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1.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500836

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although genome-wide association studies have been conducted to investigate genetic variation of lung tumorigenesis, little is known about gene-gene (G×G) interactions that may influence the risk of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Leveraging a total of 445,221 European-descent participants from the International Lung Cancer Consortium OncoArray project, Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung and UK Biobank, we performed a large-scale genome-wide G×G interaction study on European NSCLC risk via a series of analyses. First, we used BiForce to evaluate and rank over 58 billion G×G interactions from 340,958 SNPs. Then, the top interactions were further tested by demographically adjusted logistic regression models. Finally, we used the selected interactions to build lung cancer screening models of NSCLC, separately, for never and ever smokers. RESULTS: With the Bonferroni correction, we identified eight statistically significant pairs of SNPs, which predominantly appeared in the 6p21.32 and 5p15.33 regions (e.g., rs521828C6orf10 and rs204999PRRT1, ORinteraction = 1.17, P = 6.57×10-13; rs3135369BTNL2 and rs2858859HLA-DQA1, ORinteraction = 1.17, P = 2.43×10-13; rs2858859HLA-DQA1 and rs9275572HLA-DQA2, ORinteraction = 1.15, P = 2.84×10-13; rs2853668TERT and rs62329694CLPTM1L, ORinteraction = 0.73, P = 2.70×10-13). Notably, even with much genetic heterogeneity across ethnicities, three pairs of SNPs in the 6p21.32 region identified from the European-ancestry population remained significant among an Asian population from the Nanjing Medical University Global Screening Array project (rs521828C6orf10 and rs204999PRRT1, ORinteraction = 1.13, P = 0.008; rs3135369BTNL2 and rs2858859HLA-DQA1, ORinteraction = 1.11, P = 5.23×10-4; rs3135369BTNL2 and rs9271300HLA-DQA1, ORinteraction = 0.89, P = 0.006). The interaction empowered polygenetic risk score (iPRS) that integrated classical polygenetic risk score and G×G information score was remarkable in lung cancer risk stratification. CONCLUSIONS: Significant G×G interactions were identified and enriched in the 5p15.33 and 6p21.32 regions, which may enhance lung cancer screening models.

2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline genetic variation contributes to lung cancer (LC) susceptibility. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated susceptibility loci involved in smoking propensity and DNA repair genes, but further work is required to identify susceptibility variants. METHODS: To identify LC susceptibility loci, a family history-based genome-wide association (GWAx) study of LC (48,843 European "proxy" LC cases, 195,387 controls) was combined with previously LC GWAS (29,266 cases, 56,450 controls) by meta-analysis. Colocalisation was used to explore candidate genes and overlap with existing traits at discovered susceptibility loci. Polygenic Risk Scores (PRS) were tested within an independent validation cohort (1,666 LC cases vs 6,664 controls) using variants selected from the LC susceptibility loci and a novel selection approach using published GWAS summary statistics. Finally, the effects of the LC PRS on somatic mutational burden were explored in patients whose tumour resections have been profiled by exome (n = 685) and genome sequencing (n = 61). Statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: The GWAx-GWAS meta-analysis identified 8 novel LC loci. Colocalization implicated DNA repair genes (CHEK1), metabolic genes (CYP1A1) and smoking propensity (CHRNA4 and CHRNB2). PRS analysis demonstrated that these variants, as well as sub-genome wide significant variants related to eQTLs and/or smoking propensity, assisted in LC genetic risk prediction (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.29-1.45, P = 1.44 x10-25). Patients with higher genetic PRS loads of smoking-related variants tended to have higher mutation burdens in their lung tumours. CONCLUSIONS: This study has expanded the number of LC susceptibility loci and provided insights into the molecular mechanisms by which these susceptibility variants contribute to LC development.

