Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 222
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618163

RESUMO

The Saline versus Albumin Fluid Evaluation (SAFE) study has demonstrated that the use of albumin as an infusion solution in volume therapy can be regarded as safe. An exception is hypo-oncotic albumin in traumatic brain injury. While clear indications of albumin exist for some patients with liver cirrhosis, large studies that demonstrate a clinically relevant advantage beyond hemodynamic effects and would therefore justify wider use in many other areas are still lacking. In large-volume paracentesis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but also in hepatorenal syndrome, use of albumin is recommended and established due to clinical benefit in randomized controlled trials. In septic shock, use of albumin may be considered, with two large studies addressing this issue in Germany and Italy being still in the recruitment phase. For volume therapy, albumin can be used primarily when other measures for hemodynamic stabilization have been exhausted. This applies to volume resuscitation in hypovolemia as well as in conservative fluid management in the so-called "de-resuscitation" phase. The extent to which the correction of severe hypoalbuminemia with exogenous albumin can improve the impaired outcome of these patients is also part of ongoing studies. On the way to a more individualized medicine, hypoalbuminemia may serve as a parameter in future decision making for or against the use of albumin in volume therapy.

2.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 576, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit (ICU) patients age 90 years or older represent a growing subgroup and place a huge financial burden on health care resources despite the benefit being unclear. This leads to ethical problems. The present investigation assessed the differences in outcome between nonagenarian and octogenarian ICU patients. METHODS: We included 7900 acutely admitted older critically ill patients from two large, multinational studies. The primary outcome was 30-day-mortality, and the secondary outcome was ICU-mortality. Baseline characteristics consisted of frailty assessed by the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), ICU-management, and outcomes were compared between octogenarian (80-89.9 years) and nonagenarian (> 90 years) patients. We used multilevel logistic regression to evaluate differences between octogenarians and nonagenarians. RESULTS: The nonagenarians were 10% of the entire cohort. They experienced a higher percentage of frailty (58% vs 42%; p < 0.001), but lower SOFA scores at admission (6 + 5 vs. 7 + 6; p < 0.001). ICU-management strategies were different. Octogenarians required higher rates of organ support and nonagenarians received higher rates of life-sustaining treatment limitations (40% vs. 33%; p < 0.001). ICU mortality was comparable (27% vs. 27%; p = 0.973) but a higher 30-day-mortality (45% vs. 40%; p = 0.029) was seen in the nonagenarians. After multivariable adjustment nonagenarians had no significantly increased risk for 30-day-mortality (aOR 1.25 (95% CI 0.90-1.74; p = 0.19)). CONCLUSION: After adjustment for confounders, nonagenarians demonstrated no higher 30-day mortality than octogenarian patients. In this study, being age 90 years or more is no particular risk factor for an adverse outcome. This should be considered- together with illness severity and pre-existing functional capacity - to effectively guide triage decisions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03134807 and NCT03370692 .

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487039

RESUMO

PURPOSECritically ill elderly patients who suffer from Sars-CoV-2 disease are at high risk for organ failure. The modified MELD-XI score has not been evaluated for outcome prediction in these most vulnerable patients.METHODSThe Corona Virus disease (COVID19) in Very Elderly Intensive Care Patients study (COVIP, NCT04321265) prospectively recruited patients on intensive care units (ICU), who were = 70 years. Data were collected from March 2020 to February 2021. The MELD-XI score was calculated using the highest serum bilirubin and creatinine on ICU admission. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between the MELD-XI score and mortality. The primary outcome was 30-day-mortality, the secondary outcomes were ICU- and 3-month-mortality.RESULTSIn total, data from 2,993 patients were analyzed. Most patients had a MELD-XI <12 on admission (76%). The patients with MELD-XI = 12 had a significantly higher 30-day-, ICU- and 3-month-mortality (44%vs 64%, and 42%vs. 59%, and 57%vs. 76%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for multiple confounders, MELD-XI = 12 remained significantly associated with 30-day- (aOR 1.572, CI 1.268-1.949, p < 0.001), ICU-, and 3-month-mortality.CONCLUSIONIn critically ill elderly intensive care patients with COVID-19, the MELD-XI score constitutes a valuable tool for an early outcome prediction.

