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1.
Environ Int ; 146: 106188, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096467

RESUMO

To gain a better understanding of which pharmaceuticals could pose a risk to fish, 94 pharmaceuticals representing 23 classes were analyzed in blood plasma from wild bream, chub, and roach captured at 18 sites in Germany, the Czech Republic and the UK, respectively. Based on read across from humans, we evaluated the risks of pharmacological effects occurring in the fish for each measured pharmaceutical. Twenty-three compounds were found in fish plasma, with the highest levels measured in chub from the Czech Republic. None of the German bream had detectable levels of pharmaceuticals, whereas roach from the Thames had mostly low concentrations. For two pharmaceuticals, four individual Czech fish had plasma concentrations higher than the concentrations reached in the blood of human patients taking the corresponding medication. For nine additional compounds, determined concentrations exceeded 10% of the corresponding human therapeutic plasma concentration in 12 fish. The majority of the pharmaceuticals where a clear risk for pharmacological effects was identified targets the central nervous system. These include e.g. flupentixol, haloperidol, and risperidone, all of which have the potential to affect fish behavior. In addition to identifying pharmaceuticals of environmental concern, the results emphasize the value of environmental monitoring of internal drug levels in aquatic wildlife, as well as the need for more research to establish concentration-response relationships.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115841, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120336

RESUMO

In order to assess risks to the natural environment from microplastics, it is necessary to have reliable information on all potential inputs and discharges. This relies on stringent quality control measures to ensure accurate reporting. Here we focus on wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) and the complex sample matrices these provide. Composite samples of both influent and effluent were collected over a 24 h period on two separate occasions from eight different WwTWs across the UK. Sludge samples were taken on five occasions from five WwTWs. The WwTW treatments included activated sludge, trickling filter and biological aerated flooded filter with or without tertiary treatment. Using micro-FTIR analysis, microplastics ≥25 µm were identified and quantified. Procedural blanks were used to derive limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ). Where values were above the LOQ, microplastics in the influent ranged from 955 to 17,214 microplastic particles/L and in the effluent from 2 to 54 microplastic particles/L, giving an average removal rate of 99.8%. Microplastics could be quantified in sludge at concentrations of 301-10,380 microplastics/g dry weight, this analytical method therefore revealing higher concentrations than reported in previous studies. The most common polymers present overall were polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). We also report on critical considerations for blank corrections and quality control measures to ensure reliable microplastic analysis across different sample types.

3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(19): 12326-12334, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852201

RESUMO

Microplastics were characterized in eight water treatment works (WTWs) in England and Wales (UK). Sources included river water, groundwater, and an upland reservoir. Water treatment varied from disinfection, filtration, sedimentation, and activated carbon techniques. At each WTW, five repeat samples of raw and potable water and two repeat sludge samples were taken over 5 months. Microplastics in water were captured on 10 µm filters and nonplastic materials digested in the laboratory. Microplastics ≥25 µm were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared microscopy. Blanks revealed consistent polyethylene (PE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and polypropylene (PP) contamination. Spike recoveries for 63-90 µm polyamide microplastics demonstrated 101% (standard deviation, SD 27%) and 113% (SD 15%) recovery for raw and potable waters and 52% (SD 13%) for sludge. Only four of the six WTWs sampled for raw water and only two of eight WTWs in their potable water had microplastics above the limit of quantification. Considering only the WTWs with quantifiable microplastics, then on average, 4.9 microplastic particles/L were present in raw water and only 0.00011 microplastic particles/L were present in potable water (99.99% removal). Values in waste sludge were highly variable. PE, PET, and PP were the most common polymers quantified in raw water and sludge, and polystyrene and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene were the most common polymers quantified in potable water.

4.
J Dent (Shiraz) ; 21(1): 69-72, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158787

RESUMO

Immediate placement of dental implants presents many challenges, especially when partial or complete fixed restorations are the intended prosthetic outcome. With modern advancements in CAD/CAM technology, the ease and predictability of such complex cases is vastly improved. However, certain clinical situations remain that preclude the traditional implementation of this controlled approach to implant planning/placement and the current solutions to these problems each impose some level of compromise. This article describes a technique permitting both prosthetically-driven implant planning and increased surgical guide accuracy in situations where existing hopeless teeth would otherwise impede optimal treatment.