3.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 6(2)2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between physical activity before cancer diagnosis and survival among lung cancer patients. In this pooled analysis of 11 prospective cohorts, we investigated associations of prediagnosis leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with all-cause and lung cancer-specific mortality among incident lung cancer patients. METHODS: Using self-reported data on regular engagement in exercise and sports activities collected at study enrollment, we assessed metabolic equivalent hours (MET-h) of prediagnosis LTPA per week. According to the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, prediagnosis LTPA was classified into inactivity, less than 8.3 and at least 8.3 MET-h per week (the minimum recommended range). Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) for all-cause and lung cancer-specific mortality after adjustment for major prognostic factors and lifetime smoking history. RESULTS: Of 20 494 incident lung cancer patients, 16 864 died, including 13 596 deaths from lung cancer (overall 5-year relative survival rate = 20.9%, 95% CI = 20.3% to 21.5%). Compared with inactivity, prediagnosis LTPA of more than 8.3 MET-h per week was associated with a lower hazard of all-cause mortality (multivariable-adjusted HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.88 to 0.99), but not with lung cancer-specific mortality (multivariable-adjusted HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.04), among the overall population. Additive interaction was found by tumor stage (Pinteraction = .008 for all-cause mortality and .003 for lung cancer-specific mortality). When restricted to localized cancer, prediagnosis LTPA of at least 8.3 MET-h per week linked to 20% lower mortality: multivariable-adjusted HRs were 0.80 (95% CI = 0.67 to 0.97) for all-cause mortality and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.65 to 0.99) for lung cancer-specific mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Regular participation in LTPA that met or exceeded the minimum Physical Activity Guidelines was associated with reduced hazards of mortality among lung cancer patients, especially those with early stage cancer.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Atividade Motora , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438160

RESUMO

It is unclear if body weight in early life affects cancer risk independently of adult body weight. To investigate this question for six obesity-related cancers, we performed univariable and multivariable analyses using i) Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis and ii) longitudinal analyses in prospective cohorts. Both the MR and longitudinal analyses indicated that larger body size at age 10 was associated with higher risk of endometrial (ORMR=1.61, 95%CI = 1.23-2.11) and kidney cancer (ORMR=1.40, 95%CI = 1.09-1.80). These associations were attenuated after accounting for adult body size in both the MR and cohort analyses. Early life BMI was not consistently associated with the other investigated cancers. The lack of clear independent risk associations suggests that early life BMI influences endometrial and kidney cancer risk mainly through pathways that are common with adult BMI.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366005

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that components of one-carbon metabolism, particularly circulating vitamin B6, have an etiological role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Vitamin B6 is a cofactor in the transsulfuration pathway. We sought to holistically investigate the role of the transsulfuration pathway in RCC risk. We conducted a nested case-control study (455 RCC cases and 455 matched controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Plasma samples from the baseline visit were analyzed for metabolites of the transsulfuration pathway, including pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP, the biologically active form of vitamin B6), homocysteine, serine, cystathionine, and cysteine, in addition to folate. Bayesian conditional logistic regression was used to estimate associations of metabolites with RCC risk as well as interactions with established RCC risk factors. Circulating PLP and cysteine were inversely associated with RCC risk, and these associations were not attenuated after adjustment for other transsulfuration metabolites (odds ratio (OR) and 90% credible interval (CrI) per 1 SD increase in log concentration: 0.76 [0.66, 0.87]; 0.81 [0.66, 0.96], respectively). A comparison of joint metabolite profiles suggested substantially greater RCC risk for the profile representative of low overall transsulfuration function compared to high function (OR 2.70 [90% CrI 1.26, 5.70]). We found some statistical evidence of interactions of cysteine with body mass index, and PLP and homocysteine with smoking status, on their associations with RCC risk. In conclusion, we found evidence suggesting that the transsulfuration pathway may play a role in metabolic dysregulation leading to RCC development.