4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 344, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary aim of this study was to assess the outcome of elderly intensive care unit (ICU) patients treated during the spring and autumn COVID-19 surges in Europe. METHODS: This was a prospective European observational study (the COVIP study) in ICU patients aged 70 years and older admitted with COVID-19 disease from March to December 2020 to 159 ICUs in 14 European countries. An electronic database was used to register a number of parameters including: SOFA score, Clinical Frailty Scale, co-morbidities, usual ICU procedures and survival at 90 days. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04321265). RESULTS: In total, 2625 patients were included, 1327 from the first and 1298 from the second surge. Median age was 74 and 75 years in surge 1 and 2, respectively. SOFA score was higher in the first surge (median 6 versus 5, p < 0.0001). The PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission was higher during surge 1, and more patients received invasive mechanical ventilation (78% versus 68%, p < 0.0001). During the first 15 days of treatment, survival was similar during the first and the second surge. Survival was lower in the second surge after day 15 and differed after 30 days (57% vs 50%) as well as after 90 days (51% vs 40%). CONCLUSION: An unexpected, but significant, decrease in 30-day and 90-day survival was observed during the second surge in our cohort of elderly ICU patients. The reason for this is unclear. Our main concern is whether the widespread changes in practice and treatment of COVID-19 between the two surges have contributed to this increased mortality in elderly patients. Further studies are urgently warranted to provide more evidence for current practice in elderly patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04321265 , registered March 19th, 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 128, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417919

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lactate is an established prognosticator in critical care. However, there still is insufficient evidence about its role in predicting outcome in COVID-19. This is of particular concern in older patients who have been mostly affected during the initial surge in 2020. METHODS: This prospective international observation study (The COVIP study) recruited patients aged 70 years or older (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT04321265) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19 disease from March 2020 to February 2021. In addition to serial lactate values (arterial blood gas analysis), we recorded several parameters, including SOFA score, ICU procedures, limitation of care, ICU- and 3-month mortality. A lactate concentration ≥ 2.0 mmol/L on the day of ICU admission (baseline) was defined as abnormal. The primary outcome was ICU-mortality. The secondary outcomes 30-day and 3-month mortality. RESULTS: In total, data from 2860 patients were analyzed. In most patients (68%), serum lactate was lower than 2 mmol/L. Elevated baseline serum lactate was associated with significantly higher ICU- and 3-month mortality (53% vs. 43%, and 71% vs. 57%, respectively, p < 0.001). In the multivariable analysis, the maximum lactate concentration on day 1 was independently associated with ICU mortality (aOR 1.06 95% CI 1.02-1.11; p = 0.007), 30-day mortality (aOR 1.07 95% CI 1.02-1.13; p = 0.005) and 3-month mortality (aOR 1.15 95% CI 1.08-1.24; p < 0.001) after adjustment for age, gender, SOFA score, and frailty. In 826 patients with baseline lactate ≥ 2 mmol/L sufficient data to calculate the difference between maximal levels on days 1 and 2 (∆ serum lactate) were available. A decreasing lactate concentration over time was inversely associated with ICU mortality after multivariate adjustment for SOFA score, age, Clinical Frailty Scale, and gender (aOR 0.60 95% CI 0.42-0.85; p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: In critically ill old intensive care patients suffering from COVID-19, lactate and its kinetics are valuable tools for outcome prediction. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04321265.

7.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(8): 835-850, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213593

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is now recognized as a heterogeneous syndrome that not only affects acute morbidity and mortality, but also a patient's long-term prognosis. In this narrative review, an update on various aspects of AKI in critically ill patients will be provided. Focus will be on prediction and early detection of AKI (e.g., the role of biomarkers to identify high-risk patients and the use of machine learning to predict AKI), aspects of pathophysiology and progress in the recognition of different phenotypes of AKI, as well as an update on nephrotoxicity and organ cross-talk. In addition, prevention of AKI (focusing on fluid management, kidney perfusion pressure, and the choice of vasopressor) and supportive treatment of AKI is discussed. Finally, post-AKI risk of long-term sequelae including incident or progression of chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular events and mortality, will be addressed.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Estado Terminal , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Rim , Prognóstico
8.
Thromb Res ; 205: 70-80, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265605

