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1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current markers predicting tumour progression of pituitary adenomas after surgery are insufficient. Our objective was to investigate if minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (MCM7) expression predicts tumour progression in non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). METHODS: In a cohort study of surgically treated NFPAs, two groups with distinctly different behaviour of a residual tumour were selected: one group requiring reintervention due to tumour progression (reintervention group, n=57) and one with residual tumours without progression (radiologically stable group, n=40). MCM7, Ki-67, estrogen receptor-⍺ expression, mitotic index and tumour subtype was assessed by immunohistochemistry and their association with tumour progression requiring reintervention was analysed. RESULTS: Median (IQR) MCM7 expression was 7.4% (2.4-15.2) in the reintervention group compared with 2.0% (0.6-5.3) in the radiologically stable group (P<0.0001). Cox regression analysis showed an association between high (>13%) MCM7 expression and reintervention (HR 3.1; 95%CI:1.7-5.4; P=0.00012). The probability for reintervention within 6 years for patients with high MCM7 was 93%. Ki-67 expression >3% (P=0.00062), age ≤55 years (P=0.00034) and mitotic index ≥1 (P=0.024) were also associated with reintervention. Using a receiver operating characteristics curve, a predictive model for reintervention with all the above predictors yielded an area under the curve of 82%. All eight patients with both high MCM7 and high Ki-67 needed reintervention. CONCLUSION: This cohort study shows that expression of MCM7 is a predictor for clinically significant postoperative tumour progression. Together with age, Ki-67 and mitotic index, MCM7 might be of added value as a predictive marker when managing patients with NFPA after surgery.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569699

RESUMO

This thematic review includes short reviews on GH deficiency and insensitivity in children and adults from basic science to clinical significance.

3.
Endocrine ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512658

RESUMO

This article aims to provide guidance on prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in patients with genetic obesity. Key principals of the management of patients with genetic obesity during COVID-19 pandemic for patients that have contracted COVID-19 are to be aware of: possible adrenal insufficiency (e.g., POMC deficiency, PWS); a more severe course in patients with concomitant immunodeficiency (e.g., LEP and LEPR deficiency), although defective leptin signalling could also be protective against the pro-inflammatory phenotype of COVID-19; disease severity being masked by insufficient awareness of symptoms in syndromic obesity patients with intellectual deficit (in particular PWS); to adjust medication dose to increased body size, preferably use dosing in m2; the high risk of malnutrition in patients with Sars-Cov2 infection, even in case of obesity. Key principals of the obesity management during the pandemic are to strive for optimal obesity management and a healthy lifestyle within the possibilities of the regulations to prevent weight (re)gain and to address anxiety within consultations, since prevalence of anxiety for COVID-19 is underestimated.

4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320830

RESUMO

Guidelines recommend adults with pituitary disease in whom GH therapy is contemplated, to be tested for GH deficiency (AGHD); however, clinical practice is not uniform. AIMS: 1) To record current practice of AGHD management throughout Europe and benchmark it against guidelines; 2) To evaluate educational status of healthcare professionals about AGHD. DESIGN: On-line survey in endocrine centres throughout Europe. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Endocrinologists voluntarily completed an electronic questionnaire regarding AGHD patients diagnosed or treated in 2017-2018. RESULTS: Twenty-eight centres from 17 European countries participated, including 2139 AGHD patients, 28% of childhood-onset GHD. Aetiology was most frequently non-functioning pituitary adenoma (26%), craniopharyngioma (13%) and genetic/congenital mid-line malformations (13%). Diagnosis of GHD was confirmed by a stimulation test in 52% (GHRH+arginine, 45%; insulin-tolerance, 42%, glucagon, 6%; GHRH alone and clonidine tests, 7%); in the remaining, ≥3 pituitary deficiencies and low serum IGF-I were diagnostic. Initial GH dose was lower in older patients, but only women <26 years were prescribed a higher dose than men; dose titration was based on normal serum IGF-I, tolerance and side-effects. In one country, AGHD treatment was not approved. Full public reimbursement was not available in four countries and only in childhood-onset GHD in another. AGHD awareness was low among non-endocrine professionals and healthcare administrators. Postgraduate AGHD curriculum training deserves being improved. CONCLUSION: Despite guideline recommendations, GH replacement in AGHD is still not available or reimbursed in all European countries. Knowledge among professionals and health administrators needs improvement to optimize care of adults with GHD.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236103