6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relation between blood pressure and kidney cancer risk is well established but complex and different study designs have reported discrepant findings on the relative importance of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). In this study, we sought to describe the temporal relation between diastolic and SBP with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk in detail. METHODS: Our study involved two prospective cohorts: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study and UK Biobank, including >700 000 participants and 1692 incident RCC cases. Risk analyses were conducted using flexible parametric survival models for DBP and SBP both separately as well as with mutuality adjustment and then adjustment for extended risk factors. We also carried out univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses (DBP: ninstruments = 251, SBP: ninstruments = 213) to complement the analyses of measured DBP and SBP. RESULTS: In the univariable analysis, we observed clear positive associations with RCC risk for both diastolic and SBP when measured ≥5 years before diagnosis and suggestive evidence for a stronger risk association in the year leading up to diagnosis. In mutually adjusted analysis, the long-term risk association of DBP remained, with a hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation increment 10 years before diagnosis (HR10y) of 1.20 (95% CI: 1.10-1.30), whereas the association of SBP was attenuated (HR10y: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.91-1.10). In the complementary multivariable MR analysis, we observed an odds ratio for a 1-SD increment (ORsd) of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.08-1.67) for genetically predicted DBP and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56-0.88) for genetically predicted SBP. CONCLUSION: The results of this observational and MR study are consistent with an important role of DBP in RCC aetiology. The relation between SBP and RCC risk was less clear but does not appear to be independent of DBP.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 77: 102117, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IgA antibodies against few Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) proteins are established serological markers for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We recently validated a novel, comprehensive EBV marker panel and showed that IgA, but also IgG antibodies against multiple EBV proteins are highly sensitive and specific for EBV-positive NPC at diagnosis. However, data about these novel biomarkers as prospective markers for NPC are sparse. METHODS: This study included 30 incident NPC cases and 60 matched controls from the Norwegian Janus Serum Bank. For 21 NPCs, molecular EBV and human papillomavirus (HPV) status were assessed by EBER-ISH and HPV DNA/RNA testing by PCR, respectively. IgA and IgG serum antibodies against 17 EBV antigens were analyzed in prediagnostic sera of cases (median lead time 14 years) and controls using multiplex serology. Sensitivities were calculated using receiver operating characteristic analysis pre-specified to yield 90% specificity in the control group. From 10 cases, serial samples were available. RESULTS: Quantitative EBV antibody levels were significantly elevated among all cases (p < 0.05) for three IgA and six IgG antibodies. The highest sensitivities for defining 12 EBER-ISH-positive NPCs were observed for BGLF2 IgA (67%) and BGLF2 IgG (83%). Increased IgA and IgG antibody levels between the first and last draw before diagnosis were observed for EBER-ISH positive, but not for EBER-ISH negative NPCs. Among 21 molecularly analyzed NPCs, 4 EBER-ISH negative NPCs showed concomitant positivity to HPV type-specific DNA and RNA; 3 NPCs were HPV16 and 1 NPC was HPV18 positive. CONCLUSION: Both, EBV IgA and IgG antibody levels are significantly elevated many years before diagnosis of EBV-positive NPCs in Norway, an NPC low-incidence region. This study provides insights into one of the largest available prospective sample collections of NPCs in a non-endemic country.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Anticorpos Antivirais , Biomarcadores , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A , Imunoglobulina G , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA
8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2022 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35138370

RESUMO

Differences by sex in lung cancer incidence and mortality have been reported which cannot be fully explained by sex differences in smoking behavior, implying existence of genetic and molecular basis for sex disparity in lung cancer development. However, the information about sex dimorphism in lung cancer risk is quite limited despite the great success in lung cancer association studies. By adopting a stringent two-stage analysis strategy, we performed a genome-wide gene-sex interaction analysis using genotypes from a lung cancer cohort including ~ 47 000 individuals with European ancestry. Three low-frequency variants (minor allele frequency < 0.05), rs17662871 (OR = 0.71, p = 4.29x10-8); rs79942605 (OR = 2.17, p = 2.81x10-8); and rs208908 (OR = 0.70, p = 4.54x10-8), were identified with different risk effect of lung cancer between men and women. Further eQTL and functional annotation analysis suggested rs208908 affects lung cancer risk through differential regulation of CXADR (Coxsackie Virus And Adenovirus Receptor) gene expression in lung tissues between men and women. Our study is one of the first studies to provide novel insights about the genetic and molecular basis for sex disparity in lung cancer development.