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammation induces a procoagulant phenotype of endothelial cells (EC) with the exposure of tissue factor (TF), a potent initiator of the extrinsic coagulation cascade. Although systemic inflammation affects the whole vascular system, thrombotic lesions occur particularly in microcirculation. This raises the question of whether TF-procoagulant activity (TF-PCA) differs between EC from arterial, venous, and microvascular beds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Functional coagulation tests, including TF-PCA, and inflammatory responses were investigated on arterial, venous and microvascular endothelial cells. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TF-levels were determined in cohort of 59 septic patients. RESULTS: We found that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), lipopolysaccharide, and interleukin-1ß induce a solid, dose-dependent increase in TF-PCA, which is highest in microvascular EC. A positive correlation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) with TF levels was observed in a cohort of 59 septic patients. In contrast, TF-PCA was independent of IL-6 concentrations in vitro. Re-analysis of publicly available gene expression data revealed that among the top 50 genes annotated to coagulation, TF is one of three regulated genes common to the three investigated EC subtypes. The response to inflammatory stimuli in terms of exposure of leukocyte-endothelial- and platelet-endothelial adhesion molecules (E-selectin and PECAM-1), remodeling of adherens junctions, co-exposure of negatively charged surfaces nor breakdown of the glycocalyx was comparable between the EC subtypes and did not explain the higher TF-PCA on microvascular cells. We found that the ratio of TF and TFPI exposure on the endothelial membrane significantly differs between the EC subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the ratio of TF to its inhibitor TFPI is a determinant of endothelial TF-PCA, which is most pronounced on microvascular endothelial cells and might explain why the microvascular system is particularly susceptible to inflammation-induced thrombosis.

9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 231, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is frequently used to measure frailty in critically ill adults. There is wide variation in the approach to analysing the relationship between the CFS score and mortality after admission to the ICU. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of modelling approach on the association between the CFS score and short-term mortality and quantify the prognostic value of frailty in this context. METHODS: We analysed data from two multicentre prospective cohort studies which enrolled intensive care unit patients ≥ 80 years old in 26 countries. The primary outcome was mortality within 30-days from admission to the ICU. Logistic regression models for both ICU and 30-day mortality included the CFS score as either a categorical, continuous or dichotomous variable and were adjusted for patient's age, sex, reason for admission to the ICU, and admission Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. RESULTS: The median age in the sample of 7487 consecutive patients was 84 years (IQR 81-87). The highest fraction of new prognostic information from frailty in the context of 30-day mortality was observed when the CFS score was treated as either a categorical variable using all original levels of frailty or a nonlinear continuous variable and was equal to 9% using these modelling approaches (p < 0.001). The relationship between the CFS score and mortality was nonlinear (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Knowledge about a patient's frailty status adds a substantial amount of new prognostic information at the moment of admission to the ICU. Arbitrary simplification of the CFS score into fewer groups than originally intended leads to a loss of information and should be avoided. Trial registration NCT03134807 (VIP1), NCT03370692 (VIP2).


Assuntos
Fragilidade/classificação , Mortalidade/tendências , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Fragilidade/mortalidade , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 17(11): 751-764, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226718

RESUMO

Although respiratory failure and hypoxaemia are the main manifestations of COVID-19, kidney involvement is also common. Available evidence supports a number of potential pathophysiological pathways through which acute kidney injury (AKI) can develop in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Histopathological findings have highlighted both similarities and differences between AKI in patients with COVID-19 and in those with AKI in non-COVID-related sepsis. Acute tubular injury is common, although it is often mild, despite markedly reduced kidney function. Systemic haemodynamic instability very likely contributes to tubular injury. Despite descriptions of COVID-19 as a cytokine storm syndrome, levels of circulating cytokines are often lower in patients with COVID-19 than in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome with causes other than COVID-19. Tissue inflammation and local immune cell infiltration have been repeatedly observed and might have a critical role in kidney injury, as might endothelial injury and microvascular thrombi. Findings of high viral load in patients who have died with AKI suggest a contribution of viral invasion in the kidneys, although the issue of renal tropism remains controversial. An impaired type I interferon response has also been reported in patients with severe COVID-19. In light of these observations, the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19-associated AKI may provide insights into therapeutic strategies.

