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1.
Vet Ital ; 55(3): 231-239, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599547

RESUMO

Egypt has a large traditional and exotic poultry sector which is challenged regularly by poultry diseases in endemic and epidemic proportions. The household poultry in particular is a source of livelihoods and employment for millions of low income citizens. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and Newcastle disease are the most important poultry diseases in this sector. Whereas poultry vaccines are available to reduce the incidence of disease in Egypt, their effectiveness is doubtful. We conducted a biological evaluation of selected viral vaccines of poultry in three governorates in Egypt. Fifty­four percent of the vaccines had reduced vaccine titres and the effect of secondary vaccine distributions was associated with the observed vaccine titres. External contamination was observed in some vaccines and break in cold chain was reported. Whereas no vaccine distributor used purpose­built vaccine refrigerator, none also had prescribed protocol for vaccine handling or kept record of vaccine. There is a need to review vaccine handling procedure, monitor of vaccine cold chain more critically and review the whole chain that support vaccine distributions in Egypt.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Egito , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vacinação/métodos
2.
Geospat Health ; 11(3): 492, 2016 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27903065

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype has been enzootic in the Egyptian poultry with significant human infections since 2008. This work evaluates the epidemiological and virological information from February 2006 to May 2015 in spatial and temporal terms. Only data with confirmed HPAI H5N1 sub-type were collected, and matched with the epidemiological data from various spatially and temporally-dispersed surveillances implemented between 2006 and 2015. Spatio-temporal analysis was conducted on a total of 3338 confirmed H5N1 HPAI poultry disease outbreaks and outputs described based on transmission patterns, poultry species, production types affected, trade, geographic and temporal distributions in Egypt. The H5N1 virus persists in the Egyptian poultry displaying a seasonal pattern with peak prevalence between January and March. There was no specific geographic pattern, but chickens and ducks were more affected. However, relatively higher disease incidences were recorded in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic studies of the haemagglutinin gene sequences of H5N1 viruses indicated that multiple clusters circulated between 2006 and 2015, with significant deviations in circulation. Epidemiological dynamics of HPAI has changed with the origins of majority of outbreaks shifted to household poultry. The persistence of HPAI H5N1 in poultry with recurrent and sporadic infections in humans can influence virus evolution spatio-temporally. Household poultry plays significant roles in the H5N1 virus transmission to poultry and humans, but the role of commercial poultry needs further clarifications. While poultry trading supports the persistence and transmission of H5N1, the role of individual species may warrant further investigation. Surveillance activities, applying a multi-sectoral approach, are recommended.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , Galinhas , Surtos de Doenças , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
3.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0156747, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27304069

RESUMO

In Egypt, ducks kept for commercial purposes constitute the second highest poultry population, at 150 million ducks/year. Hence, ducks play an important role in the introduction and transmission of avian influenza (AI) in the Egyptian poultry population. Attempts to control outbreaks include the use of vaccines, which have varying levels of efficacy and failure. To date, the effects of vaccine efficacy has rarely been determined in ducks. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey Herpes Virus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAIV strain (A/Swan/Hungary/499/2006) (rHVT-H5) and a bivalent inactivated H5N1 vaccine prepared from clade 2.2.1 and 2.2.1.1 H5N1 seeds in Mulard ducks. A 0.3ml/dose subcutaneous injection of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered to one-day-old ducklings (D1) and another 0.5ml/dose subcutaneous injection of the inactivated MEFLUVAC was administered at 7 days (D7). Four separate challenge experiments were conducted at Days 21, 28, 35 and 42, in which all the vaccinated ducks were challenged with 106EID50/duck of H5N1 HPAI virus (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1) (clade 2.2.1) via intranasal inoculation. Maternal-derived antibody regression and post-vaccination antibody immune responses were monitored weekly. Ducks vaccinated at 21, 28, 35 and 42 days with the rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC vaccines were protected against mortality (80%, 80%, 90% and 90%) and (50%, 70%, 80% and 90%) respectively, against challenges with the H5N1 HPAI virus. The amount of viral shedding and shedding rates were lower in the rHVT-H5 vaccine groups than in the MEFLUVAC groups only in the first two challenge experiments. However, the non-vaccinated groups shed significantly more of the virus than the vaccinated groups. Both rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC provide early protection, and rHVT-H5 vaccine in particular provides protection against HPAI challenge.