9.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 3, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and experimental evidence has linked chronic inflammation to cancer aetiology. It is unclear whether associations for specific inflammatory biomarkers are causal or due to bias. In order to examine whether altered genetically predicted concentration of circulating cytokines are associated with cancer development, we performed a two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. METHODS: Up to 31,112 individuals of European descent were included in genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses of 47 circulating cytokines. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated with the cytokines, located in or close to their coding gene (cis), were used as instrumental variables. Inverse-variance weighted MR was used as the primary analysis, and the MR assumptions were evaluated in sensitivity and colocalization analyses and a false discovery rate (FDR) correction for multiple comparisons was applied. Corresponding germline GWAS summary data for five cancer outcomes (breast, endometrial, lung, ovarian, and prostate), and their subtypes were selected from the largest cancer-specific GWASs available (cases ranging from 12,906 for endometrial to 133,384 for breast cancer). RESULTS: There was evidence of inverse associations of macrophage migration inhibitory factor with breast cancer (OR per SD = 0.88, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.94), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist with endometrial cancer (0.86, 0.80 to 0.93), interleukin-18 with lung cancer (0.87, 0.81 to 0.93), and beta-chemokine-RANTES with ovarian cancer (0.70, 0.57 to 0.85) and positive associations of monokine induced by gamma interferon with endometrial cancer (3.73, 1.86 to 7.47) and cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine with lung cancer (1.51, 1.22 to 1.87). These associations were similar in sensitivity analyses and supported in colocalization analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study adds to current knowledge on the role of specific inflammatory biomarker pathways in cancer aetiology. Further validation is needed to assess the potential of these cytokines as pharmacological or lifestyle targets for cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Citocinas/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
10.
Scand J Urol ; 56(1): 47-52, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586034

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many factors influence the clinical course of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The most commonly used prognostic indicators are TNM stage, tumor size and RCC type. In this study we evaluated the prognostic relevance of albumin and C-reactive protein (CRP), and Glasgow Prognostic scores (GPS), in patients with primary RCC. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients surgically treated for primary RCC between 1982 and 2018 at Umeå University Hospital. There were 872 patients, 527 males and 345 females. Data on albumin, CRP and GPS points before surgery were extracted, as well as TNM stage, RCC type, tumor grade, tumor size, and primary treatment. The patients were followed for recurrence and death for up to 37.2 years. We used Kaplan-Meier estimators, Cox-proportional hazards models, to assess the relation between potentially prognostic indicators and RCC-specific death, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Of 872 patients, 708 had clear-cell RCC, 114 papillary RCC, 36 chromophobe RCC and 9 undefined RCC type while 5 patients had missing RCC type data. Except that, women had a significantly (p = 0.002) lower proportion of pRCC, no difference in RCC types and levels of albumin and CRP was observed between genders. Albumin, CRP, and GPSs were all univariately associated to RCC survival (p < 0.001). CRP demonstrated the strongest prognostic association (HR 1.67 95% Ci (1.53-1.83, overriding both albumin and GPS in multivariable models. The AUC for CRP was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.74-0.80). CONCLUSION: Elevated CRP, low albumin levels, and elevated GPSs were all associated to poor survival in patients with RCC, Only CRP remained independent in multivariate analysis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Proteína C-Reativa , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
EClinicalMedicine ; 42: 101176, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Country-specific evidence is needed to guide decisions regarding whether and how to implement lung cancer screening in different settings. For this study, we estimated the potential numbers of individuals screened and lung cancer deaths prevented in Brazil after applying different strategies to define screening eligibility. METHODS: We applied the Lung Cancer Death Risk Assessment Tool (LCDRAT) to survey data on current and former smokers (ever-smokers) in 15 Brazilian state capital cities that comprise 18% of the Brazilian population. We evaluated three strategies to define eligibility for screening: (1) pack-years and cessation time (≥30 pack-years and <15 years since cessation); (2) the LCDRAT risk model with a fixed risk threshold; and (3) LCDRAT with age-specific risk thresholds. FINDINGS: Among 2.3 million Brazilian ever-smokers aged 55-79 years, 21,459 (95%CI 20,532-22,387) lung cancer deaths were predicted over 5 years without screening. Applying the fixed risk-based eligibility definition would prevent more lung cancer deaths than the pack-years definition [2,939 (95%CI 2751-3127) vs. 2,500 (95%CI 2318-2681) lung cancer deaths], and with higher screening efficiency [NNS=177 (95%CI 170-183) vs. 205 (95%CI 194-216)], but would tend to screen older individuals [mean age 67.8 (95%CI 67.5-68.2) vs. 63.4 (95%CI 63.0-63.9) years]. Applying age-specific risk thresholds would allow younger ever-smokers to be screened, although these individuals would be at lower risk. The age-specific thresholds strategy would avert three-fifths (60.1%) of preventable lung cancer deaths [N = 2629 (95%CI 2448-2810)] by screening 21.9% of ever-smokers. INTERPRETATION: The definition of eligibility impacts the efficiency of lung cancer screening and the mean age of the eligible population. As implementation of lung screening proceeds in different countries, our analytical framework can be used to guide similar analyses in other contexts. Due to limitations of our models, more research would be needed.