11.
Cell Syst ; 12(8): 780-794.e7, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139154

RESUMO

COVID-19 is highly variable in its clinical presentation, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe organ damage and death. We characterized the time-dependent progression of the disease in 139 COVID-19 inpatients by measuring 86 accredited diagnostic parameters, such as blood cell counts and enzyme activities, as well as untargeted plasma proteomes at 687 sampling points. We report an initial spike in a systemic inflammatory response, which is gradually alleviated and followed by a protein signature indicative of tissue repair, metabolic reconstitution, and immunomodulation. We identify prognostic marker signatures for devising risk-adapted treatment strategies and use machine learning to classify therapeutic needs. We show that the machine learning models based on the proteome are transferable to an independent cohort. Our study presents a map linking routinely used clinical diagnostic parameters to plasma proteomes and their dynamics in an infectious disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , COVID-19/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Proteoma/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Gasometria , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Prognóstico , Proteômica , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
12.
N Engl J Med ; 384(24): 2283-2294, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management is recommended for patients after cardiac arrest, but the supporting evidence is of low certainty. METHODS: In an open-label trial with blinded assessment of outcomes, we randomly assigned 1900 adults with coma who had had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac or unknown cause to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33°C, followed by controlled rewarming, or targeted normothermia with early treatment of fever (body temperature, ≥37.8°C). The primary outcome was death from any cause at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included functional outcome at 6 months as assessed with the modified Rankin scale. Prespecified subgroups were defined according to sex, age, initial cardiac rhythm, time to return of spontaneous circulation, and presence or absence of shock on admission. Prespecified adverse events were pneumonia, sepsis, bleeding, arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise, and skin complications related to the temperature management device. RESULTS: A total of 1850 patients were evaluated for the primary outcome. At 6 months, 465 of 925 patients (50%) in the hypothermia group had died, as compared with 446 of 925 (48%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.14; P = 0.37). Of the 1747 patients in whom the functional outcome was assessed, 488 of 881 (55%) in the hypothermia group had moderately severe disability or worse (modified Rankin scale score ≥4), as compared with 479 of 866 (55%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.09). Outcomes were consistent in the prespecified subgroups. Arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise was more common in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (24% vs. 17%, P<0.001). The incidence of other adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, targeted hypothermia did not lead to a lower incidence of death by 6 months than targeted normothermia. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; TTM2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02908308.).


Assuntos
Febre/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Idoso , Temperatura Corporal , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Coma/etiologia , Coma/terapia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/complicações , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): 863-872, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 entry in human cells depends on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, which can be upregulated by inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We aimed to test our hypothesis that discontinuation of chronic treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) mitigates the course o\f recent-onset COVID-19. METHODS: ACEI-COVID was a parallel group, randomised, controlled, open-label trial done at 35 centres in Austria and Germany. Patients aged 18 years and older were enrolled if they presented with recent symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and were chronically treated with ACEIs or ARBs. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to discontinuation or continuation of RAS inhibition for 30 days. Primary outcome was the maximum sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score within 30 days, where death was scored with the maximum achievable SOFA score. Secondary endpoints were area under the death-adjusted SOFA score (AUCSOFA), mean SOFA score, admission to the intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, and death. Analyses were done on a modified intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04353596. FINDINGS: Between April 20, 2020, and Jan 20, 2021, 204 patients (median age 75 years [IQR 66-80], 37% females) were randomly assigned to discontinue (n=104) or continue (n=100) RAS inhibition. Within 30 days, eight (8%) of 104 died in the discontinuation group and 12 (12%) of 100 patients died in the continuation group (p=0·42). There was no significant difference in the primary endpoint between the discontinuation and continuation group (median [IQR] maximum SOFA score 0·00 (0·00-2·00) vs 1·00 (0·00-3·00); p=0·12). Discontinuation was associated with a significantly lower AUCSOFA (0·00 [0·00-9·25] vs 3·50 [0·00-23·50]; p=0·040), mean SOFA score (0·00 [0·00-0·31] vs 0·12 [0·00-0·78]; p=0·040), and 30-day SOFA score (0·00 [10-90th percentile, 0·00-1·20] vs 0·00 [0·00-24·00]; p=0·023). At 30 days, 11 (11%) in the discontinuation group and 23 (23%) in the continuation group had signs of organ dysfunction (SOFA score ≥1) or were dead (p=0·017). There were no significant differences for mechanical ventilation (10 (10%) vs 8 (8%), p=0·87) and admission to intensive care unit (20 [19%] vs 18 [18%], p=0·96) between the discontinuation and continuation group. INTERPRETATION: Discontinuation of RAS-inhibition in COVID-19 had no significant effect on the maximum severity of COVID-19 but may lead to a faster and better recovery. The decision to continue or discontinue should be made on an individual basis, considering the risk profile, the indication for RAS inhibition, and the availability of alternative therapies and outpatient monitoring options. FUNDING: Austrian Science Fund and German Center for Cardiovascular Research.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , COVID-19 , Hipertensão , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , SARS-CoV-2 , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Área Sob a Curva , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Risco Ajustado/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Suspensão de Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e046909, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In Europe, there is a distinction between two different healthcare organisation systems, the tax-based healthcare system (THS) and the social health insurance system (SHI). Our aim was to investigate whether the characteristics, treatment and mortality of older, critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) differed between THS and SHI. SETTING: ICUs in 16 European countries. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 7817 critically ill older (≥80 years) patients were included in this study, 4941 in THS and 2876 in the SHI systems. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES MEASURES: We chose generalised estimation equations with robust standard errors to produce population average adjusted OR (aOR). We adjusted for patient-specific variables, health economic data, including gross domestic product (GDP) and human development index (HDI), and treatment strategies. RESULTS: In SHI systems, there were higher rates of frail patients (Clinical Frailty Scale>4; 46% vs 41%; p<0.001), longer length of ICU stays (90±162 vs 72±134 hours; p<0.001) and increased levels of organ support. The ICU mortality (aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.06; p=0.01) was consistently higher in the SHI; however, the 30-day mortality (aOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.21; p=0.47) was similar between THS and SHI. In a sensitivity analysis stratifying for the health economic data, the 30-day mortality was higher in SHI, in low GDP per capita (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.58) and low HDI (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.64 to 2.20) settings. CONCLUSIONS: The 30-day mortality was similar in both systems. Patients in SHI were older, sicker and frailer at baseline, which could be interpreted as a sign for a more liberal admission policy in SHI. We believe that the observed trend towards ICU excess mortality in SHI results mainly from a more liberal admission policy and an increase in treatment limitations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NCT03134807 and NCT03370692.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Atenção à Saúde , Europa (Continente) , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(7): e0256520, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972242

