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2.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 56: 103251, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccine among patients receiving anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (Ab) treatment has not been fully investigated. Detectable levels of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) are believed to have a predictive value for immune protection against COVID-19 and is currently a surrogate indicator for vaccine efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To determine IgG Abs in anti-CD20 treated patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHOD: IgG Abs against SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain were measured with the SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay (Abbott Laboratories) before and after vaccination (n = 60). RESULTS: 36.7% of patients mounted a positive SARS-CoV-2 spike Ab response after the second dose of vaccine. Five patients (8.3%) developed Abs >264 BAU/mL, another 12 patients (20%) developed intermediate Abs between 54 BAU/mL and 264 BAU/mL and five patients (8.3%) had low levels <54 BAU/mL. Of all seropositive patients, 63.6% converted from seronegative to seropositive after the 2nd vaccine. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates decreased humoral response after BNT162b2 mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in MS patients receiving B-cell depleting therapy. Clinicians should advise patients treated with anti-CD20 to avoid exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Future studies should investigate the implications of a third booster vaccine in patients with low or absent Abs after vaccination.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e044565, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244252

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the Danish HIV Birth Cohort (DHBC) is to investigate the significance of HIV-1 infection in pregnancy and after delivery in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark and their children, in the era of antiretroviral therapy and other interventions for treatment and prophylaxis. PARTICIPANTS: All WLWH giving birth to one or more children in Denmark after 31 December 1999 are included, with consecutive ongoing enrolment, if they are living with HIV and pregnant, or if they are diagnosed with HIV in relation to pregnancy, delivery or shortly after delivery. FINDINGS TO DATE: DHBC has been used to describe trends in the management of pregnancies in WLWH and their outcomes on a nationwide basis, mode of delivery and predictors of emergency caesarean section as well as risk factors during pregnancy in WLWH for birth-related complications compared with women from the general population (WGP). We have found that HIV-exposed, but uninfected (HEU) children born to WLWH had a lower median birth weight and gestational age and were at higher risk of intrauterine growth retardation than children born to WGP. We have investigated risk of in-hospital admission and use of antibiotics during the first 4 years of life among HEU children and showed that HEU children had an increased risk of overall hospital admission compared with a matched control group of unexposed children.Further, we compared anthropometric outcomes in children with a matched control group of children not exposed to HIV. FUTURE PLANS: To continuously investigate the significance of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy and after delivery in WLWH in Denmark and their HEU children and compare these findings with children born to WGP.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Cesárea , Criança , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
AIDS ; 35(9): 1491-1496, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of low vitamin D levels among well treated pregnant women living with HIV (WLWH) on combination antiretroviral therapy in Denmark, to identify risk factors of low vitamin D levels, and to assess the association between vitamin D status and birth outcomes. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. METHODS: All WLWH in Denmark giving birth from 2000 to 2018 with a vitamin D measurement during pregnancy were identified. Risk factors for low vitamin D (deficiency or insufficiency) were assessed using log-binomial regression models, both univariate and adjusted for maternal and HIV factors. The association between vitamin D status and birth outcomes was assessed using linear regression models for continuous outcomes and log-binomial models for binary outcomes. RESULTS: Among 208 WLWH, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 13%, insufficiency 34%, and sufficiency 53%. Being of African origin (RR 2.68, P = 0.01), Asian origin (RR 3.38, P = < 0.01), or having HIV RNA levels more than 50 copies/ml (RR 1.43, P = 0.04) was associated with an increased risk of low vitamin D level. WLWH with vitamin D deficiency had an increased risk of preterm birth (RR 2.66, P = 0.03) and giving birth to small for gestational age (SGA) children (RR 6.83, P = 0.02) compared with WLWH with sufficient vitamin D level. CONCLUSION: Low vitamin D level was prevalent among well treated pregnant WLWH in Denmark, especially among women of African or Asian origin, and women with detectable viral loads. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and SGA.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Nascimento Prematuro , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Gestantes , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
8.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913256