12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5945, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642315

RESUMO

Although several oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) susceptibility loci have been identified, most previous studies lacked detailed information on human papillomavirus (HPV) status. We conduct a genome-wide analysis by HPV16 serology status in 4,002 oral cancer cases (OPC and oral cavity cancer (OCC)) and 5,256 controls. We detect four susceptibility loci pointing to a distinct genetic predisposition by HPV status. Our most notable finding in the HLA region, that is now confirmed to be specific of HPV(+)OPC risk, reveal two independent loci with strong protective effects, one refining the previously reported HLA class II haplotype association. Antibody levels against HPV16 viral proteins strongly implicate the protective HLA variants as major determinants of humoral response against L1 capsid protein or E6 oncoprotein suggesting a natural immune response against HPV(+)OPC promoted by HLA variants. This indicates that therapeutic vaccines that target E6 and attenuate viral response after established HPV infections might protect against HPV(+)OPC.


Assuntos
Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Neoplasias Bucais/imunologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Antígenos HLA/classificação , Antígenos HLA/genética , Haplótipos , Papillomavirus Humano 16/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/virologia , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/imunologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/genética , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/fisiopatologia
13.
Metabolites ; 11(9)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564446

RESUMO

Pooling metabolomics data across studies is often desirable to increase the statistical power of the analysis. However, this can raise methodological challenges as several preanalytical and analytical factors could introduce differences in measured concentrations and variability between datasets. Specifically, different studies may use variable sample types (e.g., serum versus plasma) collected, treated, and stored according to different protocols, and assayed in different laboratories using different instruments. To address these issues, a new pipeline was developed to normalize and pool metabolomics data through a set of sequential steps: (i) exclusions of the least informative observations and metabolites and removal of outliers; imputation of missing data; (ii) identification of the main sources of variability through principal component partial R-square (PC-PR2) analysis; (iii) application of linear mixed models to remove unwanted variability, including samples' originating study and batch, and preserve biological variations while accounting for potential differences in the residual variances across studies. This pipeline was applied to targeted metabolomics data acquired using Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ kits in eight case-control studies nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Comprehensive examination of metabolomics measurements indicated that the pipeline improved the comparability of data across the studies. Our pipeline can be adapted to normalize other molecular data, including biomarkers as well as proteomics data, and could be used for pooling molecular datasets, for example in international consortia, to limit biases introduced by inter-study variability. This versatility of the pipeline makes our work of potential interest to molecular epidemiologists.