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Oral once-daily dual-release hydrocortisone (DR-HC) replacement therapy has demonstrated an improved metabolic profile compared to conventional 3-times-daily (TID-HC) therapy among patients with primary adrenal insufficiency. This effect might be related to a more physiological cortisol profile, but also to a modified pattern of cortisol metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To study cortisol metabolism during DR-HC and TID-HC. DESIGN: Randomized, 12-week, crossover study. INTERVENTION AND PARTICIPANTS: DC-HC and same daily dose of TID-HC in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (n=50) versus healthy subjects (n=124) as control. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Urinary corticosteroid metabolites measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on 24-hour urinary collections. RESULTS: Total cortisol metabolites decreased during DR-HC compared to TID-HC (P < 0.001) and reached control values (P = 0.089). During DR-HC, 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD1) activity measured by tetrahydrocortisol+5α-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratio was reduced compared to TID-HC (P < 0.05), but remained increased versus controls (P < 0.001). 11ß-HSD2 activity measured by urinary free cortisone/free cortisol ratio was decreased with TID-HC versus controls (P < 0.01) but normalized with DR-HC (P = 0.358). 5α- and 5ß-reduced metabolites were decreased with DR-HC compared to TID-HC. Tetrahydrocortisol/5α-tetrahydrocortisol ratio was increased during both treatments, suggesting increased 5ß-reductase activity. CONCLUSIONS: The urinary cortisol metabolome shows striking abnormalities in patients receiving conventional TID-HC replacement therapy with increased 11ß-HSD1 activity that may account for the unfavorable metabolic phenotype in primary adrenal insufficiency. Its change towards normalization with DR-HC may mediate beneficial metabolic effects. The urinary cortisol metabolome may serve as a tool to assess optimal cortisol replacement therapy.

6.
J Endocr Soc ; 4(12): bvaa160, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241171

RESUMO

Context: Pharmacokinetic properties of cortisone acetate (CA) and hydrocortisone (HC) differ because CA needs to be converted into cortisol to become active. Objective: This work analyzed the metabolic consequences of switching CA to an equivalent daily dose of HC in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI). Design: This was a post hoc analysis from a prospective study including individuals with hypopituitarism receiving growth hormone replacement. Data were collected before and after a switch from CA to an equivalent dose of HC (switch group). Two control groups were included: patients continuing CA replacement (CA control group) and adrenal-sufficient hypopituitary patients (AS control group). Results: The analysis included 229 patients: 105, 31, and 93 in the switch, CA control, and AS control groups, respectively. After the change from CA to HC, increases in mean body weight (1.2 kg; P < .05), waist circumference (2.9 cm; P < .001), body fat measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (1.3 kg; P < .001), and glycated hemoglobin (0.3%; P < .05) were recorded in the switch group. The increase in mean waist circumference was greater than in the AS control group (0.9 cm; P < .05). Mean body fat increased in the switch group but not in the CA control group (-0.7 kg; P < .05). Conclusions: A switch from CA to an equivalent dose of HC was associated with a worsened metabolic profile, suggesting that HC has a more powerful metabolic action than CA based on the assumption that 20 mg HC equals 25 mg CA.

7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(12)2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869850