5.
Environ Int ; 138: 105621, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142913

RESUMO

Substantial perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) production still occurs in China, and the consumption of aquatic products is a critical exposure pathway of PFAAs in humans. In this study, specimens of 16 freshwater and 40 marine species were collected in the river-estuary-sea environment affected by a mega fluorochemical industry park in China in 2015, and the edible tissues of these organisms were analyzed for PFAA levels. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominating contaminant with an overall contribution of more than 90%, and concentrations as high as 2161 ng/g wet weight (measured in the freshwater winkle). All species with the greatest PFOA levels were benthic. The trophic magnification factor (TMF) of PFOA was 1.10 for freshwater species and 1.28 for marine species, indicating that PFOA was slightly magnifying. Analysis of carbon source indicated that freshwater species were more benthic feeding, while marine species were more pelagic feeding. Aquatic food consumption screening values of PFOA were modified according to estimated daily intake (EDI) values, which generated recommendations for limited meal categories and the do-not-eat category. Thus, this study provides recommendations for mitigating the health risks of PFAA-contaminated aquatic food, ranging from food selection to consumption frequency and proper food processing.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Caprilatos/análise , Caprilatos/toxicidade , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Environ Int ; 136: 105454, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032889

RESUMO

Interest in the risks posed by trace concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface waters is increasing, particularly with regard to potential effects of long-term, low-dose exposures of aquatic organisms. In most cases, the actual studies on PPCPs were risk assessments at screening-level, and accurate estimates were scarce. In this study, exposure and ecotoxicity data of 50 PPCPs were collected based on our previous studies, and a multiple-level environmental risk assessment was performed. The 50 selected PPCPs are likely to be frequently detected in surface waters of China, with concentrations ranging from the ng L-1 to the low-g L-1, and the risk quotients based on median concentrations ranged from 2046 for nonylphenol to 0 for phantolide. A semi-probabilistic approach screened 33 PPCPs that posed potential risks to aquatic organisms, among which 15 chemicals (nonylphenol, sulfamethoxazole, di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 17ß-ethynyl estradiol, caffeine, tetracycline, 17ß-estradiol, estrone, dibutyl phthalate, ibuprofen, carbamazepine, tonalide, galaxolide, triclosan, and bisphenol A) were categorized as priority compounds according to an optimized risk assessment, and then the refined probabilistic risk assessment indicated 12 of them posed low to high risk to aquatic ecosystem, with the maximum risk products ranged from 1.54% to 17.38%. Based on these results, we propose that the optimized risk assessment was appropriate for screening priority contaminants at national scale, and when a more accurate estimation is required, the refined probability risk assessment is useful. The methodology and process might provide reference for other research of chemical evaluation and management for rivers, lakes, and sea waters.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Cosméticos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
7.
Science ; 367(6476): 384-387, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974243

RESUMO

Knowledge of the hazards and associated risks from chemicals discharged to the environment has grown considerably over the past 40 years. This improving awareness stems from advances in our ability to measure chemicals at low environmental concentrations, recognition of a range of effects on organisms, and a worldwide growth in expertise. Environmental scientists and companies have learned from the experiences of the past; in theory, the next generation of chemicals will cause less acute toxicity and be less environmentally persistent and bioaccumulative. However, researchers still struggle to establish whether the nonlethal effects associated with some modern chemicals and substances will have serious consequences for wildlife. Obtaining the resources to address issues associated with chemicals in the environment remains a challenge.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Poluentes Ambientais , Substâncias Perigosas , Resíduos Industriais , Purificação da Água
8.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1532-1538, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277022

RESUMO

The potential persistence and migration of 14 antibiotics comprising sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides and tetracyclines were conducted using a 50-d recirculating flume study supported by batch attenuation experiments with spiked concentrations. The study demonstrated that photodegradation was the dominant attenuation process for these antibiotics in the water environment. The half-lives of 2-26 d were in order of sulfadiazine > sulfadimethoxine > sulfamerazine > sulfamethoxazole > sulfamethazine > sulfathiazole > ofloxacin > enrofloxacin > norfloxacin > ciprofloxacin > erythromycin > tetracycline > roxithromycin > oxytetracycline. These modest half-lives meant that the antibiotics were predicted to travel 30-400 km down a typical river before half the concentration would be lost. All antibiotics were detected on the surface sediment in the flume study. Under hyporheic exchange, some of them continually migrated into the deeper sediment and also the sediment pore water. All fluoroquinolones were detected in the sediments. The sulfonamides were detected in the pore water with relatively high concentrations and frequencies. Sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine and sulfathiazole in the upper layer pore water were found to be approaching equilibrium with the surface water. The high presence of sulfonamides in the pore water indicated that their high mobility and persistence potentially pose a risk to hyporheic zone.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Hidrodinâmica , Macrolídeos/análise , Fotólise , Sulfonamidas/análise , Tetraciclinas/análise
9.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 38(8): 1820-1832, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063229