Assuntos
Patos/imunologia , Herpesvirus Meleagrídeo 1/imunologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Patos/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/fisiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Perus/virologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/imunologia
4.
Avian Dis ; 60(1 Suppl): 245-52, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27309063

RESUMO

The immunity profile against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the commercial poultry value chain network in Egypt was modeled with the use of different vaccination scenarios. The model estimated the vaccination coverage, the protective seroconversion level, and the duration of immunity for each node of the network and vaccination scenario. Partial budget analysis was used to compare the benefit-cost of the different vaccination scenarios. The model predicted that targeting day-old chick avian influenza (AI) vaccination in industrial and large hatcheries would increase immunity levels in the overall poultry population in Egypt and especially in small commercial poultry farms (from <30% to >60%). This strategy was shown to be more efficient than the current strategy of using inactivated vaccines. Improving HPAI control in the commercial poultry sector in Egypt would have a positive impact to improve disease control.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Galinhas , Egito , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/embriologia , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vacinação , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/genética , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
5.
Avian Pathol ; 44(5): 333-41, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26023824

RESUMO

Vaccination is the main tool implemented in Egypt since 2007 to control H5N1 avian influenza. The present study aimed at comparing the effectiveness of three avian influenza vaccination regimes in commercial broiler chickens carrying high levels of maternally derived antibodies (MDAs). Day-old chicks were divided into four experimental groups. Group I received only the rHVT-H5 vaccine (recombinant turkey herpesvirus (HVT) which carries a H5 clade 2.2 insert) administered at D1. Group II received only the KV-H5 (an oil emulsion killed vaccine prepared from reassortant HPAI virus (A/duck/Anhui/1/06)) vaccine (inactivated reverse genetic H5N1 clade 2.3.4 virus) administered at D8. Group III received rHVT-H5 and KV-H5 as prime/boost. Group IV served as unvaccinated control. Weekly serological monitoring was conducted using the haemagglutination inhibition test. Two challenge experiments were conducted at D28 and D35 using HPAI H5N1 clade 2.2.1 virus. Birds were monitored daily 14 days post-challenge for morbidity and mortality, and oropharyngeal swabs were collected for virological monitoring. Initially, day-old chicks had high mean MDA titres (9 + 0.9 log2). The MDA half-life was >7 and <7 days, respectively, for unvaccinated and vaccinated birds. Group III showed the highest post-vaccination humoral immune response and seroconversion rate. The highest protection rate against morbidity (80-90%) and mortality (90-90%) was obtained in Group III after challenge at D28 and D35, respectively, as compared to Group I (70-70%) and (80-90%) and Group II (0-0%) and (30-30%). Groups I and III had lower number of shedder birds. The vaccination regime with prime/boost conferred the highest and earliest protection, and can hence be recommended for the broiler production sector in endemic and high HPAI H5N1 challenge areas.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Animais , Galinhas , Egito , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
6.
Avian Pathol ; 43(6): 514-23, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25245772

RESUMO

The effectiveness of recombinant turkey herpesvirus avian influenza (A/swan/Hungary/4999/2006(H5N1)) clade 2.2 virus (rHVT-H5) vaccine was evaluated in two layer chicken breeds (White Bovans [WB] and Brown Shaver [BS]). One dose of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered at day 1 and birds were monitored serologically (haemagglutination inhibition test) and virologically for 19 weeks. Maternally-derived antibody and post-vaccination H5 antibody titres were measured using the Chinese (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1)) HA and the Egyptian (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1)) HA as antigens. The challenge was conducted at 19 weeks of age and on six experimental groups: Groups I (WB) and II (BS), both vaccinated and challenged; Groups III (WB) and IV (BS), both vaccinated but not challenged; Groups V and VI, unvaccinated specific pathogen free chickens, serving respectively as positive and negative controls. The challenge virus was the clade 2.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012 at a dose of 10(6) median embryo infective dose. For both breeds, complete maternally-derived antibody waning occurred at the age of 4 weeks. The immune response to rHVT-H5 vaccination was detected from the sixth week. The seroconversion rates for both breeds reached 85.7 to 100% in the eighth week of age. Protection levels of 73.3%, 60% and 0% were respectively recorded in Groups I, II and V. No mortalities occurred in the unchallenged groups. Group I showed superior results for all measured post-challenge parameters. In conclusion, a single rHVT-H5 hatchery vaccination conferred a high level of protection for a relatively extended period. This vaccine could be an important tool for future A/H5N1 prevention/control in endemic countries. Further studies on persistence of immunity beyond 19 weeks, need for booster with inactivated vaccines, breed susceptibility and vaccinal response, and transmissibility are recommended.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Herpesvirus Meleagrídeo 1/imunologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Egito , Feminino , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas
7.
Ecohealth ; 11(1): 22-35, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24643858

RESUMO

Participatory surveillance (PS) is the application of participatory rural appraisal methods to the collection of epidemiological information to inform decision-making and action. It was applied in Africa and Asia as part of emergency programs to address the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) pandemic. The approach resulted in markedly increased case detection in countries experiencing HPAI, and a better understanding of the epidemiological situation. Where HPAI was absent and PS was implemented, the method did not result in false positives and contributed to the overall epidemiological assessment that the country was free of disease. It was noted that clarity of surveillance objectives and resulting data needs at the outset was essential to optimize the balance of surveillance methods, size of the program and costs. The quality of training programs and adherence to international guidelines on good PS training practice were important for assuring the competence of PS practitioners. Orientation of senior decision-makers was an important step in assuring effective program management and appropriate use of results. As a problem-solving methodology, PS is best used to rapidly assess situations and inform strategy. Several countries continued PS after the end of projects and went on to apply PS to other health challenges.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade/métodos , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , África/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara , Animais , Aves , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Sudão/epidemiologia
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 46(1): 57-63, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23868547

