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1.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 10(5): 1027-1031, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602342

RESUMO

Gastric small cell carcinoma (GSCC) is a rare entity in the western hemisphere. GSCC's typically arise in the upper one-third of the stomach and have histologic features similar to those of small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). They have an aggressive natural history that is characterized by early and widespread metastases. Prognosis is dismal with an overall survival of less than 12 months. We present the case of a 79-year-old African-American woman who presented with two weeks of progressive dysphagia associated with nausea, vomiting and a foreign body sensation in the throat. Computed tomography (CT) imaging showed multiple hepatic and lymph node lesions but revealed no gastric thickening. Endoscopy revealed a large ulcer on the lesser curvature of the stomach. Biopsy proved the diagnosis of pure-type GSCC. Bone scan identified multiple focal bony lesions at the thoracolumbar vertebrae, ribcage, bilateral scapulae, pelvic bones and right proximal femur. Treatment was started with cisplatin and etoposide. To our knowledge, this is the one of the first reported cases of gastric small cell cancer with bone metastases in the western hemisphere. Our report shows the importance of doing a full metastatic workup in these patients to identify sites of metastases.

2.
Clin Pract ; 9(2): 1153, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205642

RESUMO

Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is characterized by postprandial vomiting due to mechanical obstruction. Rarely it can occur due to ingestion of a foreign body. Most cases of foreign body ingestion are benign, with passage of the ingested object into the stool with no clinical sequelae. We describe a case of an 80-year-old woman with GOO occurring secondary to ingestion of two coins (American quarters). Rarely will such a small object cause a true gastric outlet obstruction. To our knowledge this makes the second such case reported in the medical literature.

3.
Cureus ; 11(2): e4066, 2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016093

RESUMO

Hepatic herniation through an abdominal incisional hernia is a rare phenomenon that has been seldom reported in the medical literature. When present, this may cause patients significant distress and is associated with complications such as hepatic encephalopathy and Budd-Chiari syndrome. Most cases can be managed conservatively through observation, but many cases require surgical intervention to preserve hepatic function. Our case consists of a 54-year-old man who presented with asymptomatic herniation of the left hepatic lobe through an abdominal incisional hernia.

4.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 73(2): 105-108, 2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845387

RESUMO

Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus that is characterized by loss of ganglionic neurons within the myenteric plexus of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) resulting in failure of the LES to relax. Clinically this disorder presents with simultaneous dysphagia to solids and liquids, and if left untreated, leads to esophageal dilation, which can give rise to many adverse consequences. Extrinsic compression of respiratory structures is one such consequence, and rarely, cases of tracheal compression secondary to achalasia have been reported. However, cases of extrinsic bronchial compression are yet rarer. Here, we present a case series comprised of two patients with achalasia who presented with extrinsic bronchial compression by a dilated esophagus secondary to achalasia.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Acalasia Esofágica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/complicações , Asma/patologia , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Epilepsia/patologia , Acalasia Esofágica/etiologia , Esfíncter Esofágico Inferior/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol ; 65(2): 166-167, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488679

RESUMO

Ofosu A, Ramai D, John F, Reddy M, Adler DG. Signet ring cancer of the gall bladder: a SEER database analysis. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2019;65:166-7. DOI: 10.23736/S1121-421X.18.02540-0.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programa de SEER , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol ; 65(2): 85-90, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ampullary cancer accounts for only 0.2% of gastrointestinal cancers. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence, demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment, and survival of patients with ampullary tumors. METHODS: Data on ampullary cancer between 2004 and 2013 was extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Registry. The clinical epidemiology of these tumors was analyzed using SEER*Stat. RESULTS: A total of 6803 patients with ampullary cancer were identified. Median age at diagnosis was 71±13 years. The overall age-adjusted incidence of ampullary cancer was 0.59 per 100,000 per year. A higher incidence of ampullary cancer was observed in males compared to females (0.74 vs. 0.48 per 100,000 per year). Most tumors were moderately differentiated (39.5%). The most common stage at presentation was Stage I (21%), followed by Stage II (20%). The majority (63%) of these tumors were surgically resected while 20% of patients received radiotherapy. One and 5-year cause-specific survival for ampullary cancer was 71.7% and 38.8% respectively, with a median survival of 31 months. On Cox regression analysis, black race, increasing cancer stage and grade, N1 stage, and non-surgical treatment were associated with poorer prognosis. Those who were not treated with surgical intervention were at 4.5 times increased risk for death (hazard ratio 4.5, 95% CI: 3.93-5.09, P=0.000). CONCLUSIONS: The annual incidence of ampullary cancer has been fairly constant, though males are more likely to be affected. While its incidence increases with age, patients who are treated by surgical intervention have significantly better outcomes. Additionally, through the use of endoscopic techniques, ampullary cancer can be detected and treated much earlier.