RESUMO

The present study reviewed the impacts of wastewater on macroinvertebrates over 4 decades in a United Kingdom lowland river. This involved examining changes in chemicals, temperature, flow, and macroinvertebrate diversity from the 1970s until 2017 for a wastewater-dominated river downstream of Swindon in the United Kingdom (population ~ 220 000). When the wastewater treatment process changed from trickling filter to activated sludge in 1991, biological oxygen demand was nearly halved (90th percentile from 8.1 to 4.6 mg/L), ammonia peaks dropped more than 7-fold (90th percentile from 3.9 to 0.53 mg/L), whereas dissolved oxygen climbed consistently above 60% saturation (10th percentile from 49 to 64%) at a sampling point 2 km downstream of the wastewater treatment plant. A sustained increase in the number of macroinvertebrate species was evident from that point. River flow did not change, temperature rose slightly, and the major metal concentrations declined steadily over most of the monitoring period. Neither the introduction of phosphate stripping in 1999 nor the use of tertiary granular activated charcoal from 2008 to 2014 had strong positive effects on subsequent macroinvertebrate diversity. That the diversity still had not reached the ideal status by 2016 may be related to the modest habitat quality, agricultural pesticides, and limited recolonization potential in the catchment. The results indicate that urban wastewaters, with their chemical pollutants, are today probably not the biggest threat to the macroinvertebrate diversity of multiply stressed lowland rivers in the United Kingdom. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;38:1820-1832. © 2019 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Invertebrados/efeitos dos fármacos , Rios/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/métodos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1897): 20182416, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963852

RESUMO

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are substances that alter the function of the endocrine system and consequently cause adverse effects to humans or wildlife. The release of particular EDCs into the environment has been shown to negatively affect certain wildlife populations and has led to restrictions on the use of some EDCs. Current chemical regulations aim to balance the industrial, agricultural and/or pharmaceutical benefits of using these substances with their demonstrated or potential harm to human health or the environment. A summary is provided of the natural science evidence base informing the regulation of chemicals released into the environment that may have endocrine disrupting effects on wildlife. This summary is in a format (a 'restatement') intended to be policy-neutral and accessible to informed, but not expert, policy-makers and stakeholders.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Invertebrados/efeitos dos fármacos , Vertebrados , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade
11.
Environ Int ; 127: 671-684, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991223

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have become a recognized concern due to their mobility, persistence, ubiquity and health hazards in the environment. In this study, ten types of vegetables and three types of grain crops were collected in two open-air fields with different distances (0.3 km, 10 km) from a mega fluorochemical industrial park (FIP), China. Bioaccumulation characteristics of PFASs in light of crop types and organs were explored, followed by analyzing human exposure and risks to local residents with different age groups and dietary habits. Elevated levels of ∑PFASs were found nearby the FIP ranging from 79.9 ng/g to 200 ng/g in soils and from 58.8 ng/g to 8085 ng/g in crops. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAS component in soil; while shorter-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), especially perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), were the major PFAS contaminants in multiple crops, resulting from their bioaccumulation preference. Depending on the crop types, the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of ∑PFASs for edible parts varied from 0.36 to 48.0, and the highest values were found in shoot vegetables compared with those in fruit vegetables, flower vegetables, root vegetables and grain crops. For typical grains, the BAFs of ∑PFASs decreased in the order of soybean (Glycine max (Linn.) Merr.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), possibly related to their protein and lipid content. Among specific organs in the whole plants, leaves exhibited the highest BAFs of ∑PFASs compared with corresponding roots, stems, husks or grains. With increasing carbon chain lengths of individual PFCAs (C4-C8), the logarithm of their BAFs for edible parts of various crops showed a linear decrease (0.1-1.16 log decrease per CF2 unit), and the largest decrease was observed in grains. Human exposure to PFOA via the consumption of contaminated crops represents a health risk for local residents, especially for low-age consumers or urban consumers with higher vegetable diet. Implications for planting optimization and food safety were provided aiming to reduce health hazards of PFASs.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Adolescente , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Humanos , Indústrias , Solo/química
12.
Nature ; 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203346
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(20): 11848-11856, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216714

