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1.
Prenat Diagn ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925807

RESUMO

Fetal tumors and other dysplastic masses are relatively rare. They are usually the result of failure of differentiation and maturation during embryonic or fetal life; dysplastic lesions may be the consequence of an obstruction sequence. In this review we present the most commonly encountered tumors and masses seen during fetal life. Imaging characteristics, tumoral organ of origin, and its effect on the surrounding organs and overall fetal hemodynamics are descriptors that must be relayed to the fetal surgeon and maternal fetal medicine expert, in order to institute most accurate parental counseling and appropriate perinatal treatment plan. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Lancet Oncol ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Entrectinib is a potent inhibitor of tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) A, B, and C, which has been shown to have anti-tumour activity against NTRK gene fusion-positive solid tumours, including CNS activity due to its ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. We present an integrated efficacy and safety analysis of patients with metastatic or locally advanced solid tumours harbouring oncogenic NTRK1, NTRK2, and NTRK3 gene fusions treated in three ongoing, early-phase trials. METHODS: An integrated database comprised the pivotal datasets of three, ongoing phase 1 or 2 clinical trials (ALKA-372-001, STARTRK-1, and STARTRK-2), which enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with metastatic or locally advanced NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours who received entrectinib orally at a dose of at least 600 mg once per day in a capsule. All patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 and could have received previous anti-cancer therapy (except previous TRK inhibitors). The primary endpoints, the proportion of patients with an objective response and median duration of response, were evaluated by blinded independent central review in the efficacy-evaluable population (ie, patients with NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours who were TRK inhibitor-naive and had received at least one dose of entrectinib). Overall safety evaluable population included patients from STARTRK-1, STARTRK-2, ALKA-372-001, and STARTRK-NG (NCT02650401; treating young adult and paediatric patients [aged ≤21 years]), who received at least one dose of entrectinib, regardless of tumour type or gene rearrangement. NTRK fusion-positive safety evaluable population comprised all patients who have received at least one dose of entrectinib regardless of dose or follow-up. These ongoing studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02097810 (STARTRK-1) and NCT02568267 (STARTRK-2), and EudraCT, 2012-000148-88 (ALKA-372-001). FINDINGS: Patients were enrolled in ALKA-372-001 from Oct 26, 2012, to March 27, 2018; in STARTRK-1 from Aug 7, 2014, to May 10, 2018; and in STARTRK-2 from Nov 19, 2015 (enrolment is ongoing). At the data cutoff date for this analysis (May 31, 2018) the efficacy-evaluable population comprised 54 adults with advanced or metastatic NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours comprising ten different tumour types and 19 different histologies. Median follow-up was 12.9 months (IQR 8·77-18·76). 31 (57%; 95% CI 43·2-70·8) of 54 patients had an objective response, of which four (7%) were complete responses and 27 (50%) partial reponses. Median duration of response was 10 months (95% CI 7·1 to not estimable). The most common grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events in both safety populations were increased weight (seven [10%] of 68 patients in the NTRK fusion-positive safety population and in 18 [5%] of 355 patients in the overall safety-evaluable population) and anaemia (8 [12%] and 16 [5%]). The most common serious treatment-related adverse events were nervous system disorders (three [4%] of 68 patients and ten [3%] of 355 patients). No treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: Entrectinib induced durable and clinically meaningful responses in patients with NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours, and was well tolerated with a manageable safety profile. These results show that entrectinib is a safe and active treatment option for patients with NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours. These data highlight the need to routinely test for NTRK fusions to broaden the therapeutic options available for patients with NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours. FUNDING: Ignyta/F Hoffmann-La Roche.