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Patients with craniopharyngioma suffer from obesity and impaired bone health. Little is known about longitudinal changes in body composition and bone mineral density (BMD). OBJECTIVE: To describe body composition and BMD (change). DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal study. SETTING: Two Dutch/Swedish referral centers. PATIENTS: Patients with craniopharyngioma (n = 112) with a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan available (2 DXA scans, n = 86; median Δtime 10.0 years; range 0.4-23.3) at age ≥ 18 years (58 [52%] male, 50 [45%] childhood onset). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Longitudinal changes of body composition and BMD, and associated factors of ΔZ-score (sex and age standardized). RESULTS: BMI (from 28.8 ±â€…4.9 to 31.2 ±â€…5.1 kg/m2, P < .001), fat mass index (FMI) (from 10.5 ±â€…3.6 to 11.9 ±â€…3.8 kg/m2, P = .001), and fat free mass index (FFMI) (from 18.3 ±â€…3.2 to 19.1 ±â€…3.2 kg/m2, P < .001) were high at baseline and increased. Fat percentage and Z-scores of body composition did not increase, except for FFMI Z-scores (from 0.26 ±â€…1.62 to 1.06 ±â€…2.22, P < .001). Z-scores of total body, L2-L4, femur neck increased (mean difference 0.61 ± 1.12, P < .001; 0.74 ± 1.73, P < .001; 0.51 ±â€…1.85, P = .02). Linear regression models for ΔZ-score were positively associated with growth hormone replacement therapy (GHRT) (femur neck: beta 1.45 [95% CI 0.51-2.39]); and negatively with radiotherapy (femur neck: beta -0.79 [-1.49 to -0.09]), glucocorticoid dose (total body: beta -0.06 [-0.09 to -0.02]), and medication to improve BMD (L2-L4: beta -1.06 [-1.84 to -0.28]). CONCLUSIONS: Z-scores of BMI, fat percentage, and FMI remained stable in patients with craniopharyngioma over time, while Z-scores of FFMI and BMD increased. Higher glucocorticoid dose and radiotherapy were associated with BMD loss and GHRT with increase.

8.
Endocrine ; 70(2): 412-420, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813212

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) have excess mortality and morbidity, mainly due to cardiovascular (CV) diseases. The mechanisms for this is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess CV structure and function in AI patients on conventional replacement therapy and after switching to once-daily, modified-release hydrocortisone (OD-HC) in comparison with healthy matched controls. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of 17 adult AI patients (11 with primary AI, 6 with secondary AI) on stable replacement with cortisone acetate [median (minimum, maximum) 33.5 (12.5-50) mg] and, if needed, fludrocortisone [0.1 (0.05-0.2) mg], and 17 healthy matched controls. Ten patients were switched to an equivalent dose of OD-HC. Data from echocardiography, 24 h Holter-ECG and 24 h blood pressure monitoring were collected at baseline and 6 months after the switch to OD-HC. RESULTS: At baseline, AI patients had smaller left ventricular diastolic diameter (47.1 ± 4.2 vs. 51.6 ± 2.3 mm; P = 0.001) and left atrial diameter (34.9 ± 4.7 vs. 38.2 ± 2.6 cm; P = 0.018), and a higher ejection fraction (62.5 ± 6.9% vs. 56.0 ± 4.7%; P = 0.003) than controls. AI patients had lower nocturnal systolic and diastolic blood pressure than controls (108 ± 15 mmHg vs. 117 ± 8 mmHg; P = 0.038 and 65 ± 9 mmHg vs. 73 ± 7 mmHg; P = 0.008, respectively). After the switch to OD-HC, nocturnal diastolic blood pressure normalised. No significant changes were observed in echocardiographic and Holter-ECG parameters following the switch. CONCLUSIONS: AI patients on conventional treatment display cardiovascular abnormalities that could be related to hypovolemia. Switch to OD-HC seems to have beneficial effect on blood pressure profile, but no effect on cardiovascular structure and function.

9.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(7): e17697, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with pituitary tumors often live with lifelong consequences of their disease. Treatment options include surgery, radiotherapy, and medical therapy. Symptoms associated with the tumor or its treatment affect several areas of life. Patients need to adhere to long-term contact with both specialist and general health care providers due to the disease, complex treatments, and associated morbidity. The first year after pituitary surgery constitutes an important time period, with medical evaluations after surgery and decisions on hormonal substitution. The development and evaluation of extended patient support during this time are limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate whether support within a person-centered care practice increases wellbeing for patients with pituitary tumors. Our main hypothesis is that the extended support will result in increased psychological wellbeing compared with the support given within standard of care. Secondary objectives are to evaluate whether the extended support, compared with standard care, will result in (1) better health status, (2) less fatigue, (3) higher satisfaction with care, (4) higher self-efficacy, (5) increased person-centered content in care documentation, and (6) sustained patient safety. METHODS: Within a quasiexperimental design, patients diagnosed with a pituitary tumor planned for neurosurgery are consecutively included in a pretest-posttest study performed at a specialist endocrine clinic. The control group receives standard of care after surgery, and the interventional group receives structured patient support for 1 year after surgery based on person-centeredness covering self-management support, accessibility, and continuity. A total of 90 patients are targeted for each group. RESULTS: Recruitment into the control group was performed between Q3 2015 and Q4 2017. Recruitment into the intervention group started in Q4 2017 and is ongoing until Q4 2020. The study is conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki, and the protocol has received approval from a regional ethical review board. CONCLUSIONS: This study entails an extensive intervention constructed in collaboration between clinicians, patients, and researchers that acknowledges accessibility, continuity, and self-management support within person-centeredness. The study has the potential to compare standard care to person-centered practice adapted specifically for patients with pituitary tumors and evaluated with a combination of patient-reported outcomes and patient-reported experience measures. Following the results, the person-centered practice may also become a useful model to further develop and explore person-centered care for patients with other rare, lifelong conditions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Researchweb.org. https://www.researchweb.org/is/sverige/project/161671. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/17697.