Assuntos
Ampola Hepatopancreática , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/terapia , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programa de SEER , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol ; 65(1): 70-76, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417630

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic hemostasis in patients with non-variceal bleeding (NVGIB) with standard therapy has improved outcomes. However, persistent bleeding and re-bleeding continues to drive morbidity and mortality. Use of over-the-scope clips (OTSC) is an emerging treatment modality for managing gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the ability of OTSC to achieve primary hemostasis and re-bleeding rates as primary therapy and rescue endoscopic interventions in patients with NVGIB. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched articles in PubMed, Ovid Medline In- Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus from inception to July 2017 using keywords such as "OTSC" and "NVGIB." EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: A total of 16 studies which involved 475 patients met the inclusion criteria. 288 patients were treated with OTSC as primary therapy while 187 patients were treated with OTSC as rescue therapy. Primary hemostasis rate achieved with primary endoscopic therapy with OTSC was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.89-0.96). Similarly, primary hemostasis rate achieved with rescue endoscopic therapy with OTSC was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84-0.95). Re-bleeding rates after primary endoscopic therapy with OTSC was 0.21 (95% CI:0.08-0.43) and 0.25 (95% CI:0.17-0.34) with rescue therapy. There was a decreased risk of re-bleeding in patients treated with OTSC as primary therapy versus rescue therapy. RR=0.52 (95% CI: 0.31-0.89). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrates success on the use of OTSC as primary and rescue therapy in the management of NVGIB. Further trials should clarify the ideal setting for the use of OTSC and assess the cost of these devices as compared to standard therapy.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Hemostase Endoscópica/instrumentação , Humanos
8.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 31(4): 448-455, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29991889

RESUMO

Advances in the field of endoscopy have allowed gastroenterologists to obtain detailed imaging of anatomical structures and to treat gastrointestinal diseases with endoscopic therapies. However, these technological developments have exposed endoscopists and staff to hazards such as musculoskeletal injuries, exposure to infectious agents, and ionizing radiation. We aimed to review the occupational hazards for the gastroenterologist and endoscopist. Using PubMed, Medline, Medscape, and Google Scholar, we identified peer-reviewed articles with the keywords "occupational hazards," "health hazards," "occupational health hazards," "endoscopy," "gastroenterologist," "infectious agents," "musculoskeletal injuries," and "radiation." Strategies for reducing exposure to infectious agents, radiation, and the risk of musculoskeletal injuries related to gastroenterology include compliance with established standard measures, the use of thyroid shields and radioprotective eyewear, and ergonomic practices. We conclude that educating endoscopic personnel and trainees in these practices, in addition to further research in these areas, will likely lead to the development of more efficient and user-friendly workspaces that are safer for patients and personnel.

10.
Oxf Med Case Reports ; 2018(1): omx090, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29383264

RESUMO

Intramural duodenal hematoma (IDH) is a rare complication in endoscopic management of ulcer hemorrhage. Usually noted in cases of blunt abdominal trauma, non-traumatic IDHs have been reported in individuals on anticoagulation, with blood disorders, pancreatic diseases and in endoscopic procedures such as biopsy, sclerotherapy and argon plasma coagulation. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with acute blood loss anemia, abdominal pain or vomiting. We report a case of an 83-year-old man with melena and syncope who underwent endoscopy for bleeding ulcer control and subsequently developed acute pancreatitis due to an acute IDH. Computed tomography (CT) scan confirms the diagnosis. Most cases are conservatively managed however when unsuccessful, laparoscopic surgical drainage or ultrasound or CT guided drainage can be performed.

11.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(6): 1227-1233, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is used as a marker of severity in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) patients. We estimated the true effect of AKI in inpatient mortality of CDI patients, as there are no large-scale, population-based, propensity-matched studies evaluating AKI's effect in this patient cohort. METHODS: A retrospective observational study utilizing the National Inpatient Sample from years 2003 to 2012, including all adults with CDI, excluding cases missing data on age, inpatient mortality or gender. Trends and CDI-related complications as mortality predictors were assessed using survey-weighted multivariable regression. We estimated AKI's independent effect by propensity-matching, post-stratifying by chronic kidney disease status, allowing for multiple comorbidity adjustment. RESULTS: A total of 2 859 599 patients with CDI were included, of which 896 122 (31.3%) had principal diagnosis of CDI. AKI prevalence was 22%. Mortality rate was 8.4%, while among AKI patients was higher (18.2%). In multivariable regression, AKI was associated with higher mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 3.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.02-3.30; P < 0.001), while after propensity matching, AKI increased mortality by 86% (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.79-1.94; P < 0.001). CDI incidence increased by 1.8, together with the rate of AKI (12.6% in 2003 to 28.8% in 2012, P-trend < 0.001). Despite increasing hospitalizations, mortality over the study period decreased to 7.2% (2012) from 9.0% (2003); P-trend < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Hospital admissions of patients with CDI and concomitant AKI are increasing, but their inpatient mortality has improved over the study period. AKI is a significant contributor to mortality, independently of other comorbidities, complications, and hospital characteristics, emphasizing the need for early diagnosis and aggressive management in such patients.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/complicações , Infecções por Clostridium/mortalidade , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Pontuação de Propensão , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 11(3): 791-796, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606937