3.
Lancet Oncol ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent gene fusions, such as ROS1 fusions, are oncogenic drivers of various cancers, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Up to 36% of patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC have brain metastases at the diagnosis of advanced disease. Entrectinib is a ROS1 inhibitor that has been designed to effectively penetrate and remain in the CNS. We explored the use of entrectinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC. METHODS: We did an integrated analysis of three ongoing phase 1 or 2 trials of entrectinib (ALKA-372-001, STARTRK-1, and STARTRK-2). The efficacy-evaluable population included adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with locally advanced or metastatic ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC who received entrectinib at a dose of at least 600 mg orally once per day, with at least 12 months' follow-up. All patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and previous cancer treatment (except for ROS1 inhibitors) was allowed. The primary endpoints were the proportion of patients with an objective response (complete or partial response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1) and duration of response, and were evaluated by blinded independent central review. The safety-evaluable population for the safety analysis included all patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC in the three trials who received at least one dose of entrectinib (irrespective of dose or duration of follow-up). These ongoing studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02097810 (STARTRK-1) and NCT02568267 (STARTRK-2), and EudraCT, 2012-000148-88 (ALKA-372-001). FINDINGS: Patients were enrolled in ALKA-372-001 from Oct 26, 2012, to March 27, 2018; in STARTRK-1 from Aug 7, 2014, to May 10, 2018; and in STARTRK-2 from Nov 19, 2015 (enrolment is ongoing). At the data cutoff date for this analysis (May 31, 2018), 41 (77%; 95% CI 64-88) of 53 patients in the efficacy-evaluable population had an objective response. Median follow-up was 15·5 monhts (IQR 13·4-20·2). Median duration of response was 24·6 months (95% CI 11·4-34·8). In the safety-evaluable population, 79 (59%) of 134 patients had grade 1 or 2 treatment-related adverse events. 46 (34%) of 134 patients had grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events, with the most common being weight increase (ten [8%]) and neutropenia (five [4%]). 15 (11%) patients had serious treatment-related adverse events, the most common of which were nervous system disorders (four [3%]) and cardiac disorders (three [2%]). No treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: Entrectinib is active with durable disease control in patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC, and is well tolerated with a manageable safety profile, making it amenable to long-term dosing in these patients. These data highlight the need to routinely test for ROS1 fusions to broaden therapeutic options for patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC. FUNDING: Ignyta/F Hoffmann-La Roche.

4.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(9): 757-763, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to estimate noise exposure and hearing impairments in Swedish military pilots. It also aimed to analyze possible relations between noise exposure and hearing impairments.METHODS: The study group was an open cohort of 337 male pilots. They were longitudinally followed with pure tone audiograms every fifth year from the beginning of flight service until discharge. Outcome measures were prevalence of thresholds >20 dB HL and >40 dB HL at different ages, and incidence of impairments >20 dB HL, 30 dB HL, and 40 dB HL. Exposure variables were individual flight data and noise dose measurements. The ISO 1999 Database A was used for reference data.RESULTS: At 50 yr of age, 41% of the pilots were exposed to an equivalent noise dose exceeding the EU action level of Leq 80 dB(A). We observed significant elevated prevalence values of thresholds >20 dB HL in all age classes compared to the ISO 1999 Database A. These elevations were most pronounced at ages 30 and 40 yr and at 4 and 6 kHz in the left ear. Significantly elevated prevalence values of thresholds >40 dB HL compared to the ISO 1999 Database A were observed at age 40 and 50 yr at 4 and 6 kHz. In a Cox analysis we observed elevated hazard ratios of deteriorating thresholds with longer flight time/year in fast jet pilots.DISCUSSION: Military pilots had elevated prevalence values of hearing impairment. Of the subjects, 41% had been exposed to noise exceeding the EU risk limit. Increased flight time/year and flying fast jets were associated with elevated risk of hearing deterioration.Muhr P, Johnson A-C, Selander J, Svensson E, Rosenhall U. Noise exposure and hearing impairment in air force pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(9):757-763.

6.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 213(4): W149-W152, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. Fetal MRI is increasingly used in the evaluation of suspected congenital anomalies. Assessment of amniotic fluid volume (AFV) is crucial, but no automated quantitative technique is currently available for MRI. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an analytic technique for quantifying AFV in fetal MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Two MRI phantoms containing known quantities of synthetic amniotic fluid were created. A 3D steady-state free precession sequence was used for 1.5-T MRI of the phantoms and as part of a standard clinical fetal MRI protocol. Software was developed and used to retrospectively calculate AFV for the phantom and 20 clinical MRI examinations. Times to completion were recorded. AFV was also calculated by a manual hand-tracing method. To evaluate performance, paired t tests were used to compare computer-generated measurements with known phantom volumes. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to assess agreement between computer-generated and manual measurements. RESULTS. There was no significant difference between computer-generated measurements of known AFV in the MRI phantoms (p > 0.11). When the software program was applied to the clinical MRI examinations, the mean time to complete AFV measurement was 110 seconds. There was excellent reliability between total AFV calculated by the two software users and by means of manual measurements (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.995; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION. The computerized analysis evaluated in this study rapidly and accurately quantifies AFV in fetal MRI. The results are concordant with known phantom volumes and manual measurements. The technique is promising for objective MRI evaluation of AFV and has the potential to improve prenatal diagnosis and management.