RESUMO

While pharmaceuticals are now routinely detected in aquatic environments, we know little of the biological activity their presence might provoke. It is estimated that nearly 40% of all marketed pharmaceuticals are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) acting pharmaceuticals. Here, we applied an in-vitro assay, called the TGFα shedding assay, to measure the biological activities of GPCRs-acting pharmaceuticals present in effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants in the United Kingdom (UK) and Japan from 2014 to 2016. The results indicated that compounds were present in the wastewater with antagonistic activities against angiotensin (AT1), dopamine (D2), adrenergic (ß1), acetylcholine (M1), and histamine (H1) receptors in both countries. The most consistent and powerful antagonistic activity was against the H1, D2, and AT1 receptors at up to microgram-antagonist-equivalent quantity/L. Chemical analysis of the same UK samples was also conducted in parallel. Comparing the results of the bioassay with the chemical analysis indicated (1) the existence of other D2 or M1 receptor antagonists besides sulpiride (D2 antagonist) or pirenzepine (M1 antagonist) in wastewater and (2) that there might be a mixture effect between agonist and antagonistic activities against ß1 receptor. GPCR-acting pharmaceuticals should be paid more attention in the environmental monitoring and toxicity testing in future studies.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Japão , Reino Unido , Águas Residuárias
14.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 37(9): 2475-2486, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878446

RESUMO

It is recognized that the amount of natural dilution available can make a significant difference in the exposure and risk assessment of chemicals that emanate from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, data availability is a common limiting factor in exposure assessments for emerging markets. In the present study, we used a novel approach to derive dilution factors for the receiving waters within 5 km of wastewater discharge points in Mexico by combining locally measured river volumes, ecoregion categorization, data on WWTP capacity, and global river network models. Distributions of wastewater effluent into receiving stream dilution factors were developed for the entire country and organized by ecoregion type to explore spatial differences. The distribution of dilution factors in Mexico ranged from >1000 in tropical and temperate ecoregions to 1 in desert ecoregions. To demonstrate its utility, dilution factors were used to develop a probabilistic model to explore the potential ecological risks of the high-volume surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), commonly used in down-the-drain cleaning products. The predicted LAS river exposure values were below the predicted no-effect concentration in all regions. The methodology developed for Mexico can be used to derive refined exposure assessments in other countries with emerging markets throughout the world, resulting in more realistic risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:2475-2486. © 2018 SETAC.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , México , Medição de Risco , Tensoativos/análise
15.
Chemosphere ; 207: 682-689, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29857200

RESUMO

Triadimefon, a broad-spectrum, systemic fungicide used to protect agricultural crops is popular in China. However, sub-lethal effects of triadimefon on aquatic organisms remained poorly understood, and its risks to aquatic organisms were unclear. In the current study, thresholds for chronic toxicity to five aquatic organisms were determined and a PNEC based on reproductive fitness of nine aquatic organisms was derived through use of a species sensitivity distribution (SSD). NOECs, based on reproduction or inhabitation of growth, for Oryzias latipes, Daphnia magna, Brachionus calyciflorus, Heterocypris incongruens and Soirodela polyrhiza were 5, 25, 80, 320 and 500 µg L-1, respectively, and the final PNEC derived was 3.66 µg L-1. A screening-level hazard assessment of surface water based on both measured environment concentrations (ND∼5.22 µg L-1) in 3 lakes, 2 reservoirs and 1 river and predicted environment concentrations (0.36-65 µg L-1) in a simulated river and pond, identified unacceptable hazard to aquatic organisms posed by triadimefon, with maximum hazard quotients (HQs) of 1.43 and 17.8, respectively. Potential deleterious effects and hazards or risks of exposure of aquatic organisms from current patterns of use of triadimefon in surface water if of concern. Since HQs were relatively small and the benefits large, it is suggested that mitigations be applied to allow use while minimizing potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/química , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Triazóis/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Biomicrofluidics ; 12(3): 034102, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774083

RESUMO

The interaction of cancer cells with the stromal cells and matrix in the tumor microenvironment plays a key role in progression to metastasis. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these interactions would aid in developing new therapeutic approaches to inhibit this progression. Here, we describe the fabrication of a simple microfluidic bioreactor capable of recapitulating the three-dimensional breast tumor microenvironment. Cancer cell spheroids, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells co-cultured in this device create a robust microenvironment suitable for studying in real time the migration of cancer cells along matrix structures laid down by fibroblasts within the 3D tumor microenvironment. This system allows for ready evaluation of response to targeted therapy.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 610-611: 94-100, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803206

RESUMO

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is used as a flame retardant with extensive industrial applications, which is mainly produced at facilities on the coast of China. Radially distributed soil samples and equidistant paired water and sediment samples were taken around one of the biggest HBCD production enterprises to reflect its environmental behavior via air deposition and wastewater discharge of HBCD diastereoisomers (α-, ß- and γ-HBCD). Worldwide high concentrations of HBCD (11,700ng/g in the soil, 5080ng/L in the water and 6740ng/g in the sediment) were detected in these environmental samples. Concentrations dropped by two orders of magnitude over several kilometers distance from the plant. The diastereoisomer pattern varied in the three environmental compartments examined, such that γ-HBCD was the predominant diastereoisomer in the soil and sediment whilst α- and γ-HBCD shared the predominance in the water. The mass inventories of HBCD in the local soil and sediment were estimated to be 5006kg and 30kg respectively, suggesting that soil was the major sink of HBCD in the production area. As for the soil, the environmental burdens in the areas with radiuses of 2, 4 and 6km were 3210, 3770 and 4590kg respectively.

