Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 19 de 19
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1178: 338809, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482865

RESUMO

We present a new analytical approach for the analysis of triacylglycerol fatty acyls distribution by normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with APPI+-HRMS. The NPLC method used allows the separation of more than 30 classes of lipids. The energy of the APPI+ source enables the formation of low-intensity ions B fragments ([RC = O+74]+ <3%), characteristic of lipids with a glycerol esterified by one or more fatty acyls. We found the relative intensities of ions B were close to the fatty acyl distribution. To establish the proof of concept, we decided to focus on the triacylglycerols (TGs) class, the major component of plant oils. By either NPLC or FIA, the TGs class appeared as a single peak. In our experimental conditions, ions B are always present in the mass spectra of TGs and each ion B is specific to a fatty acyl group. The Orbitrap mass spectrometer featured high enough resolution and accuracy to identify ions B and distinguish them from other TG fragment ions. A further adjustment of the fatty acyls relative quantities calculation from ions B intensities was computed using weighting coefficients of ions B response. The methodology was developed and validated using plant oils characterized by a GC-FID reference method. NPLC-APPI+-HRMS method offers the advantage of analyzing the fatty acyl composition of complex lipid extracts without the need for sample preparation.


Assuntos
Pressão Atmosférica , Monoglicerídeos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Lipídeos , Espectrometria de Massas , Triglicerídeos
2.
JCI Insight ; 6(10)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857018

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDHigh circulating levels of ceramides (Cer) and sphingomyelins (SM) are associated with cardiometabolic diseases. The consumption of whole fat dairy products, naturally containing such polar lipids (PL), is associated with health benefits, but the impact on sphingolipidome remains unknown.METHODSIn a 4-week randomized controlled trial, 58 postmenopausal women daily consumed milk PL-enriched cream cheese (0, 3, or 5 g of milk PL). Postprandial metabolic explorations were performed before and after supplementation. Analyses included SM and Cer species in serum, chylomicrons, and feces. The ileal contents of 4 ileostomy patients were also explored after acute milk PL intake.RESULTSMilk PL decreased serum atherogenic C24:1 Cer, C16:1 SM, and C18:1 SM species (Pgroup < 0.05). Changes in serum C16+18 SM species were positively correlated with the reduction of cholesterol (r = 0.706), LDL-C (r = 0.666), and ApoB (r = 0.705) (P < 0.001). Milk PL decreased chylomicron content in total SM and C24:1 Cer (Pgroup < 0.001), parallel to a marked increase in total Cer in feces (Pgroup < 0.001). Milk PL modulated some specific SM and Cer species in both ileal efflux and feces, suggesting differential absorption and metabolization processes in the gut.CONCLUSIONMilk PL supplementation decreased atherogenic SM and Cer species associated with the improvement of cardiovascular risk markers. Our findings bring insights on sphingolipid metabolism in the gut, especially Cer, as signaling molecules potentially participating in the beneficial effects of milk PL.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02099032, NCT02146339.FUNDINGANR-11-ALID-007-01; PHRCI-2014: VALOBAB, no. 14-007; CNIEL; GLN 2018-11-07; HCL (sponsor).

3.
ACS Omega ; 5(11): 5638-5642, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226839

RESUMO

A special electronic tongue system based on photoelectric measurements on Si-Si/SiN X sensitive structures is reported. The sensing approach is based on measuring of minority carrier lifetime in silicon-based substrates using microwave-detected photoconductance decay. This inexpensive and environmentally friendly combinatorial electronic sensing platform is able to create characteristic electronic fingerprints of liquids, detect, and recognize them. In particular, an application of the optoelectronic tongue for recognition of vegetable oils and their mixtures is described.