RESUMO

The pharmacokinetics and antifungal activity of the echinocandins anidulafungin (AFG), micafungin (MFG), and caspofungin (CAS) were assessed in ascites fluid and plasma of critically ill adults treated for suspected or proven invasive candidiasis. Ascites fluid was obtained from ascites drains or during paracentesis. The antifungal activity of the echinocandins in ascites fluid was assessed by incubation of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata at concentrations of 0.03 to 16.00 µg/ml. In addition, ascites fluid samples obtained from our study patients were inoculated with the same isolates and evaluated for fungal growth. These patient samples had to be spiked with echinocandins to restore the original concentrations because echinocandins had been lost during sterile filtration. In ascites fluid specimens of 29 patients, echinocandin concentrations were below the simultaneous plasma levels. Serial sampling in 20 patients revealed a slower rise and decline of echinocandin concentrations in ascites fluid than in plasma. Proliferation of C. albicans in ascites fluid was slower than in culture medium and growth of C. glabrata was lacking, even in the absence of antifungals. In CAS-spiked ascites fluid samples, fungal CFU counts moderately declined, whereas spiking with AFG or MFG had no relevant effect. In ascites fluid of our study patients, echinocandin concentrations achieved by therapeutic doses did not result in a consistent eradication of C. albicans or C. glabrata. Thus, therapeutic doses of AFG, MFG, or CAS may result in ascites fluid concentrations preventing relevant proliferation of C. albicans and C. glabrata, but do not warrant reliable eradication.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Equinocandinas , Adulto , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Ascite/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Lipopeptídeos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
17.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(6): 665-673, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We compared a restrictive fluid management strategy to usual care among critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who had received initial fluid resuscitation. METHODS: This multicenter feasibility trial randomized 100 AKI patients 1:1 in seven ICUs in Europe and Australia. Restrictive fluid management included targeting negative or neutral daily fluid balance by minimizing fluid input and/or enhancing urine output with diuretics administered at the discretion of the clinician. Fluid boluses were administered as clinically indicated. The primary endpoint was cumulative fluid balance 72 h from randomization. RESULTS: Mean (SD) cumulative fluid balance at 72 h from randomization was - 1080 mL (2003 mL) in the restrictive fluid management arm and 61 mL (3131 mL) in the usual care arm, mean difference (95% CI) - 1148 mL (- 2200 to - 96) mL, P = 0.033. Median [IQR] duration of AKI was 2 [1-3] and 3 [2-7] days, respectively (median difference - 1.0 [- 3.0 to 0.0], P = 0.071). Altogether, 6 out of 46 (13%) patients in the restrictive fluid management arm and 15 out of 50 (30%) in the usual care arm received renal replacement therapy (RR 0.42; 95% CI 0.16-0.91), P = 0.043. Cumulative fluid balance at 24 h and 7 days was lower in the restrictive fluid management arm. The dose of diuretics was not different between the groups. Adverse events occurred more frequently in the usual care arm. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with AKI, a restrictive fluid management regimen resulted in lower cumulative fluid balance and less adverse events compared to usual care. Larger trials of this intervention are justified.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Hidratação , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Austrália , Estado Terminal , Europa (Continente) , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
18.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 17(9): 605-618, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976395

