. Patients ≥80 years old experienced a higher rate of MAE compared with those aged <80 years old (6.0% versus 4.6%, P=0.01), and this difference was driven by a numerically higher rate of cardiac complications (2.4% versus 1.8%, P=0.09) and death (0.3% versus 0.1%, P=0.05) among individuals ≥80 years old. In patients ≥80 years old, higher odds of in-hospital MAE were observed in women (1.61-fold), and those with preprocedural congestive heart failure (≈2-fold), diabetes (≈1.5-fold), renal disease (≈2.6-fold), anemia (≈2.7-fold), and dementia (≈5-fold). In patients <80 years old, a higher risk of in-hospital MAE was encountered among women (≈1.4-fold) and those with diabetes (≈1.3-fold), renal disease (≈2.6-fold), anemia (≈2-fold), and dyslipidemia (≈1.2-fold). Conclusions Patients ≥80 years old had higher rates of in-hospital MAE compared with patients aged <80 years old. Female sex and the presence of heart failure, diabetes, renal disease, and anemia were factors associated with in-hospital MAE among both groups.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of real-world data regarding the temporal trends and outcomes of trans-septal transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TS-TMVR) in the United States (US). METHODS: We queried the Nationwide Readmissions Database (October 2015 to December 2018) for patients undergoing TS-TMVR procedures. We reported the temporal trends in the utilization, in-hospital outcomes and 30-day readmissions after TS-TMVR. The main study outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: There was an increase in the number of TS-TMVR procedures over time (48 in 2015 vs. 978 in 2018, Ptrend < 0.001), with a notable increase in the proportion of women (Ptrend  = 0.04) and the prevalence of diabetes (Ptrend  = 0.03). There was an increase in the number of centers performing TS-TMVR (21 in 2015 vs. 164 in 2018, Ptrend < 0.001). The overall in-hospital mortality was 7.2% with no change over time (6.3% in 2015 vs. to 5.2% in 2018, Ptrend  = 0.67). There was no change in the frequency of in-hospital complications after TS-TMVR; however, the median length of stay has decreased over time. The overall 30-day readmission rate was 17.8%, with no change during the study years. The most frequent cause for 30-day readmission after TS-TMVR was acute heart failure followed by bleeding and infection-related complications. Prior coagulopathy and small-sized hospitals were independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality and 30-day readmissions. CONCLUSION: This nationwide observational analysis of real-world data showed an increase in the number of TS-TMVR procedures over time, which is now performed at a greater number of centers. There was no change in the rate of in-hospital mortality, complications or 30-day readmissions; but a significant reduction in the length of hospital stay over time was noted. As the number of TS-TMVR continue to expand, these data provide a perspective on the early experience with this procedure.

12.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 33(9): E730-E737, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become a mainstay treatment for severe aortic stenosis and is increasingly used for veterans, producing excellent short-term outcomes. There is a paucity of long-term outcome data after TAVR in the veteran population. METHODS: We examined consecutive patients who underwent TAVR at a single Veterans Affairs medical center through 2019. Baseline characteristics, echocardiographic and angiographic variables, and clinical outcomes were abstracted. All-cause mortality was the primary outcome of interest. Factors associated with all-cause mortality and cardiac-specific mortality, including the presence of significant non-revascularized coronary artery disease (CAD), were assessed with multivariable regression and competing-risk analyses. RESULTS: The 189 consecutive patients enrolled (mean age, 76.6 ± 8.4 years) had a median Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score of 6.0 (interquartile range [IQR], 4.0-8.5). After a maximum follow-up of 7.5 years, 71 (37.6%) deaths occurred, of which 76% had a cardiac cause. Median overall survival was 3.55 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.21-5.30); significant graded differences were observed across STS risk subgroups (P<.001). After multivariable adjustment, CAD was significantly associated with cardiac mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3-5.3) and all-cause mortality (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.3). Other independent variables associated with all-cause mortality included age (P=.01), baseline creatinine (P<.01), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=.03). Baseline ejection fraction (P=.04), age (P<.01), creatinine (P=.02), and vascular disease (P=.04) were independently associated with cardiac-specific mortality. CONCLUSION: Long-term survival of veterans after TAVR is comparable to that of their non-veteran counterparts. Significant CAD, along with age and select comorbidities, was associated with poorer survival.