4.
Gut ; 69(3): 487-501, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether milk polar lipids (PL) impact human intestinal lipid absorption, metabolism, microbiota and associated markers of cardiometabolic health. DESIGN: A double-blind, randomised controlled 4-week study involving 58 postmenopausal women was used to assess the chronic effects of milk PL consumption (0, 3 or 5 g-PL/day) on lipid metabolism and gut microbiota. The acute effects of milk PL on intestinal absorption and metabolism of cholesterol were assessed in a randomised controlled crossover study using tracers in ileostomy patients. RESULTS: Over 4 weeks, milk PL significantly reduced fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of cholesterol and surrogate lipid markers of cardiovascular disease risk, including total/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein (Apo)B/ApoA1 ratios. The highest PL dose preferentially induced a decreased number of intestine-derived chylomicron particles. Also, milk PL increased faecal loss of coprostanol, a gut-derived metabolite of cholesterol, but major bacterial populations and faecal short-chain fatty acids were not affected by milk PL, regardless of the dose. Acute ingestion of milk PL by ileostomy patients shows that milk PL decreased cholesterol absorption and increased cholesterol-ileal efflux, which can be explained by the observed co-excretion with milk sphingomyelin in the gut. CONCLUSION: The present data demonstrate for the first time in humans that milk PL can improve the cardiometabolic health by decreasing several lipid cardiovascular markers, notably through a reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption involving specific interactions in the gut, without disturbing the major bacterial phyla of gut microbiota. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02099032 and NCT02146339; Results.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Esfingomielinas/metabolismo , Animais , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteína B-100/sangue , Colestanol/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Emulsificantes/farmacologia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ileostomia , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite/química , Pós-Menopausa , Fatores de Risco
5.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(11)2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690052

RESUMO

: Diabetes is characterized by a high mortality rate which is often associated with heart failure. Green tea and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are known to lessen some of the harmful impacts of diabetes and to exert cardio-protection. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of EPA, green tea extract (GTE), and a combination of both on the cardiac consequences of diabetes mellitus, induced in Wistar rats by injection of a low dose of streptozotocin (33 mg/kg) combined with a high fat diet. Cardiac mechanical function, coronary reactivity, and parameters of oxidative stress, inflammation, and energy metabolism were evaluated. In the context of diabetes, GTE alone limited several diabetes-related symptoms such as inflammation. It also slightly improved coronary reactivity and considerably enhanced lipid metabolism. EPA alone caused the rapid death of the animals, but this effect was negated by the addition of GTE in the diet. EPA and GTE combined enhanced coronary reactivity considerably more than GTE alone. In a context of significant oxidative stress such as during diabetes mellitus, EPA enrichment constitutes a risk factor for animal survival. It is essential to associate it with the antioxidants contained in GTE in order to decrease mortality rate and preserve cardiac function.

6.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(4): e1801078, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628158

RESUMO

SCOPE: Enhanced adiposity and metabolic inflammation are major features of obesity associated with altered gut microbiota and intestinal barrier. How these metabolic outcomes can be impacted by milk polar lipids (MPL), naturally containing 25% of sphingomyelin, is investigated in mice fed a mixed high-fat (HF) diet . METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57Bl/6 mice receive a HF-diet devoid of MPL (21% fat, mainly palm oil, in chow), or supplemented with 1.1% or 1.6% of MPL (HF-MPL1; HF-MPL2) via a total-lipid extract from butterserum concentrate for 8 weeks. HF-MPL2 mice gain less weight versus HF (p < 0.01). Diets do not impact plasma markers of inflammation but in the liver, HF-MPL2 tends to decrease hepatic gene expression of macrophage marker F4/80 versus HF-MPL1 (p = 0.06). Colonic crypt depth is the maximum in HF-MPL2 (p < 0.05). In cecal microbiota, HF-MPL1 increases Bifidobacterium animalis versus HF (p < 0.05). HF-MPL2 decreases Lactobacillus reuteri (p < 0.05), which correlates negatively with the fecal loss of milk sphingomyelin-specific fatty acids (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In mice fed a mixed HF diet, MPL can limit HF-induced body weight gain and modulate gut physiology and the abundance in microbiota of bacteria of metabolic interest. This supports further exploration of how residual unabsorbed lipids reaching the colon can impact HF-induced metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Leite/química , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fezes , Absorção Intestinal , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/análise , Lipídeos/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Esfingomielinas/farmacologia , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
J Nutr Biochem ; 65: 128-138, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685581