14.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003786, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess bodyweight and related metabolic perturbations have been implicated in kidney cancer aetiology, but the specific molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly understood. In this study, we sought to identify circulating metabolites that predispose kidney cancer and to evaluate the extent to which they are influenced by body mass index (BMI). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the association between circulating levels of 1,416 metabolites and incident kidney cancer using pre-diagnostic blood samples from up to 1,305 kidney cancer case-control pairs from 5 prospective cohort studies. Cases were diagnosed on average 8 years after blood collection. We found 25 metabolites robustly associated with kidney cancer risk. In particular, 14 glycerophospholipids (GPLs) were inversely associated with risk, including 8 phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and 2 plasmalogens. The PC with the strongest association was PC ae C34:3 with an odds ratio (OR) for 1 standard deviation (SD) increment of 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68 to 0.83, p = 2.6 × 10-8). In contrast, 4 amino acids, including glutamate (OR for 1 SD = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.60, p = 1.6 × 10-5), were positively associated with risk. Adjusting for BMI partly attenuated the risk association for some-but not all-metabolites, whereas other known risk factors of kidney cancer, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, had minimal impact on the observed associations. A mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis of the influence of BMI on the blood metabolome highlighted that some metabolites associated with kidney cancer risk are influenced by BMI. Specifically, elevated BMI appeared to decrease levels of several GPLs that were also found inversely associated with kidney cancer risk (e.g., -0.17 SD change [ßBMI] in 1-(1-enyl-palmitoyl)-2-linoleoyl-GPC (P-16:0/18:2) levels per SD change in BMI, p = 3.4 × 10-5). BMI was also associated with increased levels of glutamate (ßBMI: 0.12, p = 1.5 × 10-3). While our results were robust across the participating studies, they were limited to study participants of European descent, and it will, therefore, be important to evaluate if our findings can be generalised to populations with different genetic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a potentially important role of the blood metabolome in kidney cancer aetiology by highlighting a wide range of metabolites associated with the risk of developing kidney cancer and the extent to which changes in levels of these metabolites are driven by BMI-the principal modifiable risk factor of kidney cancer.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Renais/sangue , Metaboloma , Obesidade/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Vitória/epidemiologia
15.
Cancer Discov ; 11(12): 3106-3125, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244212

RESUMO

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by large intracellular lipid droplets containing free and esterified cholesterol; however, the functional significance of cholesterol accumulation in ccRCC cells is unknown. We demonstrate that, surprisingly, genes encoding cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes are repressed in ccRCC, suggesting a dependency on exogenous cholesterol. Mendelian randomization analyses based on 31,000 individuals indicate a causal link between elevated circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ccRCC risk. Depriving ccRCC cells of either cholesterol or HDL compromises proliferation and survival in vitro and tumor growth in vivo; in contrast, elevated dietary cholesterol promotes tumor growth. Scavenger Receptor B1 (SCARB1) is uniquely required for cholesterol import, and inhibiting SCARB1 is sufficient to cause ccRCC cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, and decreased PI3K/AKT signaling. Collectively, we reveal a cholesterol dependency in ccRCC and implicate SCARB1 as a novel therapeutic target for treating kidney cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that ccRCC cells are auxotrophic for exogenous cholesterol to maintain PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and ROS homeostasis. Blocking cholesterol import through the HDL transporter SCARB1 compromises ccRCC cell survival and tumor growth, suggesting a novel pharmacologic target for this disease. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 2945.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Colesterol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo
16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Findings and limitations of previous studies on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk support conducting further research in prospective cohorts. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Participants were 513 pancreatic cancer cases and 1020 matched controls. Concentrations of 22 POPs were measured in plasma collected at baseline. RESULTS: Some associations were observed at higher concentrations of p, p'-DDT, trans-nonachlor, ß-hexachlorocyclohexane and the sum of six organochlorine pesticides and of 16 POPs. The odds ratio (OR) for the upper quartile of trans-nonachlor was 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.06-2.26; P for trend = 0.025). Associations were stronger in the groups predefined as most valid (participants having fasted >6 h, with microscopic diagnostic confirmation, normal weight, and never smokers), and as most relevant (follow-up ≥10 years). Among participants having fasted >6 h, the ORs were relevant for 10 of 11 exposures. Higher ORs were also observed among cases with microscopic confirmation than in cases with a clinical diagnosis, and among normal-weight participants than in the rest of participants. Among participants with a follow-up ≥10 years, estimates were higher than in participants with a shorter follow-up (for trans-nonachlor: OR = 2.14, 1.01 to 4.53, P for trend = 0.035). Overall, trans-nonachlor, three PCBs and the two sums of POPs were the exposures most clearly associated with pancreatic cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Individually or in combination, most of the 22 POPs analysed did not or only moderately increased the risk of pancreatic cancer.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13805, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226613