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) due to H5N1 virus was first reported in Egypt in February 2006; since then, the government has allowed avian influenza vaccination in poultry. The present study evaluated the impact of AI vaccination in terms of cumulative annual flock immunity (CAFI): the percentage of bird × weeks protected by immunity. This evaluation took account of the combined effects of vaccination coverage, vaccine efficacy (VE), and different characteristics of household poultry production on the effectiveness of the adopted vaccination strategy (VS), and provided alternative options for improvement. The evaluation used a population and vaccination model that calculates the CAFI. Participatory approaches were employed in 21 villages to develop the vaccination and flock parameters required for the model. The adopted VS were compared in the model with three alternative VS scenarios in terms of the CAFI. Vaccination coverage varied among villages but was generally low (between 1 and 48 %; median 14 %). Under the adopted VS, the CAFI predicted for the villages ranged from 2 to 31 %. It was concluded that despite the enormous effort put into rural household poultry AI vaccination by the Egyptian government, village CAFI is unlikely to be maintained at the levels required to significantly reduce the virus load and restrict transmission. In HPAI-endemic countries that consider AI vaccination as one of the disease control options, the high cost of mass AI vaccination campaigns and their achievable benefits must be compared with other available control measures, which may include targeted vaccination. Achievable vaccination coverage, VE and the different characteristics of commercial and household (village) poultry production are key parameters determining the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of different AI vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Aves Domésticas , Vacinação/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Egito/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Vacinação em Massa/veterinária , Modelos Biológicos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 18(12): 2076-8, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23171740

RESUMO

We investigated the influence of a mass poultry vaccination campaign on passive surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype (H5N1) outbreaks among poultry in Egypt. Passive reporting dropped during the campaign, although probability of infection remained unchanged. Future poultry vaccination campaigns should consider this negative impact on reporting for adapting surveillance strategies.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Animais , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Vacinação em Massa/veterinária , Aves Domésticas , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estações do Ano
10.
Arch Virol ; 157(5): 951-9, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22350650

RESUMO

Avian influenza due to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) H5N1 virus is not a food-borne illness but a serious panzootic disease with the potential to be pandemic. In this study, broiler chickens were vaccinated with commercial H5N1 or H5N2 inactivated vaccines prior to being challenged with an HPAIV H5N1 (clade 2.2.1 classic) virus. Challenged and non-challenged vaccinated chickens were kept together, and unvaccinated chickens served as contact groups. Post-challenge samples from skin and edible internal organs were collected from dead and sacrificed (after a 14-day observation period) birds and tested using qRT-PCR for virus detection and quantification. H5N1 vaccine protected chickens against morbidity, mortality and transmission. Virus RNA was not detected in the meat or edible organs of chickens vaccinated with H5N1 vaccine. Conversely, H5N2 vaccine did not confer clinical protection, and a significant virus load was detected in the meat and internal organs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the H5N1 virus vaccine and challenge virus strains are closely related. The results of the present study strongly suggest a need for proper selection of vaccines and their routine evaluation against newly emergent field viruses. These actions will help to reduce human exposure to HPAIV H5N1 virus from both infected live birds and slaughtered poultry. In addition, rigorous preventive measures should be put in place in order to minimize the public-health risks of avian influenza at the human-animal interface.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , RNA Viral/genética , Animais , Galinhas , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/classificação , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N2/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N2/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Carne/análise , Carne/virologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA Viral/imunologia , Vacinação
11.
Anim Health Res Rev ; 7(1-2): 107-18, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17389058

RESUMO

Small ruminants represent an important component of the Ethiopian livestock production system, providing 12% of the value of livestock products consumed at the farm level and 48% of the cash income generated. Ethiopia is second in Africa and sixth in the world in terms of sheep population. The country has, however, benefited little from this enormous resource owing to a multitude of problems, disease being the most important. Disease alone accounts for mortalities of 30% in lambs and 20% in adults. Productivity losses attributable to helminth parasites are often substantial. A loss of US $ 81.8 million is reported annually due to helminth parasites. In a country confronted with challenges of an ever-rising human population and food shortage, such enormous losses caused by helminth parasites, 'the silent predators', are intolerable. Therefore, helminth control should receive special attention in poverty reduction strategies through improved productivity of livestock if the present and future challenges of food shortage are to be addressed. Productivity loss due to helminth infections can be substantially reduced through implementation of effective disease control strategies, which require an understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of parasites and parasitic infections under local conditions. This paper reviews extensive evidence demonstrating that helminthosis is a major constraint to productivity of sheep in Ethiopia. It also discusses epidemiology and ecology of major helminth parasites in the country and suggests strategies for improved control in various agro-ecological zones and production systems.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Helmintíase Animal , Pobreza , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Resistência a Medicamentos , Etiópia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/mortalidade , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/prevenção & controle , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/mortalidade , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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