RESUMO

Milk polar lipids (MPL) are specifically rich in milk sphingomyelin (MSM) which represents 24% of MPL. Beneficial effects of MPL or MSM have been reported on lipid metabolism, but information on gut physiology is scarce. Here we assessed whether MPL and MSM can impact tight junction expression. Human epithelial intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells were incubated with mixed lipid micelles devoid of MSM (Control) or with 0.2 or 0.4 mM of MSM via pure MSM or via total MPL. C57Bl/6 mice received 5 or 10 mg of MSM via MSM or via MPL (oral gavage); small intestinal segments were collected after 4 h. Impacts on tight junction and cytokine expressions were assessed by qPCR; IL-8 and IL-8 murine homologs (Cxcl1, Cxcl2) were analyzed. In vitro, MSM increased tight junction expression (Occludin, ZO-1) vs Control, unlike MPL. However, no differences were observed in permeability assays (FITC-dextran, Lucifer yellow). MSM increased the secretion and gene expression of IL-8 but not of other inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, cell incubation with IL-8 induced an overexpression of tight junction proteins. In mice, mRNA level of Cxcl1 and Cxcl2 in the ileum were increased after gavage with MSM vs NaCl but not with MPL. Altogether, these results suggest a specific action of MSM on intestinal tight junction expression, possibly mediated by IL-8. Our study provides clues to shed light on the beneficial effects of MPL on intestinal functions and supports the need for further mechanistic exploration of the direct vs indirect effects of MSM and IL-8 on the gut barrier.


Assuntos
Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Leite/química , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Quimiocina CXCL1/genética , Quimiocina CXCL2/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Intestinos/citologia , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Esfingomielinas/administração & dosagem , Esfingomielinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789127

RESUMO

The brain is highly enriched in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) that are esterified into phospholipids, the major components of cell membranes. They accumulate during the perinatal period when the brain is rapidly developing. Hence, the levels of LC-PUFAs in the brains of the offspring greatly depend on maternal dietary intake. Perinatal n-3 PUFA consumption has been suggested to modulate the activity of microglial cells, the brain's innate immune cells which contribute to the shaping of neuronal network during development. However, the impact of maternal n-3 PUFA intake on microglial lipid composition in the offspring has never been studied. To investigate the impact of maternal dietary n-3 PUFA supply on microglia lipid composition, pregnant mice were fed with n-3 PUFA deficient, n-3 PUFA balanced or n-3 PUFA supplemented diets during gestation and lactation. At weaning, microglia were isolated from the pup's brains to analyze their fatty acid composition and phospholipid class levels. We here report that post-natal microglial cells displayed a distinctive lipid profile as they contained high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), more EPA than docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and large amount of phosphatidylinositol (PI) / phosphatidylserine (PS). Maternal n-3 PUFA supply increased DHA levels and decreased n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) levels whereas the PI/PS membrane content was inversely correlated to the quantity of PUFAs in the diet. These results raise the possibility of modulating microglial lipid profile and their subsequent activity in the developing brain.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/análise , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Lactação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Camundongos , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Desmame
9.
J Nutr Biochem ; 43: 116-124, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28284063

RESUMO

Obesity and type 2 diabetes are nutritional pathologies, characterized by a subclinical inflammatory state. Endotoxins are now well recognized as an important factor implicated in the onset and maintain of this inflammatory state during fat digestion in high-fat diet. As a preventive strategy, lipid formulation could be optimized to limit these phenomena, notably regarding fatty acid profile and PL emulsifier content. Little is known about soybean polar lipid (SPL) consumption associated to oils rich in saturated FA vs. anti-inflammatory omega-3 FA such as α-linolenic acid on inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia. We then investigated in mice the effect of different synthetic diets enriched with two different oils, palm oil or flaxseed oil and containing or devoid of SPL on adipose tissue inflammation and endotoxin receptors. In both groups containing SPL, adipose tissue (WAT) increased compared with groups devoid of SPL and an induction of MCP-1 and LBP was observed in WAT. However, only the high-fat diet in which flaxseed oil was associated with SPL resulted in both higher WAT inflammation and higher circulating sCD14 in plasma. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that LPS transporters LBP and sCD14 and adipose tissue inflammation can be modulated by SPL in high fat diets differing in oil composition. Notably high-flaxseed oil diet exerts a beneficial metabolic impact, however blunted by PL addition. Our study suggests that nutritional strategies can be envisaged by optimizing dietary lipid sources in manufactured products, including fats/oils and polar lipid emulsifiers, in order to limit the inflammatory impact of palatable foods.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Óleo de Semente do Linho/farmacologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Óleo de Palmeira/farmacologia , Paniculite/etiologia , Soja/química , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
10.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 60(3): 609-20, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26592505

