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J Phys Condens Matter ; 27(16): 164206, 2015 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25835249


In order to exploit the intriguing optical properties of graphene it is essential to gain a better understanding of the light-matter interaction in the material on ultrashort timescales. Exciting the Dirac fermions with intense ultrafast laser pulses triggers a series of processes involving interactions between electrons, phonons and impurities. Here we study these interactions in epitaxial graphene supported on silicon carbide (semiconducting) and iridium (metallic) substrates using ultrafast time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TR-ARPES) based on high harmonic generation. For the semiconducting substrate we reveal a complex hot carrier dynamics that manifests itself in an elevated electronic temperature and an increase in linewidth of the π band. By analyzing these effects we are able to disentangle electron relaxation channels in graphene. On the metal substrate this hot carrier dynamics is found to be severely perturbed by the presence of the metal, and we find that the electronic system is much harder to heat up than on the semiconductor due to screening of the laser field by the metal.

Nano Lett ; 15(1): 326-31, 2015 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25458168


Time- and angle-resolved photoemission measurements on two doped graphene samples displaying different doping levels reveal remarkable differences in the ultrafast dynamics of the hot carriers in the Dirac cone. In the more strongly (n-)doped graphene, we observe larger carrier multiplication factors (>3) and a significantly faster phonon-mediated cooling of the carriers back to equilibrium compared to in the less (p-)doped graphene. These results suggest that a careful tuning of the doping level allows for an effective manipulation of graphene's dynamical response to a photoexcitation.

Phys Rev Lett ; 112(25): 257401, 2014 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25014829


Bilayer graphene is a highly promising material for electronic and optoelectronic applications since it is supporting massive Dirac fermions with a tunable band gap. However, no consistent picture of the gap's effect on the optical and transport behavior has emerged so far, and it has been proposed that the insulating nature of the gap could be compromised by unavoidable structural defects, by topological in-gap states, or that the electronic structure could be altogether changed by many-body effects. Here, we directly follow the excited carriers in bilayer graphene on a femtosecond time scale, using ultrafast time- and angle-resolved photoemission. We find a behavior consistent with a single-particle band gap. Compared to monolayer graphene, the existence of this band gap leads to an increased carrier lifetime in the minimum of the lowest conduction band. This is in sharp contrast to the second substate of the conduction band, in which the excited electrons decay through fast, phonon-assisted interband transitions.

Rev Sci Instrum ; 85(1): 013907, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24517782


The interaction of light with a material's electronic system creates an out-of-equilibrium (non-thermal) distribution of optically excited electrons. Non-equilibrium dynamics relaxes this distribution on an ultrafast timescale to a hot Fermi-Dirac distribution with a well-defined temperature. The advent of time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TR-ARPES) experiments has made it possible to track the decay of the temperature of the excited hot electrons in selected states in the Brillouin zone, and to reveal their cooling in unprecedented detail in a variety of emerging materials. It is, however, not a straightforward task to determine the temperature with high accuracy. This is mainly attributable to an a priori unknown position of the Fermi level and the fact that the shape of the Fermi edge can be severely perturbed when the state in question is crossing the Fermi energy. Here, we introduce a method that circumvents these difficulties and accurately extracts both the temperature and the position of the Fermi level for a hot carrier distribution by tracking the occupation statistics of the carriers measured in a TR-ARPES experiment.

Phys Rev Lett ; 111(2): 027403, 2013 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23889442


The ultrafast dynamics of excited carriers in graphene is closely linked to the Dirac spectrum and plays a central role for many electronic and optoelectronic applications. Harvesting energy from excited electron-hole pairs, for instance, is only possible if these pairs can be separated before they lose energy to vibrations, merely heating the lattice. Until now, the hot carrier dynamics in graphene could only be accessed indirectly. Here, we present a dynamical view on the Dirac cone by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. This allows us to show the quasi-instant thermalization of the electron gas to a temperature of ≈2000 K, to determine the time-resolved carrier density, and to disentangle the subsequent decay into excitations of optical phonons and acoustic phonons (directly and via supercollisions).

J Phys Condens Matter ; 25(9): 094001, 2013 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23399941


Quasi-free-standing monolayer graphene can be produced by intercalating species like oxygen or hydrogen between epitaxial graphene and the substrate crystal. If the graphene was indeed decoupled from the substrate, one would expect the observation of a similar electronic dispersion and many-body effects, irrespective of the substrate and the material used to achieve the decoupling. Here we investigate the electron-phonon coupling in two different types of quasi-free-standing monolayer graphene: decoupled from SiC via hydrogen intercalation and decoupled from Ir via oxygen intercalation. The two systems show similar overall behaviours of the self-energy and a weak renormalization of the bands near the Fermi energy. The electron-phonon coupling is found to be so weak that it renders the precise determination of the coupling constant λ through renormalization difficult. The estimated value of λ is 0.05(3) for both systems.