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aberrant pyrin inflammasome activity triggers familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) pathogenesis, but the exact mechanism remains elusive and an obstacle to efficient treatment. We undertook this study to identify pyrin inflammasome-specific mechanisms to improve FMF treatment and diagnostics in the future. METHODS: Pyrin-specific protein secretion was assessed by proteome analysis in U937-derived macrophages, and specific findings were confirmed in pyrin inflammasome-activated monocytes from healthy blood donors and patients with FMF, stratified according to MEFV genotype categories corresponding to a suspected increase in FMF disease severity. RESULTS: Proteome data revealed a differential secretion pattern of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) from pyrin- and NLRP3-activated U937-derived macrophages, which was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, pyrin activation significantly reduced IL1RN messenger RNA expression (P < 0.001) and IL-1Ra secretion (P < 0.01) in healthy donor and FMF monocytes, respectively. Independent of MEFV genotype, unstimulated FMF monocytes from colchicine-treated patients secreted lower amounts of IL-1Ra compared to healthy donors (P < 0.05) and displayed decreased ratios of IL-1Ra:IL-1ß (P < 0.05), suggesting a reduced antiinflammatory capacity. CONCLUSION: Our data show an inherent lack of IL-1Ra expression specific to pyrin inflammasome activation, suggesting a new mechanism underlying FMF pathogenesis. The reduced IL-1Ra levels in FMF monocytes suggest a diminished antiinflammatory capacity that potentially leaves FMF patients sensitive to proinflammatory stimuli, regardless of receiving colchicine therapy. Thus, considering the potential clinical consequence of reduced monocyte IL-1Ra secretion in FMF patients, we suggest further investigation into IL-1Ra dynamics and its potential implications for FMF treatment in the future.

9.
EClinicalMedicine ; : 100849, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903855

RESUMO

Background: The trans-membrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) is essential for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cell entry and infection. Efficacy and safety of TMPRSS2 inhibitors in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have not been evaluated in randomized trials. Methods: We conducted an investigator-initiated, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter trial in patients hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from April 4, to December 31, 2020. Within 48 h of admission, participants were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive the TMPRSS2 inhibitor camostat mesilate 200 mg three times daily for 5 days or placebo. The primary outcome was time to discharge or clinical improvement measured as ≥2 points improvement on a 7-point ordinal scale. Other outcomes included 30-day mortality, safety and change in oropharyngeal viral load. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04321096. EudraCT Number: 2020-001,200-42. Findings: 137 patients were assigned to receive camostat mesilate and 68 to placebo. Median time to clinical improvement was 5 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3 to 7) in the camostat group and 5 days (IQR, 2 to 10) in the placebo group (P = 0·31). The hazard ratio for 30-day mortality in the camostat compared with the placebo group was 0·82 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0·24 to 2·79; P = 0·75). The frequency of adverse events was similar in the two groups. Median change in viral load from baseline to day 5 in the camostat group was -0·22 log10 copies/mL (p <0·05) and -0·82 log10 in the placebo group (P <0·05). Interpretation: Under this protocol, camostat mesilate treatment was not associated with increased adverse events during hospitalization for Covid-19 and did not affect time to clinical improvement, progression to ICU admission or mortality.

