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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(15): e2119429119, 2022 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377791

RESUMO

Charge density waves (CDWs) have been observed in nearly all families of copper-oxide superconductors. But the behavior of these phases across different families has been perplexing. In La-based cuprates, the CDW wavevector is an increasing function of doping, exhibiting the so-called Yamada behavior, while in Y- and Bi-based materials the behavior is the opposite. Here, we report a combined resonant soft X-ray scattering (RSXS) and neutron scattering study of charge and spin density waves in isotopically enriched La1.8−xEu0.2SrxCuO4 over a range of doping 0.07≤x≤0.20. We find that the CDW amplitude is temperature independent and develops well above experimentally accessible temperatures. Further, the CDW wavevector shows a nonmonotonic temperature dependence, exhibiting Yamada behavior at low temperature with a sudden change occurring near the spin ordering temperature. We describe these observations using a Landau­Ginzburg theory for an incommensurate CDW in a metallic system with a finite charge compressibility and spin-CDW coupling. Extrapolating to high temperature, where the CDW amplitude is small and spin order is absent, our analysis predicts a decreasing wavevector with doping, similar to Y and Bi cuprates. Our study suggests that CDW order in all families of cuprates forms by a common mechanism.

2.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(11): 113101, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779391

RESUMO

We present results obtained with a new soft X-ray spectrometer based on transition-edge sensors (TESs) composed of Mo/Cu bilayers coupled to bismuth absorbers. This spectrometer simultaneously provides excellent energy resolution, high detection efficiency, and broadband spectral coverage. The new spectrometer is optimized for incident X-ray energies below 2 keV. Each pixel serves as both a highly sensitive calorimeter and an X-ray absorber with near unity quantum efficiency. We have commissioned this 240-pixel TES spectrometer at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource beamline 10-1 (BL 10-1) and used it to probe the local electronic structure of sample materials with unprecedented sensitivity in the soft X-ray regime. As mounted, the TES spectrometer has a maximum detection solid angle of 2 × 10-3 sr. The energy resolution of all pixels combined is 1.5 eV full width at half maximum at 500 eV. We describe the performance of the TES spectrometer in terms of its energy resolution and count-rate capability and demonstrate its utility as a high throughput detector for synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy. Results from initial X-ray emission spectroscopy and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering experiments obtained with the spectrometer are presented.

3.
Sci Adv ; 5(8): eaax3346, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453340

RESUMO

Charge order is universal among high-T c cuprates, but its relation to superconductivity is unclear. While static order competes with superconductivity, dynamic order may be favorable and even contribute to Cooper pairing. Using time-resolved resonant soft x-ray scattering at a free-electron laser, we show that the charge order in prototypical La2-x Ba x CuO4 exhibits transverse fluctuations at picosecond time scales. These sub-millielectron volt excitations propagate by Brownian-like diffusion and have an energy scale remarkably close to the superconducting T c. At sub-millielectron volt energy scales, the dynamics are governed by universal scaling laws defined by the propagation of topological defects. Our results show that charge order in La2-x Ba x CuO4 exhibits dynamics favorable to the in-plane superconducting tunneling and establish time-resolved x-rays as a means to study excitations at energy scales inaccessible to conventional scattering techniques.

4.
Science ; 358(6368): 1314-1317, 2017 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29217574

RESUMO

Bose condensation has shaped our understanding of macroscopic quantum phenomena, having been realized in superconductors, atomic gases, and liquid helium. Excitons are bosons that have been predicted to condense into either a superfluid or an insulating electronic crystal. Using the recently developed technique of momentum-resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy (M-EELS), we studied electronic collective modes in the transition metal dichalcogenide semimetal 1T-TiSe2 Near the phase-transition temperature (190 kelvin), the energy of the electronic mode fell to zero at nonzero momentum, indicating dynamical slowing of plasma fluctuations and crystallization of the valence electrons into an exciton condensate. Our study provides compelling evidence for exciton condensation in a three-dimensional solid and establishes M-EELS as a versatile technique sensitive to valence band excitations in quantum materials.