7.
Diabetes Care ; 42(7): 1209-1216, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether regression from impaired glucose regulation (IGR) to normal glucose regulation (NGR) after 1 year of a lifestyle intervention reduces diabetes risk in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). In addition, we sought to identify predictors for regression to NGR and understand possible mechanisms for the association between NGR and future diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from participants enrolled from 2006 to 2009 in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Program with IGR at baseline and an oral glucose tolerance test at year 1 were analyzed (N = 1,443). Cox regression models were used to estimate the subsequent diabetes risk (year 1 to year 3) by year 1 glucose status. Mediation analysis was used to estimate the proportions of the association between year 1 glycemic status and diabetes risk explained by specific factors. RESULTS: Those who reverted to NGR at year 1 (38%) had lower diabetes risk than those with sustained IGR (adjusted hazard ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.12-0.67). The lower risk associated with regression to NGR was explained by both baseline risk factors and differences in weight loss. Metformin use, weight loss, and an increase in exercise were modifiable risk factors associated with higher odds of regression to NGR. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with prediabetes who reverted to NGR had a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes over the next 2 years. Both baseline and modifiable risk factors explained the risk reduction associated with NGR.

8.
Ethics Hum Res ; 41(3): 23-28, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108575

RESUMO

Implementing the National Institutes of Health's (NIH's) new single institutional review board (IRB) policy has caused a paradigm shift in IRB review across the country. IRBs and human research protection programs are looking more closely at their processes for ceding review and developing procedures to handle local review when relying on a single IRB. This article describes an NIH-funded network that proactively instituted a central IRB (CIRB) in 2012, anticipating the NIH future mandate. Lessons learned are described. There was a steep learning curve for IRBs and participating sites. IRB submission workload burden shifted from study teams to the data coordinating center, which created new workflow challenges, especially preparing hundreds of consent documents centrally. Despite difficulties encountered with CIRB review, this network is now fully functioning under a CIRB model. Further review and experience are needed to determine whether this shift in IRB review has eliminated duplicative review or regulatory burden from study teams.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa/organização & administração , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Eficiência Organizacional , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa/ética , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/ética , Modelos Organizacionais , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/ética , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/ética , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/organização & administração , Estados Unidos , Fluxo de Trabalho , Carga de Trabalho
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 654: 1132-1145, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematically collected and comparable data on drinking water safety at city-scale is currently unavailable, despite the stated importance of water safety monitoring at scale under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We developed a rapid drinking water quality assessment methodology intended to be replicable across all cities and useful for monitoring towards achieving SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation). METHODS: We collected drinking water samples at the point-of-consumption for basic microbial, physical and chemical water quality analysis and conducted household surveys on drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene access from 80 households in the city of Cochabamba over 1 week. We categorized the household's water service level according to the SDG 6 framework. RESULTS: We estimated an average time requirement of 6.4 person-hours and a consumable cost of US $51 per household (n = 80). In this cross-sectional study, 71% of drinking water samples met World Health Organization (WHO) microbiological safety criteria, 96% met WHO chemical quality criteria, and all met WHO aesthetic quality criteria. However, only 18% of the households were categorized as having safely managed drinking water services. None met the criteria for having safely managed sanitation services; nonetheless, 81% had basic sanitation services and 78% had basic hygiene facilities. CONCLUSIONS: This method can generate basic water safety data for a city at a relatively low cost in terms of person-time and materials, yielding useful information for inter-city analyses. Because 29% of samples did not meet microbiological safety criteria, 22% of the households did not have access to handwashing facilities and none had safe sanitation services, we concluded that Cochabamba did not meet normative SDG 6 targets when surveyed. Our study further suggests that water quality at point-of-use more accurately characterizes drinking water safety than infrastructure type.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Bolívia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Higiene , População Rural , Saneamento , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Qualidade da Água/normas
10.
Appl Nurs Res ; 46: 72-77, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773242