RESUMO

Imbalances of blood biomarkers are associated with disease, and biomarkers may also vary non-pathologically across population groups. We described variation in concentrations of biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin status, inflammation including tryptophan metabolism, and endothelial and renal function among cancer-free older adults. We analyzed 5167 cancer-free controls aged 40-80 years from 20 cohorts in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3). Centralized biochemical analyses of 40 biomarkers in plasma or serum were performed. We fit multivariable linear mixed effects models to quantify variation in standardized biomarker log-concentrations across four factors: age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI). Differences in most biomarkers across most factors were small, with 93% (186/200) of analyses showing an estimated difference lower than 0.25 standard-deviations, although most were statistically significant due to large sample size. The largest difference was for creatinine by sex, which was - 0.91 standard-deviations lower in women than men (95%CI - 0.98; - 0.84). The largest difference by age was for total cysteine (0.40 standard-deviation increase per 10-year increase, 95%CI 0.36; 0.43), and by BMI was for C-reactive protein (0.38 standard-deviation increase per 5-kg/m2 increase, 95%CI 0.34; 0.41). For 31 of 40 markers, the mean difference between current and never smokers was larger than between former and never smokers. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) association with time since smoking cessation was observed for 8 markers, including C-reactive protein, kynurenine, choline, and total homocysteine. We conclude that most blood biomarkers show small variations across demographic characteristics. Patterns by smoking status point to normalization of multiple physiological processes after smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Carbono/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Rim/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Cinurenina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/genética , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Vitaminas/sangue
18.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(8): 841-848, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036468

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation markers have been linked to increased cancer risk and mortality in a number of studies. However, few studies have estimated pre-diagnostic associations of systemic inflammation markers and cancer risk. Such markers could serve as biomarkers of cancer risk and aid in earlier identification of the disease. This study estimated associations between pre-diagnostic systemic inflammation markers and cancer risk in the prospective UK Biobank cohort of approximately 440,000 participants recruited between 2006 and 2010. We assessed associations between four immune-related markers based on blood cell counts: systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and risk for 17 cancer sites by estimating hazard ratios (HR) using flexible parametric survival models. We observed positive associations with risk for seven out of 17 cancers with SII, NLR, PLR, and negative associations with LMR. The strongest associations were observed for SII for colorectal and lung cancer risk, with associations increasing in magnitude for cases diagnosed within one year of recruitment. For instance, the HR for colorectal cancer per standard deviation increment in SII was estimated at 1.09 (95% CI 1.02-1.16) in blood drawn five years prior to diagnosis and 1.50 (95% CI 1.24-1.80) in blood drawn one month prior to diagnosis. We observed associations between systemic inflammation markers and risk for several cancers. The increase in risk the last year prior to diagnosis may reflect a systemic immune response to an already present, yet clinically undetected cancer. Blood cell ratios could serve as biomarkers of cancer incidence risk with potential for early identification of disease in the last year prior to clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Neutrófilos/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Pancreatology ; 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk association between fasting glucose levels and pancreatic cancer using systematically collected prediagnostic blood glucose samples. METHODS: Prospective nested case-control study of participants from the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study, including 182 cases that developed pancreatic cancer and four matched controls per case. Blood glucose levels collected up to 24 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis were analyzed. The association between fasting glucose levels and pancreatic cancer risk was determined using unconditional and conditional logistic regression models. The association between fasting glucose and the time to pancreatic cancer diagnosis, tumor stage and survival was determined using likelihood-ratio test, t-test and log rank test. RESULTS: The unadjusted risk of developing pancreatic cancer increased with increasing fasting glucose levels (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.05-1.60, P = .015). Impaired fasting glucose (≥6.1 mmol/L) was associated with an adjusted risk of 1.77 for developing pancreatic cancer (95% CI 1.05-2.99, P = .032). In subgroup analysis, fasting glucose levels were associated with an increased risk in never-smokers (OR 4.02, 95% CI 1.26-12.77, P = .018) and non-diabetics (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.08-8.79, P = .035) (non-significant for interaction). The ratio between fasting glucose and BMI was higher among future pancreatic cancer patients and an increased ratio was associated with elevated risk of pancreatic cancer (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.04-2.66, P = .034). Fasting glucose levels were not associated with TNM stage at diagnosis or survival. CONCLUSIONS: High fasting glucose is associated with an increased risk of being diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

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