5.
Struct Dyn ; 4(4): 044011, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28396880

RESUMO

The use of low temperature thermal detectors for avoiding Darwin-Bragg losses in lab-based ultrafast experiments has begun. An outline of the background of this new development is offered, showing the relevant history and initiative taken by this work.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(5): 1099-1104, 2017 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28212035

RESUMO

The detailed pathways of photoactivity on ultrafast time scales are a topic of contemporary interest. Using a tabletop apparatus based on a laser plasma X-ray source and an array of cryogenic microcalorimeter X-ray detectors, we measured a transient X-ray absorption spectrum during the ferrioxalate photoreduction reaction. With these high-efficiency detectors, we observe the Fe K edge move to lower energies and the amplitude of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure reduce, consistent with a photoreduction mechanism in which electron transfer precedes disassociation. These results are compared to previously published transient X-ray absorption measurements on the same reaction and found to be consistent with the results from Ogi et al. and inconsistent with the results of Chen et al. ( Ogi , Y. ; et al. Struct. Dyn. 2015 , 2 , 034901 ; Chen , J. ; Zhang , H. ; Tomov , I. V. ; Ding , X. ; Rentzepis , P. M. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2007 , 437 , 50 - 55 ). We provide quantitative limits on the Fe-O bond length change. Finally, we review potential improvements to our measurement technique, highlighting the future potential of tabletop X-ray science using microcalorimeter sensors.

7.
Science ; 330(6005): 805-8, 2010 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21051634

RESUMO

Electrons in graphene behave like Dirac fermions, permitting phenomena from high-energy physics to be studied in a solid-state setting. A key question is whether or not these fermions are critically influenced by Coulomb correlations. We performed inelastic x-ray scattering experiments on crystals of graphite and applied reconstruction algorithms to image the dynamical screening of charge in a freestanding graphene sheet. We found that the polarizability of the Dirac fermions is amplified by excitonic effects, improving screening of interactions between quasiparticles. The strength of interactions is characterized by a scale-dependent, effective fine-structure constant, α(g)* (k,ω), the value of which approaches 0.14 ± 0.092 ~ 1/7 at low energy and large distances. This value is substantially smaller than the nominal α(g) = 2.2, suggesting that, on the whole, graphene is more weakly interacting than previously believed.

8.
Adv Mater ; 22(10): 1141-7, 2010 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20401938

RESUMO

A new method for imaging ultrafast dynamics in condensed matter using inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is described. Using the concepts of causality and irreversibility a general solution to the inverse scattering problem (or "phase problem") for IXS is illustrated, which enables direct imaging of dynamics of the electron density with resolutions of approximately 1 attosecond (10(-18) s) in time and <1 A in space. This method is not just Fourier transformation of the IXS data, but a means to impose causality on the data and reconstruct the charge propagator. The method can also be applied to inelastic electron or neutron scattering. A general outline of phenomena that can and cannot be studied with this technique and an outlook for the future is provided.


Assuntos
Espalhamento de Radiação , Algoritmos , Elasticidade , Elétrons , Análise de Fourier , Nêutrons , Raios X
9.
Adv Mater ; 22(10): 1148-55, 2010 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20401939

RESUMO

This Progress Report presents temperature-, magnetic-field-, and pressure-dependent Raman measurements of strongly correlated materials such as the charge-ordering manganese perovskites, the multiferroic material TbMnO(3), and the charge-density wave (CDW) materials 1T-TiSe(2) and Cu(x)TiSe(2). These studies illustrate the rich array of phases and properties that can be accessed with field and pressure tuning in these materials, and demonstrate the efficacy of using magnetic-field- and pressure-dependent scattering methods to elucidate the microscopic changes associated with highly tunable behavior in complex materials.


Assuntos
Magnetismo , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Manganês/química , Óxidos/química , Fenômenos Físicos , Pressão , Teoria Quântica , Titânio/química
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