RESUMO

Recruiting children with chronic disease or subgroups of children (low income, obese, specific ages, types of cancer) from clinics and schools for research studies may be particularly difficult. While some have deemed such groups as hard to reach, these groups may be more accurately described as either hard to contact or hard to engage. This is not because children are unknown to the school or clinic but because the researcher's ability to communicate directly with targeted children prior to enrollment is limited. The purpose of this paper is to describe barriers and possible strategies for recruiting hard to contact or hard to engage subgroups of children. Barriers identified in recruiting these children were: naïve to research, communication style and technology, parent/guardian burden, parental conditions and concerns, child stressors and distractions, and research setting. Possible strategies include: pre-consent education, information sheets about study, identifying preferred method of communication, meaningful and appropriate incentives, coordinating recruitment visit with regularly scheduled clinic appointments or school schedule, demonstrating research equipment, informing staff about research study, negotiating creatively for space for research, and emphasizing confidentiality of data. Consideration of barriers to recruitment and utilization of strategies to counteract these barriers is critical to the success of a study involving subgroups of children.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(1): e186676, 2019 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646193

RESUMO

Importance: Although previous work has examined clinical outcomes in combat-deployed veterans, questions remain regarding how symptoms evolve or resolve following mild blast traumatic brain injury (TBI) treated in theater and their association with long-term outcomes. Objective: To characterize 5-year outcome in patients with nonmedically evacuated blast concussion compared with combat-deployed controls and understand what clinical measures collected acutely in theater are associated with 5-year outcome. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective, longitudinal cohort study including 45 service members with mild blast TBI within 7 days of injury (mean 4 days) and 45 combat deployed nonconcussed controls was carried out. Enrollment occurred in Afghanistan at the point of injury with evaluation of 5-year outcome in the United States. The enrollment occurred from March to September 2012 with 5-year follow up completed from April 2017 to May 2018. Data analysis was completed from June to July 2018. Exposures: Concussive blast TBI. All patients were treated in theater, and none required medical evacuation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical measures collected in theater included measures for concussion symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression symptoms, balance performance, combat exposure intensity, cognitive performance, and demographics. Five-year outcome evaluation included measures for global disability, neurobehavioral impairment, PTSD symptoms, depression symptoms, and 10 domains of cognitive function. Forward selection multivariate regression was used to determine predictors of 5-year outcome for global disability, neurobehavior impairment, PTSD, and cognitive function. Results: Nonmedically evacuated patients with concussive blast injury (n = 45; 44 men, mean [SD] age, 31 [5] years) fared poorly at 5-year follow-up compared with combat-deployed controls (n = 45; 35 men; mean [SD] age, 34 [7] years) on global disability, neurobehavioral impairment, and psychiatric symptoms, whereas cognitive changes were unremarkable. Acute predictors of 5-year outcome consistently identified TBI diagnosis with contribution from acute concussion and mental health symptoms and select measures of cognitive performance depending on the model for 5-year global disability (area under the curve following bootstrap validation [AUCBV] = 0.79), neurobehavioral impairment (correlation following bootstrap validation [RBV] = 0.60), PTSD severity (RBV = 0.36), or cognitive performance (RBV = 0.34). Conclusions and Relevance: Service members with concussive blast injuries fared poorly at 5-year outcome. The results support a more focused acute screening of mental health following TBI diagnosis as strong indicators of poor long-term outcome. This extends prior work examining outcome in patients with concussive blast injury to the larger nonmedically evacuated population.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões , Concussão Encefálica , Cognição , Depressão , Equilíbrio Postural , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Traumatismos por Explosões/complicações , Traumatismos por Explosões/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/etiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Humanos , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/diagnóstico , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/epidemiologia , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/etiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Triagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Vet Surg ; 48(2): 159-163, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of obesity on postoperative recovery from thoracolumbar hemilaminectomy in dachshunds treated with rehabilitation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational trial. ANIMALS: Thirty-two dachshunds with thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease and pain perception. METHODS: Dachshunds were entered into the study after unilateral thoracolumbar hemilaminectomy. Lean muscle and fat contents were measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at the beginning and at week 12 of the study. Aggressive rehabilitation was performed 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after surgery. Logistic regressions were used to determine the odds ratios between potential risk factors (age, duration of clinical signs, weight, body condition score, percentage body fat, percentage lean muscle mass, and disability index [DI] score at presentation) and return benchmarks of recovery. RESULTS: Body condition score, percentage body fat, percentage lean muscle mass, weight, and age did not influence the odds ratio for recovery. An increase in preoperative DI score was associated with increased risk of a slow postoperative recovery (P < .05). The odds ratios were 2.5, 4.8, and 1.8 for >7 days until standing, > 30 days until strong ambulation, and failure to return to normal within the study period, respectively. On average, dogs lost weight (2.2 kg) and body fat (2.4%) but gained muscle mass (3.0%) over the study period (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Preoperative disability but not body condition was a risk factor for a slow recovery after thoracolumbar hemilaminectomy in dachshunds with rehabilitation. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: A slower recovery is likely with increased preoperative disability, but body condition does not seem to affect the postoperative prognosis of dachshunds treated with rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária , Laminectomia/veterinária , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cães , Feminino , Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Laminectomia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vértebras Torácicas/cirurgia
13.
Disabil Rehabil ; 41(23): 2766-2774, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893149