10.
Eur J Haematol ; 106(1): 72-81, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939853

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with haematological disorders may be particularly vulnerable to respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; however, this is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, nationwide study including 66 patients in follow-up at Danish haematology departments with a malignant or non-malignant haematological disorder and with verified SARS-CoV-2 infection. Outcomes were intensive care unit (ICU) admission and one-month survival rate. RESULTS: Mean age was 66.7 years, 60.6% were males, 90.9% had comorbidity, and 13.6% had a BMI ≥ 30. The most frequent diagnoses were chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/lymphoma (47.0%), multiple myeloma (16.7%) and acute leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (AL/MDS) (12.1%). Treatment for the haematological disease was ongoing in 59.1% of cases. Neutropenia was present in 6.5%, lymphopenia in 46.6% and hypogammaglobulinaemia in 26.3%. The SARS-CoV-2 infection was mild in 50.0%, severe in 36.4% and critical in 13.6%. After one month, 21.2% had been admitted to ICU, and 24.2% died. Mortality was highest in older patients, patients with severe/critical SARS-CoV-2 infection, high comorbidity score or high performance status score, purine analogue treatment and with AL/MDS. Although older patients and patients with comorbidities had the highest mortality rates, mortality was considerable among all haematological patients. CONCLUSION: Haematological patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection has a severe clinical course.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/terapia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
N Engl J Med ; 384(10): 905-914, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: LY-CoV555, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody, has been associated with a decrease in viral load and the frequency of hospitalizations or emergency department visits among outpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Data are needed on the effect of this antibody in patients who are hospitalized with Covid-19. METHODS: In this platform trial of therapeutic agents, we randomly assigned hospitalized patients who had Covid-19 without end-organ failure in a 1:1 ratio to receive either LY-CoV555 or matching placebo. In addition, all the patients received high-quality supportive care as background therapy, including the antiviral drug remdesivir and, when indicated, supplemental oxygen and glucocorticoids. LY-CoV555 (at a dose of 7000 mg) or placebo was administered as a single intravenous infusion over a 1-hour period. The primary outcome was a sustained recovery during a 90-day period, as assessed in a time-to-event analysis. An interim futility assessment was performed on the basis of a seven-category ordinal scale for pulmonary function on day 5. RESULTS: On October 26, 2020, the data and safety monitoring board recommended stopping enrollment for futility after 314 patients (163 in the LY-CoV555 group and 151 in the placebo group) had undergone randomization and infusion. The median interval since the onset of symptoms was 7 days (interquartile range, 5 to 9). At day 5, a total of 81 patients (50%) in the LY-CoV555 group and 81 (54%) in the placebo group were in one of the two most favorable categories of the pulmonary outcome. Across the seven categories, the odds ratio of being in a more favorable category in the LY-CoV555 group than in the placebo group was 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 1.29; P = 0.45). The percentage of patients with the primary safety outcome (a composite of death, serious adverse events, or clinical grade 3 or 4 adverse events through day 5) was similar in the LY-CoV555 group and the placebo group (19% and 14%, respectively; odds ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 0.78 to 3.10; P = 0.20). The rate ratio for a sustained recovery was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.77 to 1.47). CONCLUSIONS: Monoclonal antibody LY-CoV555, when coadministered with remdesivir, did not demonstrate efficacy among hospitalized patients who had Covid-19 without end-organ failure. (Funded by Operation Warp Speed and others; TICO ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04501978.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Falha de Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0231821, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mortality from tuberculosis (TB) has been declining since 2000, nevertheless there is still a significant number of patients who die before or during TB treatment. The aims were to examine and describe predictors associated with TB related mortality. METHODS: Patients notified with TB from 2009 though 2014 in Denmark were included. Data were extracted from national registers and patient records were examined for clinical information and treatment outcome. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine TB related mortality. RESULTS: A total of 2131 cases were identified, 141 (6.6%) patients died before or during TB treatment. TB related mortality accounted for 104 cases (73.8%) and decreased significantly from 6.7% to 3.2% (p = .04) during the study period. Within 1 months of diagnosis, 49% of TB related deaths had occurred. The strongest risk factors present at time of diagnosis, associated with TB related mortality, were: age > 70 years, Charlson comorbidity index > 1, alcohol abuse, weight loss, anemia, and C-reactive protein > 100 mg/L (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The majority of TB related deaths occurred soon after diagnosis, emphasizing that TB patients identified to have a high risk of mortality should be closely monitored before and during the intensive treatment period to improve their outcomes.