14.
Am J Med ; 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cinnamon has been used as a traditional herbal medication for decades. Several studies have investigated cinnamon consumption and cardiovascular risk. So far, the evidence remains inconclusive. Thus, we aim to systematically review the currently available literature and quantify the evidence, if possible. METHODS: We systematically searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus, and Web of Science from database inception in 1966 through December 2020. The exposure of interest was cinnamon consumption, the outcome was cardiovascular risk defined as hemoglobin A1C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). Two investigators independently reviewed the data. Conflicts were resolved through consensus. Random-effects meta-analyses were used. RESULTS: Of 23 studies (1070 subjects), the included studies were heterogeneous, generally of very poor quality. We found no difference in LDL-c levels in patients who consumed cinnamon vs those who did not, with a weighted mean difference (WMD) of 0.38 (confidence interval [CI], -6.07-6.83). We also found no difference in HDL-c between the 2 groups with WMD 0.40 (CI, -1.14-1.94). In addition, we found no statistical differences in hemoglobin A1C between the 2 groups with WMD of 0.0 (CI, -0.44-0.45). CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis suggests that there is no association between cinnamon consumption and differences in LDL-c, HDL-c, and hemoglobin A1C levels. Further randomized control trials studies using a robust design with long-term cinnamon consumption are needed to further investigate any potential effect.

15.
World J Cardiol ; 13(7): 223-229, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement is commonly used in the cardiac catheterization laboratory to assess the functional significance of coronary arterial plaques. Robust real-world data on complications and modes of failure of FFR guidewires are limited. AIM: To characterize these outcomes by analyzing the post-marketing surveillance data from the United States Food and Drug Administration Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database for commonly used FFR guidewires. METHODS: The MAUDE database was queried from January 2010 through April 2020 for 3 FFR guidewires [PressureWireTM X (Abbott), CometTM (Boston Scientific), and VerrataTM (Philips)] by searching for the following events: "Injury", "malfunction", "death", and "other". This yielded 544 reports. After excluding incomplete reports, 486 reports were analyzed. RESULTS: Guidewire tip fracture was the most commonly reported mode of failure, in 174 (35.8%) cases followed by guidewire kinking (n = 152, 31.3%), communication failure (n = 141, 29.0%), and shaft fracture (n = 67, 13.8%). In total, 133 (27.4%) device failures resulted in patient adverse events. The most common adverse event was retained guidewire tip, in 71 (53.4%) cases, followed by freshly deployed stent dislodgment (n = 26, 19.6%) and coronary artery dissection (n = 23, 17.3%). Seven deaths were reported. CONCLUSION: FFR guidewire failures can occur because of various mechanisms and cause patient adverse events. The MAUDE database serves as an important platform for improved collaboration among clinicians, device manufacturers, and regulators to improve device performance and optimize patient outcomes. Our analysis provides mechanistic insights of FFR guidewire failure and associated adverse events but cannot verify causality or provide a comparison among different guidewires.