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and report demographic data of patients with severe-to-profound hearing loss, assess participation in audiological rehabilitation and analyze the benefits of various rehabilitation methods.Materials and methods: Data on 4286 patients with severe-to-profound hearing impairments registered in the Swedish Quality Register of Otorhinolaryngology over a period from 2006-2015 were studied. Demographic data, gender differences, audiological rehabilitation and benefits of the rehabilitation were analyzed.Results: Group rehabilitation and visits to a hearing rehabilitation educator provided the most benefits in audiological rehabilitation. Only 40.5% of the patients received extended audiological rehabilitation, of which 54.5% were women. A total of 9.5% of patients participated in group rehabilitation, with 59.5% being women. Women also visited technicians, welfare officers, hearing rehabilitation educators, psychologists and physicians and received communication rehabilitation in a group and fit with cochlea implants significantly more often than did men.Conclusions: The study emphasizes the importance of being given the opportunity to participate in group rehabilitation and meet a hearing rehabilitation educator to experience the benefits of hearing rehabilitation. There is a need to offer extended audiological rehabilitation, especially in terms of gender differences, to provide the same impact for women and men.Implications for RehabilitationSignificantly more women than men with severe-to-profound hearing impairment receive audiological rehabilitation.Hearing impairment appears to have a significantly more negative impact on women's quality of life than men's.It is important to offer extended audiological rehabilitation to all patients with severe-to-profound hearing loss to obtain an equal hearing health care regardless of gender.

14.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 45(6): 775-785, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore and estimate relationships among the elements of the symptom cluster in survivors of brain tumors aged 8-12 years during early survivorship. SAMPLE & SETTING: Child participants completed treatment at least six months and less than six years prior to enrollment at Children's Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham or Cook Children's Medical Center in Fort Worth, Texas. METHODS & VARIABLES: With cross-sectional methods, the authors measured child-perceived stress, sleep-wake disturbance (SWD) (parent report), and fatigue. Children also provided saliva samples for cortisol measurement (stress response) and completed actigraphy sleep monitoring. RESULTS: Mild to moderate stress, SWD, and fatigue were reported, and a wide range of sleep times and cortisol levels were noted. Meaningful effect sizes in relationships between variables were found. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: The stress, SWD, and fatigue symptom cluster in survivorship necessitates routine nursing assessment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Psicológico/induzido quimicamente , Alabama , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Transversais , Fadiga/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Texas
15.
Transl Behav Med ; 2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982838

RESUMO

In real-world settings, eligible populations and intervention effectiveness for a translational intervention likely vary across time. To determine the optimal strategies for effective large-scale implementation of evidence-based interventions, it is critical to investigate these potential variabilities. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether patient characteristics and intervention effectiveness differed by year of enrollment in a multiyear evidence-based translational intervention. The Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart (SDPI-HH) Demonstration Project is an intensive case management intervention designed to reduce cardiovascular disease risk among American Indians and Alaska Natives with diabetes. SDPI-HH participants recruited from 2006 through 2008 were included. Baseline characteristics were compared by year of enrollment. We also evaluated the differences in improvements in clinical and behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular disease among participants recruited in different years. The baseline characteristics of the three cohorts significantly differed in demographics, diabetes duration, health behaviors, level of motivation, and clinical measures. Improvements in 13 clinical and behavioral outcomes also differed by enrollment year with the 2006 cohort having the greatest number of significant improvements and the highest rates of participation and retention. Further investigation into the ways to modify the intensive case management model to address differences in levels of motivation and participation is warranted to improve the management of chronic disease in Indian health. Given the evolving nature of translational initiatives of this kind, our analysis results highlight the need to understand and adapt during the natural progression of health behavioral interventions.