RESUMO

SCOPE: Enhanced adiposity and metabolic inflammation are major features of obesity that could be impacted by dietary emulsifiers. We investigated in high-fat fed mice the effects of using a new polar lipid (PL) emulsifier from milk (MPL) instead of soybean lecithin (soybean PL [SPL]) on adipose tissue and intestinal mucosa function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four groups of C57BL6 mice received for 8 wks a low-fat (LF) diet or a high-fat diet devoid of PLs or an high-fat diet including MPL (high-fat-MPL) or SPL (high-fat-SPL). Compared with high-fat diet, high-fat-SPL diet increased white adipose tissue (WAT) mass (p < 0.05), with larger adipocytes (p < 0.05) and increased expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, monochemoattractant protein-1, LPS-binding protein, and leptin (p < 0.05). This was not observed with high-fat-MPL diet despite similar dietary intakes and increased expression of fatty acid transport protein 4 and microsomal TG transfer protein, involved in lipid absorption, in upper intestine (p < 0.05). High-fat-MPL mice had a lower expression in WAT of cluster of differentiation 68, marker of macrophage infiltration, versus high-fat and high-fat-SPL mice (p < 0.05), and more goblet cells in the colon (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Unlike SPL, MPL in the high-fat diet did not induce WAT hypertrophy and inflammation but increased colonic goblet cells. This supports further clinical exploration of different sources of dietary emulsifiers in the frame of obesity outbreak.


Assuntos
Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Emulsificantes/farmacologia , Células Caliciformes/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química , Soja/química , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células CACO-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/citologia , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lecitinas/química , Lecitinas/farmacologia , Lipídeos/análise , Lipídeos/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Paniculite/induzido quimicamente , Paniculite/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 16(4): 8430-53, 2015 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25884332

RESUMO

The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop's byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.


Assuntos
Furanos/química , Extração Líquido-Líquido/economia , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Química Verde , Hexanos/química , Cinética , Óleo de Brassica napus , Solubilidade
12.
PLoS One ; 9(3): e92237, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24663078

RESUMO

Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the final and only committed step of triacylglycerol synthesis. DGAT activity is rate limiting for triacylglycerol accumulation in mammals, plants and microbes. DGATs belong to three different evolutionary classes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, DGAT1, encoded by At2g19450, is the major DGAT enzyme involved in triacylglycerol accumulation in seeds. Until recently, the function of DGAT2 (At3g51520) has remained elusive. Previous attempts to characterize its enzymatic function by heterologous expression in yeast were unsuccessful. In the present report we demonstrate that expression of a codon-optimized version of the DGAT2 gene is able to restore neutral lipid accumulation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain (H1246), which is defective in triacylglycerol biosynthesis. Heterologous expression of codon-optimized DGAT2 and DGAT1 induced the biogenesis of subcellular lipid droplets containing triacylglycerols and squalene. Both DGAT proteins were found to be associated with these lipid droplets. The fatty acid composition was affected by the nature of the acyltransferase expressed. DGAT2 preferentially incorporated C16:1 fatty acids whereas DGAT1 displayed preference for C16:0, strongly suggesting that these enzymes have contrasting substrate specificities.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Códon/genética , Expressão Gênica , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Mutação , Transporte Proteico , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese
13.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 7: 2, 2010 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20148111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in the neonates. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids) or alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%). At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA) profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. RESULTS: In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P < 0.0001) and brain glial cell PE (+18%, P = 0.0001) and PS (+15%, P = 0.0009) were significantly increased compared to the ALA group. The filtered correlation analysis (P < 0.05) underlined that levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), DHA and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were negatively correlated with arachidonic acid (ARA) and n-6 DPA in PE of brain glial cells. No significant correlation between n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA were found in the PS dataset. DMA level in PE was negatively correlated with n-6 DPA. DMA were found to occur in brain glial cell PS fraction; in this class DMA level was correlated negatively with DHA and positively with ARA. CONCLUSION: The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue ethanolamine plasmalogen status. The combination of multivariate and bivariate statistics allowed to underline that the accretion pattern of n-3 LC-PUFA in PE and PS differ.