16.
Cardiol Ther ; 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431068

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is paucity of data on the outcomes of hospitalization for bicuspid aortic valve (BAV)-related aortopathies. METHODS: We queried the NIS database (2012-2016) for hospitalizations for elective thoracic aortic repair or acute aortic syndrome (AAS) among those with BAV versus trileaflet aortic valve (TAV). RESULTS: Our analysis yielded 38,010 hospitalizations for elective aortic repair, of whom 34.4% had BAV, as well as 81,875 hospitalizations for thoracic AAS, of whom 1.1% had BAV. Hospitalizations for BAV were younger and had fewer comorbidities compared with their TAV counterparts. The number of hospitalizations for BAV during the observational period was unchanged. After propensity matching, elective aortic repair for BAV was associated with lower mortality (0.5% versus 1.7%, odds ratio = 0.28; 95% CI 1.5-0.50, p < 0.001), use of mechanical circulatory support, acute stroke, and shorter length of hospital stay compared with TAV. After propensity matching, AAS among those with BAV had a greater incidence of bleeding events, blood transfusion, cardiac tamponade, ventricular arrhythmias, and a longer length of hospital stay compared with TAV. Among those with BAV, predictors of lower mortality if undergoing elective aortic repair included larger hospitals and teaching hospitals. Predictors of higher mortality in patients with AAS included heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and coronary artery disease. CONCLUSION: Data from a national database showed no change in the number of hospitalizations for BAV-related aortopathy, with relatively lower incidence of AAS. Compared with TAV, elective aortic repair for BAV is associated with lower mortality, while BAV-related AAS is associated with higher in-hospital complications.

17.
Europace ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347080

RESUMO

AIMS: The contemporary trends in catheter ablation (CA) and surgical ablation (SA) utilization and surgical techniques [open vs. thoracoscopic, with or without left atrial appendage closure (LAAC)] are unclear. In addition, the in-hospital outcomes of stand-alone SA compared with CA are not well-described. METHODS AND RESULTS: The National Inpatient Sample 2010-18 was queried for atrial fibrillation (AF) hospitalizations with CA or stand-alone SA. Complex samples multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to compare the association between stand-alone SA vs. CA and the primary outcomes of in-hospital mortality and stroke. Of 180 243 hospitalizations included within the study, 167 242 were for CA and 13 000 were for stand-alone SA. Catheter ablation and stand-alone SA hospitalizations decreased throughout the study period (Ptrend < 0.001). Surgical ablation had higher rates of in-hospital mortality [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-3.61; P = 0.001] and stroke (aOR 4.64; 95% CI 3.25-6.64; P < 0.001) compared with CA. When examining different surgical approaches, thoracoscopic SA was associated with similar in-hospital mortality (aOR 1.53; 95% CI 0.60-3.89; P = 0.369) and similar risk of stroke (aOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.00-3.07; P = 0.051) compared with CA. CONCLUSION: Stand-alone SA comprises a minority of AF ablation procedures and is associated with increased risk of mortality, stroke, and other in-hospital complications compared to CA. However, when a thoracoscopic approach was utilized, the risks of mortality and stroke appear to be reduced.

18.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences in left ventricular mass regression (LVMR) between transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) have not been studied. We present clinical and echocardiographic data from veterans who underwent TAVR and SAVR, evaluating the degree of LVMR and its association with survival. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed TAVR (n = 194) and SAVR (n = 365) procedures performed in veterans from 2011 to 2019. After 1:1 propensity matching, we evaluated mortality and secondary outcomes. Echocardiographic data (median follow-up 957 days, interquartile range 483-1652 days) were used to evaluate LVMR, its association with survival, and predictors of LVMR. RESULTS: There was no difference between SAVR and TAVR patients in mortality (for up to 8 years), stroke at 30 days, myocardial infarction, renal failure, prolonged ventilation, reoperation, or structural valve deterioration. SAVR patients (67.3% [101/150]) were more likely to have LVMR than TAVR patients (55.7% [44/79], p = 0.11). The magnitude of LVMR was greater for the SAVR patients (median = -23.3%) than for the TAVR patients (median = -17.8%, p = 0.062). SAVR patients with LVMR had a survival advantage over SAVR patients without LVMR (p = 0.016). However, LVMR was not associated with greater survival in TAVR patients (p = 0.248). CONCLUSIONS: SAVR patients were more likely to have LVMR and had a greater magnitude of LVMR than TAVR patients. LVMR was associated with better survival in SAVR patients, but not in TAVR patients.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(14): e020719, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227393
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