10.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 144, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the development of molecular high-throughput assays (i.e. next generation sequencing), the knowledge on the contribution of genetic and epigenetic alterations to the etiology of inherited endocrine disorders has massively expanded. However, the rapid implementation of these new molecular tools in the diagnostic settings makes the interpretation of diagnostic data increasingly complex. MAIN BODY: This joint paper of the ENDO-ERN members aims to overview chances, challenges, limitations and relevance of comprehensive genetic diagnostic testing in rare endocrine conditions in order to achieve an early molecular diagnosis. This early diagnosis of a genetically based endocrine disorder contributes to a precise management and helps the patients and their families in their self-determined planning of life. Furthermore, the identification of a causative (epi)genetic alteration allows an accurate prognosis of recurrence risks for family planning as the basis of genetic counselling. Asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic variants can be identified, and prenatal testing might be offered, where appropriate. CONCLUSIONS: The decision on genetic testing in the diagnostic workup of endocrine disorders should be based on their appropriateness to reliably detect the disease-causing and -modifying mutation, their informational value, and cost-effectiveness. The future assessment of data from different omic approaches should be embedded in interdisciplinary discussions using all available clinical and molecular data.

11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436951

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Whether multisystem morbidity in Cushing's disease (CD) remains elevated during long-term remission is still undetermined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate comorbidities in patients with CD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: A retrospective, nationwide study of patients with CD identified in the Swedish National Patient Register between 1987 and 2013. Individual medical records were reviewed to verify diagnosis and remission status. MAIN OUTCOMES: Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using the Swedish general population as reference. Comorbidities were investigated during three different time periods: (i) during the 3 years before diagnosis, (ii) from diagnosis to 1 year after remission, and (iii) during long-term remission. RESULTS: We included 502 patients with confirmed CD, of whom 419 were in remission for a median of 10 (interquartile range 4 to 21) years. SIRs (95% CI) for myocardial infarction (4.4; 1.2 to 11.4), fractures (4.9; 2.7 to 8.3), and deep vein thrombosis (13.8; 3.8 to 35.3) were increased during the 3-year period before diagnosis. From diagnosis until 1 year after remission, SIRs (95% CI were increased for thromboembolism (18.3; 7.9 to 36.0), stroke (4.9; 1.3 to 12.5), and sepsis (13.6; 3.7 to 34.8). SIRs for thromboembolism (4.9; 2.6 to 8.4), stroke (3.1; 1.8 to 4.9), and sepsis (6.0; 3.1 to 10.6) remained increased during long-term remission. CONCLUSION: Patients with CD have an increased incidence of stroke, thromboembolism, and sepsis even after remission, emphasizing the importance of early identification and management of risk factors for these comorbidities during long-term follow-up.

12.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): R1-R11, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299062

RESUMO

Concurrent type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Addison's disease (AD) is a rare combination of diseases and, in approximately one third of these patients, it is also combined with an autoimmune thyroid disease. Recently, it was shown that patients with both T1D and AD have a higher risk of premature death compared to patients with T1D alone, the most common causes of death being due to diabetic complications and cardiovascular disease. These patients receiving replacement therapies with both insulin and glucocorticoids face an increased risk of hypo- and hyperglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis and have a higher risk of adrenal crisis than patients with AD alone. Treatment challenges include the opposing effects of insulin and glucocorticoids on glucose homeostasis and the need to balance and synchronize these two treatments. The rarity of this disease combination may explain the paucity of data on outcome and specific treatment strategies in this patient group. Based on this review, we suggest management strategies for their insulin and glucocorticoid replacement therapies and indicate future areas of research.