14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 87(3): 558-66, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18326592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The consumption of monounsaturated trans fatty acids (TFAs) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Putative differences between the effects of TFAs from industrially produced and natural sources on CVD risk markers were not previously investigated in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the effects of TFAs from industrially produced and natural sources on HDL and LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein particle size and distribution, apolipoproteins, and other lipids in healthy subjects. DESIGN: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover design, 46 healthy subjects (22 men and 24 women) consumed food items containing TFAs (11-12 g/d, representing approximately 5% of daily energy) from the 2 sources. RESULTS: Forty subjects (19 men and 21 women) completed the study. Compared with TFAs from industrially produced sources, TFAs from natural sources significantly (P = 0.012) increased HDL cholesterol in women but not in men. Significant (P = 0.001) increases in LDL-cholesterol concentrations were observed in women, but not in men, after the consumption of TFAs from natural sources. Apolipoprotein (apo)B and apoA1 concentrations confirmed the changes observed in LDL and HDL cholesterol. Analysis of lipoprotein subclass showed that only large HDL and LDL concentrations were modified by TFAs from natural sources but not by those from industrially produced sources. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that TFAs from industrially produced and from natural sources have different effects on CVD risk factors in women. The HDL cholesterol-lowering property of TFAs seems to be specific to industrial sources. However, it is difficult in the present study to draw a conclusion about the effect of TFAs from either source on absolute CVD risk in these normolipidemic subjects. The mechanism underlying the observed sex- and isomer-specific effects warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ácidos Graxos trans/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Manteiga/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Queijo/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Ácidos Graxos trans/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos trans/metabolismo
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1154(1-2): 353-9, 2007 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17449039

RESUMO

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) of the n-3 series and especially eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively) have important biological properties. The main dietary sources of LC-PUFAs are fish and fish oil. Geometrical isomerization is one of the main reactions happening during the thermal treatment of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Refined fish oils are used to supplement food products in LC-PUFAs and the quality of these nutritional ingredients have to be controlled. In the present study, a suitable method for the quantification of EPA and DHA geometrical isomers in fish oils by gas-liquid chromatography (GC) is presented. A highly polar capillary column (CP-Sil 88, 100 m) operating under optimal conditions was used. Method selectivity was studied by GC-mass spectrometry. The performance characteristics of the quantification method were studied using samples of fish oil deodorized at 220 degrees C for 3 h. The linearity of the method was assessed by analyzing composite samples obtained by mixing fish oil deodorized at 220 degrees C with semi-refined fish oil (control). Precision was evaluated by analyzing the same samples in triplicate. Results showed that the validated method is suitable to quantify low amounts of geometrical (trans) isomers of EPA and DHA in refined fish oils. The limits of quantification of the EPA and DHA geometrical isomers are 0.16 and 0.56 g/100 g of fish oil, for EPA and DHA, respectively. Commercially available LC-PUFA oil samples were evaluated by using the validated method. The results show that the oils analyzed contain low amounts (<1% of total fatty acids) of geometrical isomers of EPA and DHA.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Óleos de Peixe/química , Isomerismo , Odorantes/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Incerteza
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1145(1-2): 222-8, 2007 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17275831

RESUMO

Accurate quantification of trans-fatty acids (TFAs) could be achieved by infrared spectroscopy or by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Accurate quantification by GLC should be achieved using specific highly polar capillary columns such as 100 m CP-Sil 88 or equivalent. A pre-fractionation of cis and trans-fatty acids could be performed by silver-ion thin-layer chromatography (Ag-TLC), silver-ion solid-phase extraction (Ag-SPE), or by high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC). A pre-fractionation step allows accurate determination of the isomeric profile but it is not essential to achieve quantification of total trans-18:1 isomers nor to determine the level of vaccenic (trans-11 18:1) acid in dairy fat. TFA content could also be calculated in milk fat based on the TAG profile determined by GLC. In this paper, different GLC methods suitable to measure the total of trans-18:1 isomers, vaccenic acid and trans-18:1 acid isomeric distribution in milk fat were compared. Pre-separation of cis- and trans-18:1 isomers by Ag-TLC followed by GLC analysis under optimal conditions was selected as the reference method. Results obtained using alternative methods including pre-separation by HPLC followed by GLC analysis, direct quantification by GLC or calculation from the triacylglycerol (TAG) profile were compared to data acquired using the reference method. Results showed that accurate quantification of total trans-18:1 isomers and vaccenic acid could be achieved by direct quantification by GLC under optimal chromatographic conditions. This method represents a very good alternative to Ag-TLC followed by GLC analysis. On the other hand, we showed that pre-fractionation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by HPLC represents a good alternative to Ag-TLC, even if some minor isomers are not selectively purified using this procedure.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Gorduras/química , Leite/química , Ácidos Esteáricos/análise , Ácidos Graxos trans/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Isomerismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ácidos Esteáricos/química , Ácidos Graxos trans/química
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1131(1-2): 227-34, 2006 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16893547