RESUMO

Overall, colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women, meaning that it is one of the more widely recognized preventable cancers. Instances of colorectal malignancies though are overwhelmingly attributable to adenocarcinoma. Colorectal cancers with components of squamous cell carcinoma represent a statistical anomaly. Here, we present the case of a 50-year-old male, who complained of abdominal pain and weight loss over a 3-month period of time. Biopsies from a colonoscopy ultimately revealed that this patient's colon cancer consisted of both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, representing a truly exceptional pathology finding in a patient diagnosed with a colorectal cancer.

14.
J Med Case Rep ; 10(1): 235, 2016 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27557756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyolysis secondary to quinolones is not frequent. There are scarce reports in the literature associating rhabdomyolysis to levofloxacin. We describe a case of levofloxacin-induced rhabdomyolysis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old African-American man presented with muscle tightness after taking three doses of levofloxacin. He had elevated creatine kinase without acute kidney injury. His symptoms resolved after discontinuation of levofloxacin and supportive care. CONCLUSIONS: It is fascinating that our patient has a prior history of rhabdomyolysis, likely from levofloxacin. Our case highlights the need to be mindful of this potentially life-threatening complication of levofloxacin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Levofloxacino/efeitos adversos , Rabdomiólise/induzido quimicamente , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Humanos , Levofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fadiga Muscular , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 50(1): 69-74, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25984978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Increased mean platelet volume (MPV), a marker of platelet activity, is associated with acute myocardial infarction, stroke, thrombosis, and increased mortality after myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between NAFLD and MPV. METHODOLOGY: A systematic search of MEDLINE (Ovid), PubMed, and CINAHL databases from 1950 to May 2014, complemented with manual review of references of published articles for studies comparing MPV in patients with and without NAFLD was done. Results were pooled using both fixed and random effects model. RESULTS: Our analysis from pooling of data from 8 observational studies including 1428 subjects (NAFLD=842 and non-NAFLD=586) showed that MPV was significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than those without. The standardized mean difference in MPV between NAFLD and controls was 0.457 (95% confidence interval: 0.348-0.565, P<0.001) using fixed and 0.612 (95% confidence interval: 0.286-0.938, P<0.001) using random effects model. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that MPV is significantly higher in patients with NAFLD, indicating the presence of increased platelet activity in such patients. Future research is needed to investigate whether this increased MPV is associated with increased cardiovascular disease in patients with NAFLD.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Volume Plaquetário Médio , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Obesidade/sangue
17.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 27(11): 1237-48, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26193052

RESUMO

Observational studies suggest that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased carotid intimal medial thickness (C-IMT) and carotid plaques in both children and adults. We carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between NAFLD and carotid atherosclerosis measured as C-IMT and carotid plaque prevalence. Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases were searched from 1946 to September 2014, complemented with a manual review of references of the published articles for studies that compared C-IMT or carotid plaque prevalence in adults and children. Results were pooled using both fixed and random effects models. Of the studies identified, 20 were suitable for testing the effect of NAFLD on C-IMT in adults, 13 for testing the effect of NAFLD on carotid plaque prevalence in adults, and five for testing the effect of NAFLD on C-IMT in the pediatric population. The pooled data from 20 studies (19,274 adult participants: NAFLD=8652, controls=10,622) showed significantly increased C-IMT in patients with NAFLD, compared with controls without NAFLD, according to both fixed [standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.251, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.220-0.282, P<0.001] and random effects models (SMD=0.944, 95% CI: 0.728-1.160, P<0.001). NAFLD was also found to be associated with a higher carotid artery plaque prevalence when compared with controls, according to both fixed (OR=1.273, 95% CI=1.162-1.394, P<0.001) and random effects models (OR=1.769, 95% CI: 1.213-2.581, P=0.003), on pooling of 13 studies (14,445 adult participants: NAFLD=5399 and controls=9046). Analysis of pooled data from five studies in the pediatric population (1121 pediatric participants: NAFLD=312 and controls=809) also found NAFLD to be associated with significantly increased C-IMT according to fixed (SMD=0.995, 95% CI: 0.840-1.150, P<0.001) and random effects models (1.083, 95% CI: 0.457-1.709, P=0.001). NAFLD is associated with increased C-IMT in both children and adults, and with increased carotid plaque prevalence in adults. Individuals identified with carotid disease should be evaluated for NAFLD and vice versa.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Criança , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
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