Assuntos
Doença de Addison/epidemiologia , Doença de Addison/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Doença de Addison/complicações , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Gerenciamento Clínico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(6): 523-531, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213651

RESUMO

Context: Clinical features of acromegaly develop insidiously. Its diagnosis may therefore be delayed. Objective: Our aim was to study diagnostic delay and its impact on morbidity and mortality in a nationwide cohort of patients with acromegaly. Design: Adult patients diagnosed with acromegaly between 2001 and 2013 were identified in the Swedish National Patient Registry. Diagnostic codes for predefined comorbidities associated with acromegaly were recorded between 1987 and 2013. Diagnostic delay was calculated as the time between the first registered comorbidity and the diagnosis of acromegaly. Results: A total of 603 patients (280 men, 323 women) with acromegaly were included. Mean (s.d.) diagnostic delay was 5.5 (6.2) years (median (minimum, maximum) 3.3 (0.0-25.9)) Diagnostic delay was 1-<5 years in 23% patients; 5-<10 years in 17%; and ≥10 years in 24%. No delay was recorded in 36% of patients. Overall, mean (s.d.) number of comorbidities was 4.1 (2.5) and was higher in patients with longer diagnostic delay (P < 0.0001). Overall, observed number of deaths was 61 (expected 42.2), resulting in a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11-1.86). Increased mortality was only found in patients with the longest diagnostic delay (1.76, 95% CI: 1.12-2.65). In the other groups, no statistically significant increase in mortality was recorded, with the numerically lowest SMR observed in patients without diagnostic delay (1.18; 95% CI: 0.68-1.92). Conclusions: The diagnosis of acromegaly is delayed in most patients. Prolonged diagnostic delay is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/mortalidade , Diagnóstico Tardio/estatística & dados numéricos , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade
14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022863

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Growth hormone (GH) replacement requires daily GH injections, which is burdensome for some adult patients with GH deficiency (AGHD). OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate efficacy and safety of somapacitan, a once-weekly reversible albumin-binding GH derivative, versus placebo in AGHD. DESIGN: Randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled (double-blind) and active-controlled (open-label) phase 3 trial, REAL 1 (NCT02229851). SETTING: Clinics in 17 countries. PATIENTS: Treatment-naïve patients with AGHD (n = 301 main study period, 272 extension period); 257 patients completed the trial. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized 2:2:1 to once-weekly somapacitan, daily GH, or once-weekly placebo for 34 weeks (main period). During the 52-week extension period, patients continued treatment with somapacitan or daily GH. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Body composition measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The primary endpoint was change in truncal fat percentage to week 34. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) standard deviation score (SDS) values were used to dose titrate. RESULTS: At 34 weeks, somapacitan significantly reduced truncal fat percentage (estimated difference: -1.53% [-2.68; -0.38]; P = 0.0090), demonstrating superiority compared with placebo, and it improved other body composition parameters (including visceral fat and lean body mass) and IGF-I SDS. At 86 weeks, improvements were maintained with both somapacitan and daily GH. Somapacitan was well tolerated, with similar adverse events (including injection-site reactions) compared with daily GH. CONCLUSIONS: In AGHD patients, somapacitan administered once weekly demonstrated superiority over placebo, and the overall treatment effects and safety of somapacitan were in accordance with known effects and safety of GH replacement for up to 86 weeks of treatment. Somapacitan may provide an effective alternative to daily GH in AGHD. A short visual summary of our work is available (1).

15.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(3): 293-302, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917679