RESUMO

Detection of foreign fat in milk fat can be performed by analyzing triacylglycerols (TAGs) by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) using the standardized methodology. The standard methodology recommends the use of a packed column, which allows the separation of milk TAGs according to their chain length (total carbon number). This procedure is not widely applied because these columns are not commercially available. This study describes a fast methodology by using a short apolar open-tubular capillary column. The developed experimental conditions can be used to obtain the chromatographic resolution required in the standardized procedure, and the separation of milk fat TAGs (C24 to C54) is achieved in less than 4 min. As indicated by the standardized method, the quantification was performed by calibration using the certified reference material CRM-519 butterfat as standard substance. The methodology was fully validated and relative repeatability values were compared with the values provided in the standardized procedure. The developed method was applied to detect adulteration of milk fat with partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs). PHVOs contain variable amount of trans-18:1 acids and two different PHVOs having different trans-18:1 acid levels (13 and 38%) were added to milk fat at levels ranging from 5 to 30%. The obtained mixtures were analyzed by GLC and formulas established by the European Union were applied. Calculated S values indicated that PHVOs in milk fat could be analyzed at these levels. Approximate amounts of PHVOs added to the composite samples could be calculated using the standardized formula. The impact of adulteration of milk fat with PHVOs, which contains an important amount of trans-9 and trans-10 18:1 acid isomers, was investigated as a complementary analytical criteria. We showed in composite samples, that the trans-18:1 acid isomeric distributions are distinct when referenced to the original milk fat profile and that trans-9 18:1 acid isomer is a good indicator of the occurrence of PHVOs in milk fat. Our results showed clearly that a short apolar capillary column can be used instead of a packed-column and that the mathematical model developed for the detection of foreign fat was suitable to detect adulteration of milk fat with PHVOs.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Leite/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Animais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ácidos Graxos trans/análise , Triglicerídeos/química
18.
Reprod Nutr Dev ; 44(2): 123-30, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15270550

RESUMO

Cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM), which occur from the intramolecular cyclisation of linoleic and linolenic acids, are subsequently present in some edible oils and are suspected to induce metabolic disorders. One may suggest that the presence of a ring would alter the ability of the organism to oxidise these molecules. In order to test this hypothesis, we assessed the oxidative metabolism of CFAM in rats. For this purpose, rats were force-fed from 1.5 to 2.6 MBq of [1-(14)C]-linoleic acid, [1-(14)C]-linolenic acid, [1-(14)C]-CFAM-18:2 or [1-(14)C]-CFAM-18:3, and 14CO2 production was monitored for 24 h. The animals were then sacrificed and the radioactivity was determined in different tissues. No significant differences in 14CO2 production were found 24 h after the administration of CFAM and their respective precursors. Our data clearly demonstrate that, at least for the first beta-oxidation cycle, CFAM are oxidised in a similar way as both essential fatty acids.


Assuntos
Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Linoleico/química , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos , Oxirredução , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Distribuição Tecidual , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/administração & dosagem , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/química
19.
Lipids ; 38(9): 957-63, 2003 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14584603

RESUMO

Cyclic FA monomers (CFAM) formed during heating of alpha-linolenic acid have been reported to interfere in hepatic metabolism in a putatively peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-dependent manner. In the present work, CFAM (0.5% of the diet) were administered for 3 wk to wild-type and PPARalpha-null mice of both genders to elucidate the role of PPARalpha in mediating the effects of CFAM on the activity of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) and omega-laurate hydroxylase (CYP4A), the regulation of which is known to be dependent on the PPARalpha. Dietary CFAM enhanced CYP4A activity threefold in male and female wild-type mice. This effect was abolished in PPARalpha-null mice. A twofold induction of ACO activity was found in wild-type female mice fed CFAM; however, no effect was seen in males. In wild-type animals, (omega-1)-laurate hydroxylase (CYP2E1) activity, the expression of which has not been shown to be PPARalpha dependent, was not affected by the CFAM diet. In contrast, stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity was reduced in wild-type mice. CFAM feeding reduced the activities of ACO, CYP2E1, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase and caused accumulation of lipids in the livers of female PPARalpha-null mice. These data show that CFAM apparently activate gene expression via the PPARalpha and have profound effects on lipid homeostasis, exacerbating the disturbances preexisting in mice lacking functional PPARalpha. Although the data emphasize the importance of PPARalpha in the metabolism of the CFAM, these results show that PPARalpha is not the exclusive mediator of the effects of CFAM in lipid metabolism in mice.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Ácido Linoleico/química , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclização , Citocromo P-450 CYP4A/metabolismo , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/deficiência , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/deficiência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...