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Demografia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS Med ; 17(5): e1003113, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common cause of death in people living with HIV (PLHIV), yet TB often goes undiagnosed since many patients are not able to produce a sputum specimen, and traditional diagnostics are costly or unavailable. A novel, rapid lateral flow assay, Fujifilm SILVAMP TB LAM (SILVAMP-LAM), detects the presence of TB lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine, and is substantially more sensitive for diagnosing TB in PLHIV than an earlier LAM assay (Alere Determine TB LAM lateral flow assay [LF-LAM]). Here, we present an individual participant data meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of SILVAMP-LAM in adult PLHIV, including both published and unpublished data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Adult PLHIV (≥18 years) were assessed in 5 prospective cohort studies in South Africa (3 cohorts), Vietnam, and Ghana, carried out during 2012 to 2017. Of the 1,595 PLHIV who met eligibility criteria, the majority (61%) were inpatients, median age was 37 years (IQR 30-43), 43% had a CD4 count ≤ 100 cells/µl, and 35% were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Most participants (94%) had a positive WHO symptom screen for TB on enrollment, and 45% were diagnosed with microbiologically confirmed TB, using mycobacterial culture or Xpert MTB/RIF testing of sputum, urine, or blood. Previously published data from inpatients were combined with unpublished data from outpatients. Biobanked urine samples were tested, using blinded double reading, with SILVAMP-LAM and LF-LAM. Applying a microbiological reference standard for assessment of sensitivity, the overall sensitivity for TB detection was 70.7% (95% CI 59.0%-80.8%) for SILVAMP-LAM compared to 34.9% (95% CI 19.5%-50.9%) for LF-LAM. Using a composite reference standard (which included patients with both microbiologically confirmed as well as clinically diagnosed TB), SILVAMP-LAM sensitivity was 65.8% (95% CI 55.9%-74.6%), and that of LF-LAM 31.4% (95% CI 19.1%-43.7%). In patients with CD4 count ≤ 100 cells/µl, SILVAMP-LAM sensitivity was 87.1% (95% CI 79.3%-93.6%), compared to 56.0% (95% CI 43.9%-64.9%) for LF-LAM. In patients with CD4 count 101-200 cells/µl, SILVAMP-LAM sensitivity was 62.7% (95% CI 52.4%-71.9%), compared to 25.3% (95% CI 15.8%-34.9%) for LF-LAM. In those with CD4 count > 200 cells/µl, SILVAMP-LAM sensitivity was 43.9% (95% CI 34.3%-53.9%), compared to 10.9% (95% CI 5.2%-18.4%) for LF-LAM. Using a microbiological reference standard, the specificity of SILVAMP-LAM was 90.9% (95% CI 87.2%-93.7%), and that of LF-LAM 95.3% (95% CI 92.2%-97.7%). Limitations of this study include the use of biobanked, rather than fresh urine samples, and testing by skilled laboratory technicians in research laboratories, rather than at the point of care. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that SILVAMP-LAM identified a substantially higher proportion of TB patients in PLHIV than LF-LAM. The sensitivity of SILVAMP-LAM was highest in patients with CD4 count ≤ 100 cells/µl. Further work is needed to demonstrate accuracy when implemented as a point-of-care test.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Lipopolissacarídeos/análise , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 83, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Denmark, reporting of tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcome is voluntary and data incomplete. In the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control most recent report presenting data from 2017, only 53.9% of Danish pulmonary TB cases had a reported outcome. Monitoring of TB treatment outcome is not feasible based on such limited results. In this retrospective study from 2009 to 2014, we present complete treatment outcome data and describe characteristics of cases lost to follow up. METHODS: All cases notified from 2009 through 2014 were reviewed. Hospital records were examined, and TB treatment outcome was categorized according to the World Health Organization's (WHO) definitions. RESULTS: A total of 2131 TB cases were included. Treatment outcome was reported to the Surveillance Unit in 1803 (84.6%) cases, of which 468 (26.0%) were reclassified. For pulmonary TB, 339 (28.9%) cases were reclassified between cured and treatment completed. Overall, the proportion of cases who achieved successful treatment outcome increased from 1488 (70.4%) to 1748 (81.8%). CONCLUSION: A high number of cases were reclassified during the review process. Increased focus on correct treatment outcome reporting is necessary in Denmark. A more comprehensive and exhaustive categorization of TB treatment outcome could be beneficial, especially for cases where collection of sputum or tissue towards the end of treatment is challenging.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/terapia , Dinamarca , Humanos , Perda de Seguimento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(10): 2168-2177, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposures to human immunodeficiency (HIV) and antiretroviral therapy in utero may have adverse effects on infant growth. Among children born in Denmark and aged 0-5 years, we aimed to compare anthropometric outcomes in HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children with those in children not exposed to HIV. METHODS: In a nationwide register-based study we included all singleton HEU children born in Denmark in 2000-2016. HEU children were individually matched by child sex, parity, and maternal place of birth to 5 singleton controls born to mothers without HIV. Weight-for-age z (WAZ) scores, length-for-age z (LAZ) scores, and weight-for-length or body mass index-for-age z scores were generated according to the World Health Organization standards and the Fenton growth chart for premature infants. Differences in mean z scores were analyzed using linear mixed models, both univariate and adjusted for social and maternal factors. RESULTS: In total, 485 HEU children and 2495 HIV-unexposed controls were included. Compared with controls, HEU children were smaller at birth, with an adjusted difference in mean WAZ and LAZ scores of -0.29 (95% confidence interval [CI], -.46 to -.12) and -0.51 (95% CI, -.71 to -.31), respectively (both P ≤ .001). Over time, there was a trend toward increasing WAZ and LAZ scores in HEU children, and there was no significant difference in adjusted WAZ scores after age 14 days (-0.13 [95% CI, -.27 to .01]; P = .07) and LAZ scores after age 6 months (-0.15 [95% CI, -.32 to .02]; P = .08). CONCLUSION: Compared with a matched control group, HEU children were smaller at birth, but this difference decreased with time and is not considered to have a negative effect on the health and well-being of HEU children during early childhood.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
17.
Scand J Public Health ; 48(8): 870-876, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763955