RESUMO

Objective: Excess of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), as in acromegaly, is associated with increased risk of diabetes, but whether retinal vessels are altered is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal vessel morphology in patients with acromegaly at diagnosis and after treatment and to describe the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients with long-standing acromegaly and diabetes. Design: Two independent observational studies, one being prospective and the other retrospective and cross-sectional. Methods: Retinal vessel morphology of 26 patients with acromegaly was examined at diagnosis and 1 year after treatment and compared to 13 healthy controls. Cross-sectional evaluation of 39 patients with long-standing acromegaly and diabetes was performed. Fundus photographs were digitally analyzed for vessel morphology. Results: Patients with acromegaly had a median (interquartile range) of 34.3 (30.0-39.0) vessel branching points compared to 27.0 (24.0-29.0) for healthy controls (P < 0.001). Tortuosity of arterioles and venules remained unchanged. Vessel morphology did not change significantly after treatment. Patients with acromegaly and diabetes for a median of 14 years also had a high number of branching points (34.2 (32.5-35.6)), but the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was not higher than expected in diabetic patients without acromegaly. Conclusions: Patients with acromegaly have an increased number of vascular branching points in the retina without an alteration of macroscopic vessel morphology. This is consistent with an angiogenic effect of GH/IGF-1 in humans. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was not increased in patients with acromegaly and diabetes.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/patologia , Vasos Retinianos/patologia , Acromegalia/complicações , Acromegalia/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Arteríolas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Complicações do Diabetes/patologia , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neovascularização Patológica/etiologia , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vênulas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 92(1): 21-28, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a cornerstone in treating various common and uncommon diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of GC use in terms of doses associated with risk of tertiary adrenal insufficiency in adults and children, and treatment indications. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Information on dispensed prescriptions was obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Patients with prescriptions of prednisolone (or equivalent dose of other GCs) ≥5 mg daily for ≥21 days between 2007 and 2014 were included. Information on concurrent diseases was obtained from the Swedish National Patient Register and the Västra Götaland Regional Healthcare Database. RESULTS: Of 1 585 335 inhabitants in Västra Götaland County, 223 211 were included in the study (women 55.6%). Mean age was 48 ± 24 years. Period prevalence of oral GC use during the 8-year study period was 14.1%. The highest prevalence (27.4%) was in men aged 80-89 years and lowest (7.5%) in men 10-19 years of age. The period prevalence in children 0-9 years of age was 10.6%. COPD and asthma were the most common indications for treatment (17.2%) followed by allergy (12.5%) and malignant neoplasms (11.5%). Allergy was the most frequent indication (20.5%) in children and adolescents. CONCLUSION: Between 2007 and 2014, every seventh inhabitant in western Sweden received a GC prescription at doses associated with risk of developing tertiary adrenal insufficiency. These findings illustrate the importance of awareness of the potential development of tertiary adrenal insufficiency in both paediatric and adult patients.

17.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(3-4): 602-612, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769572

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate aspects of patient safety before and after a person-centred (PC) inpatient care intervention. BACKGROUND: Transitioning from disease-centred to person-centred care requires great effort but can improve patient safety. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental study with data collection preceding and 12 months after a PC inpatient care intervention. METHODS: The study consecutively recruited adult patients (2014, n = 263; 2015/2016, n = 221) admitted to an inpatient care unit. The patients reported experiences of care at discharge and their perceived pain at admission and discharge. Medical records were reviewed to gather data on medications, planned care and clinical observations. The study is reported according to TREND guidelines. RESULTS: At discharge, patients receiving PC inpatient care reported competent medical-technical care. Patients receiving PC inpatient care reported more effective pain relief. Updated prescribed medications at the ward were maintained, and patients were made aware of planned medical care to higher extent during PC inpatient care. The assessment of pulse and body temperature was maintained, but fewer elective care patients had their blood pressure taken during PC inpatient care. Weight assessment was not prioritised during usual or PC inpatient care. CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving PC inpatient care reported that they were given the best possible care and had less pain at discharge. The PC inpatient care included improved documentation and communication of planned medical care to the patients. Vital signs were more frequently recorded for patients admitted for acute care than patients admitted for elective care. PC inpatient care had no effect on frequency of weight measurements. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: PC inpatient care seems beneficial for the patients. Aspects of patient safety such as prescribed medications were maintained, and PC inpatient care seems to enhance the continuity of care. Inpatient clinical observations need further evaluation as healthcare transitions from disease-centred to person-centred care.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração , Adulto , Comunicação , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente
18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853550