16.
Pediatr Radiol ; 48(11): 1556-1566, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At fetal MR, congenital lung lesions are usually T2 hyperintense with respect to normal lung parenchyma. Some lesions, however, demonstrate unusual patterns of T2 hypointensity, sometimes in a rosette-like pattern. These lesions usually present a diagnostic conundrum. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the imaging findings and pathological characterization of fetal solid lung lesions with elements showing T2-hypointense signal with respect to lung. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of lung lesions with elements showing T2 hypointensity treated prenatally and postnatally at our center and with available pathological evaluation. Prenatal imaging evaluation included US and MR; postnatal evaluation consisted of pathological examination of the lesion. We also performed prenatal and postnatal chart review. RESULTS: Six cases met study criteria. Areas of decreased echogenicity/T2-hypointense signal were more conspicuous at MR than US. At pathology, these areas correlated with immature parenchymal development and increased mesenchymal tissue. Five of these lesions were congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM); one was a congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor (CPMT). The lesions did not significantly change in size after steroid administration. They were all large in volume and were associated with increased amniotic fluid. All cases of CPAM underwent premature delivery (one of them weeks after fetal surgical resection of the lesion for worsening hydrops); the fetus with CPMT was delivered at term. The neonate with CPMT succumbed shortly after birth secondary to lung hypoplasia; the remaining five neonates survived. CONCLUSION: The differential diagnoses of prenatal lung lesions that contain unusual T2-hypointense elements include CPAM and CPMT. The T2-hypointense areas appear to correlate with increasing degree of immaturity at histology. None of the lesions significantly changed in size after prenatal administration of steroids. All cases with CPAM lesions did well despite persistent polyhydramnios and premature birth. The single case of CPMT, however, resulted in neonatal demise shortly after birth secondary to pulmonary hypoplasia. It is important that fetal radiologists, obstetricians and fetal surgeons alike are aware of these lesions so that appropriate diagnosing and parental counseling can be reached.


Assuntos
Pulmão/anormalidades , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/cirurgia
17.
Diabetes Care ; 41(7): 1462-1470, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence for long-term translational effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in minority populations is scarce. This article reports long-term outcomes, for up to 10 years, of such an intervention to prevent diabetes in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: From January 2006 to July 2016, the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Program implemented the Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention among 46 AI/AN health care programs. Enrolled participants underwent a thorough clinical assessment at baseline, after completing the Lifestyle Balance Curriculum (postcurriculum assessment), and annually thereafter. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the association between diabetes incidence and postcurriculum weight loss status. RESULTS: Of 8,652 enrolled participants, 65% finished the postcurriculum assessment. The assessment completion rate diminished over time to 13% in year 10. Among those with postcurriculum weight measurements, 2,028 (36%) lost >5% of their initial weight, 978 (17%) lost 3-5%, whereas 2,604 (47%) had <3% weight loss (average weight loss 3.8%). Compared with those with <3% weight loss, participants with >5% weight loss had a 64% (95% CI 54-72) lower risk of developing diabetes during the first 6 years of follow-up, whereas those with 3-5% weight loss had 40% (95% CI 24-53) lower risk. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate to small weight loss was associated with substantially reduced long-term risk of diabetes in diverse AI/AN communities. High participant attrition rates and nonoptimal postcurriculum weight loss are important challenges found in this translational effort implemented in an underserved population.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Índios Norte-Americanos , Estilo de Vida , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Dieta Redutora , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/etnologia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
18.
Pediatr Radiol ; 48(4): 499-512, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550866

RESUMO

Abdominal wall defects range from the mild umbilical cord hernia to the highly complex limb-body wall syndrome. The most common defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, and the rarer ones include the exstrophy complex, pentalogy of Cantrell and limb-body wall syndrome. Although all have a common feature of viscera herniation through a defect in the anterior body wall, their imaging features and, more important, postnatal management, differ widely. Correct diagnosis of each entity is imperative in order to achieve appropriate and accurate prenatal counseling and postnatal management. In this paper, we discuss fetal abdominal wall defects and present diagnostic pearls to aid with diagnosis.