18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(2): 1903-1913, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29103120

RESUMO

Little is known about the mechanisms influencing the differences in attenuation of antibiotics between rivers. In this study, the natural attenuation of four antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, sulfapyridine, and sulfamethoxazole) during transport along the Thames River, UK, over a distance of 8.3 km, and the Katsura River, Japan, over a distance of 7.6 km was compared. To assist interpretation of the field data, the individual degradation and sorption characteristics of the antibiotics were estimated by laboratory experiments using surface water or sediment taken from the same rivers. Azithromycin, clarithromycin, and sulfapyridine were attenuated by 92, 48, and 11% in the Thames River stretch. The first-order decay constants of azithromycin and sulfapyridine were similar to those in the Katsura River, while that of clarithromycin was 4.4 times higher. For sulfamethoxazole, the attenuation was limited in both rivers. Loss of sulfapyridine was attributed to both direct and indirect photolysis in the Thames River, but to only direct photolysis in the Katsura River. Loss of azithromycin and clarithromycin was attributed to sorption to sediment in both rivers. The probable explanation behind the difference in loss rates of clarithromycin between the two rivers was considered to be sediment sorption capacity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/efeitos da radiação , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrologia , Japão , Modelos Teóricos , Fotólise , Reino Unido , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos da radiação
19.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 37(4): 1115-1121, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149472

RESUMO

The present study assessed the relative risk of 29 chemical contaminants to aquatic wildlife in the Bohai region and the Yangtze and Pearl Rivers of China. River monitoring data from 2010 to 2015 for metals, pesticides, plasticizers, surfactants, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, flame retardants, and ammonia were collected. For each chemical, ecotoxicity data were compiled for Chinese-relevant aquatic species. The chemicals were ranked by relative risk either by comparing the ratios of the median river concentration divided by the median ecotoxicity concentration or by the percentage of river measurements which exceeded the lower 10th percentile ecotoxicity value. To provide context, these results were compared with the same analysis for rivers in the United Kingdom. From this collection of chemicals in Chinese rivers, the highest risks appear to be from Cu, closely followed by Zn, Fe, and Ni together with linear alkyl benzene sulfonate, nonylphenol, and NH3 . This risk, particularly from the metals, can be several times higher than that experienced in UK rivers when using the same analysis. Ammonia median concentrations were notably higher in the Pearl and Yangtze than in UK rivers. The results suggest that China should focus on controlling metal contamination to protect its aquatic wildlife. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1115-1121. © 2017 SETAC.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fatores de Risco , Testes de Toxicidade , Reino Unido
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 599-600: 1372-1381, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28531948

RESUMO

This work presents a new and unbiased method of risk ranking chemicals based on the threat they pose to the aquatic environment. The study ranked 12 metals, 23 pesticides, 11 other persistent organic pollutants (POPs), 13 pharmaceuticals, 10 surfactants and similar compounds and 2 nanoparticles (total of 71) of concern against one another by comparing their median UK river water and median ecotoxicity effect concentrations. To complement this, by giving an assessment on potential wildlife impacts, risk ranking was also carried out by comparing the lowest 10th percentile of the effects data with the highest 90th percentile of the exposure data. In other words, risk was pared down to just toxicity versus exposure. Further modifications included incorporating bioconcentration factors, using only recent water measurements and excluding either lethal or sub-lethal effects. The top ten chemicals, based on the medians, which emerged as having the highest risk to organisms in UK surface waters using all the ecotoxicity data were copper, aluminium, zinc, ethinylestradiol (EE2), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), triclosan, manganese, iron, methomyl and chlorpyrifos. By way of contrast, using current UK environmental quality standards as the comparator to median UK river water concentrations would have selected 6 different chemicals in the top ten. This approach revealed big differences in relative risk; for example, zinc presented a million times greater risk then metoprolol and LAS 550 times greater risk than nanosilver. With the exception of EE2, most pharmaceuticals were ranked as having a relatively low risk.

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