RESUMO

Postoperative acute kidney injury (PO-AKI) is a common complication of major surgery that is strongly associated with short-term surgical complications and long-term adverse outcomes, including increased risk of chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular events and death. Risk factors for PO-AKI include older age and comorbid diseases such as chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. PO-AKI is best defined as AKI occurring within 7 days of an operative intervention using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) definition of AKI; however, additional prognostic information may be gained from detailed clinical assessment and other diagnostic investigations in the form of a focused kidney health assessment (KHA). Prevention of PO-AKI is largely based on identification of high baseline risk, monitoring and reduction of nephrotoxic insults, whereas treatment involves the application of a bundle of interventions to avoid secondary kidney injury and mitigate the severity of AKI. As PO-AKI is strongly associated with long-term adverse outcomes, some form of follow-up KHA is essential; however, the form and location of this will be dictated by the nature and severity of the AKI. In this Consensus Statement, we provide graded recommendations for AKI after non-cardiac surgery and highlight priorities for future research.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
19.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(7): e0016921, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875434

RESUMO

Concentrations of anidulafungin and micafungin were determined in eight different tissues obtained during autopsy of four deceased individuals who had been treated with anidulafungin and of seven who had received micafungin. The largest amounts were recovered from liver, with anidulafungin concentrations of 11.01 to 66.50 µg/g and micafungin levels of 0.36 to 5.53 µg/g (0.65 µg/g 30 days after the last administration). The lowest anidulafungin levels were measured in skeletal muscle, and the lowest micafungin concentrations were in kidneys.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Equinocandinas , Anidulafungina , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lipopeptídeos , Micafungina , Distribuição Tecidual
20.
Infection ; 49(4): 747-755, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877638

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Wound infections caused by Candida are life-threatening and difficult to treat. Echinocandins are highly effective against Candida species and recommended for treatment of invasive candidiasis. As penetration of echinocandins into wounds is largely unknown, we measured the concentrations of the echinocandins anidulafungin (AFG), micafungin (MFG), and caspofungin (CAS) in wound secretion (WS) and in plasma of critically ill patients. METHODS: We included critically ill adults with an indwelling wound drainage or undergoing vacuum-assisted closure therapy, who were treated with an echinocandin for suspected or proven invasive fungal infection. Concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography with UV (AFG and MFG) or tandem mass spectrometry detection (CAS). RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were enrolled. From eight patients, serial WS samples and simultaneous plasma samples were obtained within a dosage interval. AFG concentrations in WS amounted to < 0.025-2.25 mg/L, MFG concentrations were 0.025-2.53 mg/L, and CAS achieved concentrations of 0.18-4.04 mg/L. Concentrations in WS were significantly lower than the simultaneous plasma concentrations and below the MIC values of some relevant pathogens. CONCLUSION: Echinocandin penetration into WS displays a high inter-individual variability. In WS of some of the patients, concentrations may be sub-therapeutic. However, the relevance of sub-therapeutic concentrations is unknown as no correlation has been established between concentration data and clinical outcome. Nevertheless, in the absence of clinical outcome studies, our data do not support the use of echinocandins at standard doses for the treatment of fungal wound infections, but underline the pivotal role of surgical debridement.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...