Assuntos
Parede Abdominal/anormalidades , Parede Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades do Sistema Digestório/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Anormalidades Urogenitais/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Gastrosquise , Humanos , Gravidez
19.
J Neurovirol ; 24(1): 62-74, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181724

RESUMO

Persistence of HIV-1 reservoirs in the central nervous system (CNS) is an obstacle to cure strategies. However, little is known about residual viral distribution, viral replication levels, and genetic diversity in different brain regions of HIV-infected individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Because myeloid cells particularly microglia are likely major reservoirs in the brain, and more microglia exist in white matter than gray matter in a human brain, we hypothesized the major viral reservoirs in the brain are the white matter reflected by higher levels of viral DNA. To address the issue, we used the Chinese rhesus macaque (ChRM) model of SIV infection, and treated 11 SIVmac251-infected animals including long-term nonprogressors with cART for up to 24 weeks. SIV reservoirs were assessed by SIV DNA levels in 16 specific regions of the brain and 4 regions of spinal cord. We found relatively high frequencies of SIV in basal ganglia and brain stem compared to other regions. cART-receiving animals had significantly lower SIV DNA levels in the gray matter than white matter. Moreover, a shortened envelope gp120 with 21 nucleotide deletions and guanine-to-adenine hypermutations were observed. These results demonstrate that SIV enters the CNS in SIV-infected ChRM with a major reservoir in the white matter after cART; the SIV/ChRM/cART is an appropriate model for studying HIV CNS reservoirs and testing new eradication strategies. Further, examining multiple regions of the CNS may be needed when assessing whether an agent is successful in reducing the size of SIV reservoirs in the CNS.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Gânglios da Base/virologia , Tronco Encefálico/virologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Substância Branca/virologia , Adenina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Gânglios da Base/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglios da Base/patologia , Tronco Encefálico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tronco Encefálico/patologia , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/virologia , Guanina/metabolismo , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/genética , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/metabolismo , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/patologia , Microglia/virologia , Mutação , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/patologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/classificação , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/patogenicidade , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/patologia , Medula Espinal/virologia , Substância Branca/efeitos dos fármacos , Substância Branca/patologia
20.
J Ultrasound Med ; 37(2): 371-383, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28795424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of prenatal ultrasound (US) in identifying systemic feeding arteries in bronchopulmonary sequestrations and hybrid lesions and report the ability of US in classifying bronchopulmonary sequestrations as intralobar or extralobar. METHODS: Institutional Review Board-approved radiology and clinical database searches from 2008 to 2015 were performed for prenatal lung lesions with final diagnoses of bronchopulmonary sequestrations or hybrid lesions. All patients had detailed US examinations, and most patients had ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Lesion location, size, and identification of systemic feeding arteries and draining veins were assessed with US. RESULTS: The study consisted of 102 bronchopulmonary sequestrations and 86 hybrid lesions. The median maternal age was 30 years. The median gestational age was 22 weeks 5 days. Of bronchopulmonary sequestrations, 66 had surgical pathologic confirmation, and 100 had postnatal imaging. Bronchopulmonary sequestration locations were intrathoracic (n = 77), intra-abdominal (n = 19), and transdiaphragmatic (n = 6). Of hybrid lesions, 84 had surgical pathologic confirmation, and 83 had postnatal imaging. Hybrid lesion locations were intrathoracic (n = 84) and transdiaphragmatic (n = 2). Ultrasound correctly identified systemic feeding arteries in 86 of 102 bronchopulmonary sequestrations and 79 of 86 hybrid lesions. Of patients who underwent MRI, systemic feeding arteries were reported in 62 of 92 bronchopulmonary sequestrations and 56 of 81 hybrid lesions. Ultrasound identified more systemic feeding arteries than MRI in both bronchopulmonary sequestrations and hybrid lesions (P < .01). Magnetic resonance imaging identified systemic feeding arteries that US did not in only 2 cases. In cases in which both systemic feeding arteries and draining veins were identified, US could correctly predict intrathoracic lesions as intralobar or extralobar in 44 of 49 bronchopulmonary sequestrations and 68 of 73 hybrid lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound is most accurate for systemic feeding artery detection in bronchopulmonary sequestrations and hybrid lesions and can also type the lesions as intralobar or extralobar when draining veins are evaluated.


Assuntos
Sequestro Broncopulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/anormalidades , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequestro Broncopulmonar/embriologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/embriologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
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