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a notifiable disease in Denmark. Underreporting leads to underestimation of the disease burden and may impede disease control. To date, no other published studies have examined underreporting of TB in the Danish setting. Method: Records of patients in the Region of Southern Denmark diagnosed with TB from 2009 to 2014 in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) were linked to the national notification database. Medical records of non-notified patients were reviewed, followed by statistical comparison of demographic and medical parameters with notified TB patients in the region. Results: In the study period, 28.9% (n=30) of clinically diagnosed, culture-negative TB cases were not notified, corresponding to an overall TB underreporting rate of 7.5%. Non-notified patients had fewer co-morbidities and were less likely to have had previous TB episodes. Incidentally, we found a high number (71.1%) of erroneous TB diagnoses in the DNPR. Conclusions: Accurate data based on notification is essential to understand possible needs for preventive actions in the population. Our study demonstrates the existence of underreporting of culture-negative TB cases in the Region of Southern Denmark.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(10): ofz388, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660351

RESUMO

Background: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) represents an increasing percentage of tuberculosis (TB) cases in Europe. However, strategies on TB prevention and successful treatment outcomes primarily target pulmonary TB. In this nationwide study, we present characteristics of EPTB, treatment outcomes, and predictors for unfavorable treatment outcomes. Methods: All patients diagnosed with EPTB from 2009 to 2014 were included. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors for unfavorable outcome. The following definitions were used: unfavorable outcome: the sum of treatment failed, lost to follow-up, and not evaluated; patient delay: time from TB-related symptom onset until first hospital contact related to TB; doctor delay: time from first TB-related contact in the health care system to start of TB treatment. Results: A total of 450 EPTB cases were notified, which represented 21.1% of all TB cases in Denmark. Immigrants accounted for 82.9%. Lymph nodes were the most common site of EPTB (55.4%) followed by pleural TB (13.4%). Patient delay was significantly longer among immigrants than Danes (60 vs 30 days; P < .01), whereas doctor delay was significantly longer among Danes (38.5 vs 28 days; P < .01). Treatment completion rates were high and reached 90.9% in 2014. Male gender (odds ratio [OR], 5.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79-15.04) and age 0-24 years (OR, 16.39; 95% CI, 2.02-132.64) were significantly associated with unfavorable outcome. Conclusions: EPTB represented a significant number of all TB cases and was predominantly seen among younger immigrants in Denmark. To maintain high treatment completion rates, increased focus on male gender and young age is needed.

19.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e027761, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619417

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The success of combination antiretroviral therapy has decreased the risk of perinatal HIV transmission and normalised pregnancy in women living with HIV (WLWH). Despite these advances, WLWH still face complex medical and psychosocial issues during pregnancy and postpartum, and there is a gap of knowledge on the experiences of becoming and being a mother living with HIV in today's context. The overall aim of this study is to investigate psychosocial outcomes and experiences of WLWH in Scandinavia during pregnancy and early motherhood. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre longitudinal convergent mixed methods study consisting of a quantitative survey study, a qualitative interview study and a mixed methods analysis. The survey study aims to examine psychosocial outcomes of WLWH across the pregnancy - postpartum trajectory. Participants are pregnant WLWH living in Scandinavia. Two control groups of HIV-negative pregnant women and non-pregnant WLWH are also included. Data is collected in the third trimester, 3 and 6 months postpartum using standardised questionnaires. Statistical analysis will assess changes over time and identify predictors of adverse outcomes. The interview study seeks to understand experiences of pregnancy and becoming a mother while living with HIV. Pregnant WLWH who are enrolled in the survey study will be asked to participate in individual interviews in the third trimester and 6 months postpartum. Data will be analysed using narrative analysis. The survey and interview results will be merged in a mixed methods analysis to assess confirmation, expansion or discordance between the data sets. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval from the Danish Data Protection Agency (VD-2018-253), and the Finnish and Swedish Ethics Committees have been obtained (HUS/1330/2019 and Dnr: 2019-04451, respectively). Study results will be disseminated to patient organisations, through publications in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific conferences.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Renda , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Estudos Longitudinais , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12995, 2019 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506499

RESUMO

Monitoring of tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcome is essential to ensure an effective TB control program. In this nationwide retrospective cohort study from Denmark we present TB treatment outcome rates and risk factors associated with an unfavourable outcome. All patients notified with pulmonary TB from 2009 through 2014 were included. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors for unfavourable outcome. In total, 1681 pulmonary TB cases were included. TB treatment success rates increased during the study period. In 2014, the treatment success rate reached 85% for new culture positive cases whereas 7% cases interrupted treatment. The mortality decreased during the study period from 12.3% to 4.1%. Several risk factors associated with unfavourable outcome were identified in a multivariable model: male (OR: 2.56), Greenlandic origin (OR: 1.80), abuse of alcohol (OR: 2.90), history of mental disorder (OR: 2.46), and anaemia at time of treatment initiation (OR: 1.92). In a TB low incidence setting such as the Danish, it is important to maintain focus on preventing an unfavourable TB outcome. Patient management and treatment can be optimized by taking into consideration risk factors such as those identified in the present study.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/complicações , Anemia/complicações , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
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