RESUMO

CONTEXT: GDF15 is a stress-induced hormone acting in the hindbrain that activates neural circuitry involved in establishing aversive responses and reducing food intake and body weight in animal models. Anorexia, weight loss, nausea and vomiting are common manifestations of glucocorticoid deficiency, and we hypothesized that glucocorticoid deficiency may be associated with elevated levels of GDF15. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) and glucocorticoid replacement on circulating GDF15 levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured circulating concentrations of GDF15 in a cohort of healthy volunteers and Addison's disease patients following steroid withdrawal. Significantly higher GDF15 (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) was observed in the Addison's cohort, 739.1 ± 225.8 pg/mL compared to healthy controls, 497.9 ± 167.7 pg/mL (P = 0.01). The effect of hydrocortisone replacement on GDF15 was assessed in 3 independent PAI cohorts with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia or Addison's disease; intravenous hydrocortisone replacement reduced GDF15 in all groups. We examined the response of GDF15 to increasing doses of glucocorticoid replacement in healthy volunteers with pharmacologically mediated cortisol deficiency. A dose-dependent difference in GDF15 (mean ± SD) was observed between the groups with values of 491.0 ± 157.7 pg/mL, 427.0 ± 152.1 pg/mL and 360 ± 143.1 pg/mL, in the low, medium and high glucocorticoid replacement groups, respectively, P < .0001. CONCLUSIONS: GDF15 is increased in states of glucocorticoid deficiency and restored by glucocorticoid replacement. Given the site of action of GDF15 in the hindbrain and its effects on appetite, further study is required to determine the effect of GDF15 in mediating the anorexia and nausea that is a common feature of glucocorticoid deficiency.

19.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 592-600, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055015

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in adults is well-characterized and includes abnormal body composition, reduced bone mass, an adverse cardiovascular risk profile, and impaired quality of life. In the early 1990s, it was also shown that patients with hypopituitarism without GH replacement therapy (GHRT) had excess mortality. Today, GHRT has been shown to decrease or reverse the negative effects of GHD. In addition, recent papers have shown that mortality and morbidity are approaching normal in hypopituitary patients with GHD who receive modern endocrine therapy including GHRT. Since the first dose-finding studies, it has been clear that efficacy and side effects differ substantially between patients. Many factors have been suggested as affecting responsiveness, such as sex, age, age at GHD onset, adherence, and GH receptor polymorphisms, with sex and sex steroid replacement having the greatest impact. Therefore, the individual tailoring of GH dose is of great importance to achieve sufficient efficacy without side effects. One group that stands out is women receiving oral estrogen replacement, who needs the highest dose. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is still the most used biochemical biomarker for GH dose titration, although the best serum IGF-1 target is still debated. Patients with GHD due to acromegaly, Cushing's disease, or craniopharyngioma experience similar effects from GHRT as others. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):592-600


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/administração & dosagem , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/deficiência , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Adesão à Medicação , Medicina de Precisão , Qualidade de Vida , Idade de Início
20.
Endocrine ; 66(2): 338-348, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440949

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the usefulness of adrenal venous sampling (AVS) in distinguishing unilateral from bilateral cortisol production in patients with ACTH-independent hypercortisolism and bilateral adrenal lesions, or morphologically normal adrenal glands. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of ten consecutive patients with ACTH-independent hypercortisolism who underwent AVS at our institution between 2009 and 2017. Unilateral dominant cortisol production was defined as a side-to-side cortisol/aldosterone lateralization ratio >2. RESULTS: Four of ten patients had overt Cushing's syndrome. Of these, two had bilateral adrenal lesions on computed tomography and two had normal adrenal glands. One of the two patients with bilateral adrenal lesions had, based on the AVS, a unilateral dominant cortisol production. Following unilateral adrenalectomy the patient developed adrenal insufficiency. The other three patients were considered to have bilateral cortisol production and underwent bilateral adrenalectomy. Six patients had a mild autonomous cortisol secretion and bilateral adrenal lesions. Based on AVS, one patient was considered to have unilateral dominant cortisol production, underwent unilateral adrenalectomy and developed transient adrenal insufficiency postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: AVS may contribute to appropriate treatment in patients with ACTH-independent hypercortisolism and bilateral adrenal lesions. In our series, AVS was helpful in the decision-making of two out of ten patients, avoiding chronic treatment with steroidogenesis inhibitors, or inappropriate bilateral adrenalectomy.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/irrigação sanguínea , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Síndrome de Cushing/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Glândulas Suprarrenais/cirurgia , Adrenalectomia , Adulto , Criança , Síndrome de Cushing/cirurgia , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Epinefrina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norepinefrina/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos
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